Games
[Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [Annotator "mycomputer"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "3k4/8/2KP4/8/8/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "3"] [EventDate "2011.12.02"] [SourceDate "2017.09.19"] [SourceVersionDate "2017.09.19"] {It is natural that the defending side should try to prevent their seizure. Consider another simple position.} 1. d7 {and puts his opponent in zugzwang, and after the forced %05Here everything depends on who it is to move. If it is White, he plays} (1. Kd5 Kd7 2. Ke5 Kd8 3. Ke6 Ke8 (3... Kc8 4. Ke7 $18) 4. d7+ Kd8 5. Kd6 $11) 1... Ke7 2. Kc7 $18 {, seizing one of the key squares, White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [Annotator "mycomputer"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "3k4/8/2KP4/8/8/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "4"] [EventDate "2011.12.02"] [SourceDate "2017.09.21"] [SourceVersionDate "2017.09.21"] 1... Kc8 {maintaining control over c7. Now %05It is quite different matter if it is Black's move. He, of course, plays} (1... Ke8 $2 2. d7+ $2 (2. Kc7 $1 Kf7 3. d7 Ke7 $18) 2... Kd8 3. Kd6 $11) 2. d7+ {no longer wins: after} (2. Kd5 Kd7 3. Ke5 Kd8 4. Ke6 Ke8 $11) 2... Kd8 {White himself is in zugzwang, and the forced} 3. Kd6 {leads to stalemate. ~2Second conclusion: in such situations the struggle for the achievement of the ultimate aim - the queening of the pawn - reduces to a struggle for the key squares. The player with the pawn will try to invade with his king on one of these squares; the defender, by manoeuvring with his king close to the key squares, will aim not to allow the opponent's king onto them.~} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [Annotator "mycomputer"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2k5/3pK3/3P4/8/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "2011.12.02"] [SourceDate "2017.09.21"] [SourceVersionDate "2017.09.21"] {Let us now turn to an elementary example, where there are blocked pawns.} 1. Ke7 $18 {It is easy to show that, compared with a passed pawn, the system of critical squares for a blocked pawn is expanded. In the given case the critical squares of the d6 pawn will be e6 and e7, the symmetric squares c6 and c7, and the intermediate square d7. %05White's plan consists of two stages. First he must win %05the opponent's pawn, and then try to queen his own. It is %05obvious that after winning the pawn his task will reduce %05to one considered earlier - to the struggle for the key %05squares.^013^010 %05 White's king has already penetrated onto one of the %05critical squares of the enemy pawn. It is not difficult to %05see that this factor is decisive: if it is Black's turn to %05move, he immediately loses his pawn. While if it is %05White's move, he maintains the zugzwang situation by As we have established, the occupation by the king of one of these critical squares must lead to the achieving of the intermediate goal - to the winning of the pawn, but this means, in turn, that (from White's point of view) the critical squares of the black pawn here can also be called the key squares. ~2Fourth conclusion: a pawn, be it passed or blocked, has a definite system of key squares, the seizure of which by the king plays an important role, since it normally leads to the achieving of a definite goal - the queening of the pawn, or to its loss. ~} Kc8 2. Kxd6 Kd8 3. Ke6 Ke8 4. d6 Kd8 5. d7 Kc7 6. Ke7 $18 * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [Annotator "mycomputer"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/3p1K2/1k1P4/8/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "3"] [EventDate "2011.12.02"] [SourceDate "2017.09.21"] [SourceVersionDate "2017.09.21"] {We have considered an instance where one side attacked a pawn, and the other side was forced to defend it. But it is quite possible to have a situation where a king not only defends, but is also able in turn to attack the opponent's pawn.} 1. Ke7 {! %05White's king is threatening to attack the opponent's pawn, but its opposite number is intending to do exactly the same. What then should happen here? It is correct first to step onto the other critical square - e7. After} (1. Ke6 {? %05 It turns out that the direct invasion of the critical square %05is a terrible mistake. After} Kc5 $19 { we reach a position of mutual zugzwang, in which the side to play first (White) loses.}) 1... Kc5 (1... Kc4 2. Kxd6) 2. Ke6 $18 {it is Black who ends up in zugzwang.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/3p1K2/1k1P4/8/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "3"] 1... Kc4 {! %05But if it is Black to move, he wins in similar fashion:} 2. Ke6 Kc5 $19 {, and it is White who is in zugzwang. ~2Fifth conclusion: critical squares do not always become key squares for the other side. This depends on the relative placing of the kings, and on the turn to move. In other words, to determinate whether a critical square is a key square, in certain cases a preliminary calculation is needed, in order to ascertain the resulting positions of mutual zugzwang.~} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "k7/8/Pp4p1/6P1/K7/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "4"] 1. Kb4 {%05Therefore White plays} (1. Kb5 {? %05If White begins, he can immediately attack the opponent's pawn, but such activity is incorrect and leads to defeat. On} Ka7 {, when White ends up in zugzwang and loses his pawn. %05there follows}) 1... Kb8 {%05The correct continuation is} (1... Ka7 { ? %05Now it is Black who must not attack the pawn: after} 2. Kb5 {he himself ends up in zugzwang.}) 2. Kc4 Ka8 {! with a draw. Pawns such as those we have just been examining are picturesquely termed "untouchable" pawns: whoever is the first to attack such a pawn - he loses. As we will see later, in positions with "untouchable" pawns an exact calculation of the reserve moves is very important, since in the resulting position of mutual zugzwang every tempo counts. Our conclusions regarding key squares have been deduced from positions with a minimal number of pawns, but in principle these conclusions are also applicable to positions with a greater number. In each case, however the pawns are deployed, both the critical and the key squares can be established. At this point I should like to emphasize that these squares are not simply theoretical concepts. With their help it is easier to analyse many complex endings. They enable the correct plan of play to be quickly and faultlessly found. ~2 And another important conclusion. The basic device in the struggle for key or critical squares is the creation of a zugzwang position, in which one of the sides is forced to take unfavourable action. In double-edged situations the zugzwang may be mutual, and then everything will depend on whose turn it is to move ~} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "6k1/8/5p2/5P1K/8/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "1"] {Now let us move the position two files to the left.} {Let us now examine in more detail how the struggle for the key squares proceeds.} 1... Kg7 {= , defending both key squares. %05We know that g6 is a key square, and therefore Black must not allow the opponent's king %05onto it. But it turns out that h6 will also be a key square: by reaching it, the white king also %05penetrates by force to g6. This means that Black has two moves which maintain the %05balance -} (1... Kh7 {= %05and}) * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "4k3/8/3p4/3P1K2/8/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "1"] 1... Kf7 {!= , standing opposite the opponent's king, so as not to let it onto any of the three squares e6, f6 and g6. Such a placing of the kings is called opposition. In the given instance it is vertical opposition. %05The correct method of defence is} (1... Ke7 {there follows %05Here, apart from the familiar squares e6 and f6, the g6 %05square also turns out to be a key one. In fact, if Black %05plays} 2. Kg6 Ke8 3. Kf6 Kd7 4. Kf7 Kd8 5. Ke6 Kc7 6. Ke7 $18 {, and White wins.}) * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "4k3/7K/3p4/3Pp3/4P3/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] {The following example demonstrates horizontal opposition.} 1... Kf7 {, placing his king in horizontal opposition and then retaining it. E.g. %05Black maintains the balance by} 2. Kh6 Kf6 {! The opposition is a well known term in he theory of pawn^013^010 endings.^013^010 Here we should mention that ~2the opposition is the~^013^010 ~2only means of struggle for three adjoining key~^013^010 ~2squares, situated on a rank or on a file.~^013^010 Of course the kings can also be deployed opposite^013^010 each other along a diagonal, but it is important to^013^010 emphasize that such an opposition is a transitional one,^013^010 and it can always be transformed into horizontal or^013^010 vertical opposition.^013^010 In our example White can continue} 3. Kh5 Kf7 {! , standing in opposition along the diagonal. Then if %05In this case Black is saved by} (3... Kg7 {to have the decisive reply %05so as on} 4. Kg5 $18) 4. Kg5 (4. Kh6 {%05while if} Kf6 {, reverting to horizontal opposition.}) 4... Kg7 {, transposing into vertical opposition} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2k3K1/8/8/8/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "6"] {So that for the moment we don't have to go carefully into the subtleties associated with a specific pawn arrangement, we will examine a schematic position, in which the struggle for three key squares along a file takes place on an empty board. %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/4XI3/4XI3/ 4XI3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kf7 {%05In defending the key squares, Black's king must each time stand in opposition to the opponent's king: %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/4XI3/4XI3/4XI3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8)} Kd7 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/4XA3/4XA3/ 4XI3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kf6 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8) #C(8/4XA3/4XA3/4XI3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd6 {%15N #B(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/4XA3/4XA3/4XA3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) } 3. Kf5 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/4XI3/4XI3/4XI3/8/8/ 8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd5 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (8/4XI3/4XA3/4XA3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) This is clear. It is important to note, however, that the main opposition will nevertheless be Kf6/Kd6. Why? Because only in this case, when the opponent concedes the opposition, can White's king break immediately onto one of the key squares by-pass manoeuvre.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/3k1K2/8/8/8/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "4"] 1... Kd6 {%05E.g. if it is Black to move in the position Kf7/Kd7:} 2. Kf6 {!} ( 2. Ke8 {, since then Black maintains the balance by transposing into vertical opposition by %05but not} Ke6 {!}) 2... Kd5 (2... Kd7 {%05or} 3. Ke5) 3. Ke7 { , and the aim is achieved. ~2Conclusion: the main, decisive opposition will be that on the middle line.~} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "1k5K/8/8/8/8/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "8"] {Let us now move the kings to h8 and b8 respectively, and see how they approach each other in the struggle for the key squares. %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/4XI3/4XI3/4XI3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1... Kc7 {%05Suppose that it is Black to move: %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8) #C(8/4XI3/4XI3/4XI3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kg7 {! %15N #B(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/4XI3/4XI3/4XI3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8)} Kc6 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/4XI3/4XI3/4XI3/8/ 8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kg6 {! %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(8/4XI3/4XI3/4XI3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc5 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/4XI3/4XI3/4XI3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} ( 3... Kc7 {, there would have followed %05If on 3. Kg6 Black had replied %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/4XI3/4XI3/4XI3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kf5 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/4XI3/ 4XI3/4XI3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd6 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/4XI3/4XA3/4XA3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kf6 {This distinctive king manoeuvre, making a "herring-bone pattern" in creating the threat of a by-pass, is typical of the struggle for three key squares, and will be frequently encountered. %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/4XA3/4XA3/4XA3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)}) 4. Kf7 {! %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/4XI3/4XI3/4XI3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd6 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/4XI3/4XI3/4XI3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kf6 {, and the white king inevitably reaches one of the key squares. %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/4XI3/4XI3/ 4XI3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "1k5K/8/8/8/8/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "8"] {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/4XI3/4XI3/4XI3/8/8/8/8) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kh7 {%05But if it is White to move, then, by maintaining a symmetric king position with respect to the e-file, Black succeeds in not allowing the penetration of the opponent's king onto the key squares. E.g. %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/4XI3/4XI3/4XI3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (1. Kg7 {%05or %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (8/4XI3/4XI3/4XI3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc7 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/4XI3/4XI3/4XI3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kf7 { %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/4XI3/4XI3/4XI3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd7 {etc. Such a placing is also essentially an opposition, only it is called distant opposition (but distant opposition can always be transformed into close opposition). %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8) #C(8/4XA3/4XA3/4XI3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)}) 1... Kb7 {%15N #B(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/4XI3/4XI3/4XI3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) } 2. Kg6 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/4XI3/4XI3/4XI3/8/8/ 8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc6 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (8/4XI3/4XI3/4XI3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kg5 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/4XI3/4XI3/4XI3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc5 { %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/4XI3/4XI3/4XI3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kf5 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/4XI3/ 4XI3/4XI3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd5 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/4XI3/4XA3/4XA3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) A broader concept than opposition is that of ~2corresponding squares.~} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1921.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/8/5k2/2pP4/2P5/4K3 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] [EventDate "1921.??.??"] {Let us begin by determining the key squares. The first of these is easily found - it is b3, the critical square of the black pawn. But here there are also two other key squares - e2 and f2. On reaching there, White easily drives back the opponent's king, advances his d-pawn, and wins the opponent's pawn. Black saves the game, only if he does not allow the white king onto any of these squares.} 1... Kf3 {! %05The correct continuation is} (1... Ke3 {, but it is precisely this move that is a mistake. After %05It is very tempting to stand in opposition by playing} 2. Kd1 Kf3 {(alas, control must be maintained over the e2 square)} 3. Kc1 Ke3 4. Kb1 Kd4 5. Ka2 Kc5 6. Kb3 $18 {White achieves his aim.}) 2. Kd1 (2. Kf1 Ke3 3. Kg2 {also achieves nothing due to} Kd2 4. d4 Kxc2 {, when the queens appear simultaneously.}) 2... Ke3 3. Kc1 Kd4 4. Kb1 Kc5 5. Ka2 Kb4 {= , and the black king arrives in time. Let us investigate what is happening. As the white king moves from e1 to a2, by a series of specific moves the black king succeeds in passing from f3 to b4 and in not allowing the seizure of the key squares. The routes of the kings are as though linked. To each move of the white king there is a single corresponding move of the black king. It can be said the square corresponding to e1 is f3, that to d1 is e3, c1-d4, b1-c5, and a2-b4. ~2 In the theory of pawn endings, such a mutual connections of squares is called correspondence, and the squares themselves have received the name of corresponding squares.~ So as not to allow White to seize any of the key squares, the black king must move precisely along the corresponding squares. ~2Conclusion: correspondence is the most general means of struggle for key squares.~ In the above example the black king managed to maintain the correspondence, and the ending was a draw. This is by no means always the result. The following example shows that, if the correspondence cannot be maintained, defeat is unavoidable.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "2k5/8/p1P5/P2K4/8/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] {White has an extra pawn, and for it to be promoted to a queen, his king must break through to d7 - the key square of this pawn. There is also another way - to win the a6 pawn, for which he must take his king to b6 - the critical square of this pawn.} 1. Kd4 {%05It is not difficult to guess that we again have here a case of corresponding squares: c5-c7, d6-d8 and d5-c8.^013^010 We come to the conclusion that, on the approaches to the key squares. Black succeeds in maintaining the correspondence. Let us now try stepping back with the king, say to d4, exploiting the fact that the black king is restricted in its movements by the edge of the board.} (1. Kc5 {, with the threat of penetrating to b6, Black has a single but adequate reply in %05At first sight it appears impossible to win: on} Kc7) (1. Kd6 {%05while if} Kd8) 1... Kd8 { %05This means that he must play} (1... Kc7 {due to %05It is clear that he cannot play} 2. Kc5) (1... Kb8 {, i.e. corresponding to d4 there are two squares - b8 and d8. %05or}) 2. Kc4 {, is made? Corresponding to this square, which is adjacent to c5 and d5, are the same two squares - b8 and d8. But here is the trouble - the king cannot jump from one of these to the other. That means that in this case Black can no longer maintain the correspondence: %05But what if a further waiting move} Kc8 (2... Kc7 {%04by %05and} 3. Kc5 $18) 3. Kd5 {! %05is decisively met by} Kd8 4. Kd6 $18 {You have made the acquaintance of one of the simplest cases of corresponding squares, so-called triangulation (d5, c4, d4). By manoeuvring with his king in this triangle, White breaks the correspondence to his advantage. In order to make two steps forward, the white king first takes one step back.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1920.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/1p6/1P6/3P1k2/3K4/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] [EventDate "1920.??.??"] {In this time this study was the first example in literature employing the method of corresponding squares to such endings. Since it is unfavourable to advance the pawn straight away, White must manoeuvre with his king. Let us try approaching this position from the viewpoint of the theory of key squares and corresponding squares. Suppose that the black king is at f4. Then White can win. This means that e2 will be the first key square. It is not hard to guess that the second key square is d4; if his king reaches there, White wins very simply. Now let us try to find the correspondence squares. If the white king moves to c3, Black has only one reply - 1... Kc3 This means that the square corresponding to c3 is e3, If the king goes to c2, Black again has only one reply which enables him to maintain the balance - 1... Kf4, so that the square corresponding to c2 is f4. Let us now consider the next adjacent squares - suppose that from c2 the king moves to b2. This square is adjacent to c2 and c3, hence the square corresponding to it will be f3. But what square corresponds to b3? It, like the previous one, borders upon c2 and c3, but Black has no such second square like f3. This means that, if the white king manoeuvres between b2 and b3, Black will inevitably lose the correspondence. Now White's plan is clear:} 1. Kc2 {!} (1. d4 {leads immediately to a draw: Black replies %05It is easy to see that} Ke4 2. Kc3 Kf5 {!} 3. Kd3 Kf4 { ! , and White has no way o strengthening his position.}) 1... Kf4 2. Kb2 (2. Kb3 {%05or}) 2... Kf3 3. Kb3 {!} Kf4 4. Kc2 {!} Ke5 (4... Kf3 {%05totally bad is} 5. Kd2 Kf4 6. Ke2 {%04etc.}) 5. Kd1 {!} (5. Kd2 {would be pointless because of %05The play still requires accuracy.} Kd4 {, when the king does best to retrace its steps, since after} 6. Ke2 {?} Kc3 {= Black breaks through to the critical squares of the b4 pawn, and the game ends in a draw.}) 5... Kd5 6. Ke2 Kd4 7. Kd2 {!} Ke5 8. Ke3 $18 {, and White wins.^013^010 ^013^010 Doesn't it seem to you that the winning method employed in this study is in some way similar to that which we saw in the previous example ? Yes, it is that same "triangulation"! Only, it is turned through 90, and the squares which come into it are c2, b2 and b3. For all the lack of similarity between this and previous positions, the winning methods in them turn out to be identical.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/1p6/1P3k2/3P4/3K4/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "23"] 1. Ke2 {%05Suppose that the black king is at f4. Then White can play} Ke5 2. Ke3 Kd5 3. d4 Kc4 4. Ke4 Kxb4 5. d5 Kc5 (5... Ka3 6. d6 b4 7. d7 b3 8. d8=Q $18 ) (5... Ka5 {%05or} 6. d6 Kb6 7. Ke5 b4 8. Ke6 b3 9. d7 $18 {, winning}) 6. Ke5 b4 7. d6 Kc6 8. Ke6 b3 9. d7 b2 10. d8=Q b1=Q {The queens have appeared simultaneously, but now comes} 11. Qc8+ Kb6 12. Qb8+ $18 {, and the black queen is lost.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "4k3/8/8/8/8/8/8/4K3 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "0"] {%15N LI4(e1:b4) LI4(b4:b5) LI4(b5:e8) LI4(h5:e8) LI4(e8:h5) LI4(h5:h4) LI4(h4: e1) #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) We will meet more complex systems of corresponding squares in chapter 10, but now let us consider certain peculiarities of the geometry of the chess board. The squares e1 and a5 are situated on the same diagonal, and from e1 the king can reach a5 in 4 moves. It is easy to see that the diagonal path will be the shortest of all those possible. The squares e1 and e8 are situated on the same straight line - the e-file. Moving along this file, the king reaches e8 in 7 moves. It is clear that other routes are also possible, but the reader will undoubtedly be surprised to learn that, apart from the path indicated, there are a further 392(!) routes which enable the king to reach e8 in the same 7 moves. The king can move there, tracing out the most fantastic figures, provided only that they are within the area depicted in the diagram (which encloses the shortest distances along diagonals), and that each time the king moves from one rank onto the next. ~2Thus the movement of the king in a straight line (along a file or rank) can in case of necessity be replaced by movement in a broken line.~ A practical illustration of this rule is provided by the following example.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1921.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Maizelis I"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p4K2/P7/8/8/8/1k6/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1921.??.??"] {If White begins, he can win the a7 pawn. In order to save the game, Black must reach c7 with his king at the moment when White captures the pawn. White can approach the opponent's pawn in one and the same number of moves by various paths. E.g. Kf7-e7-d7-c7-b7, or Kf7-e6-d6-c6-b7, or Kf7-e6-d5-c6-b7, The following is also possible: Kf7-e8-d7-c8-b7.} 1. Ke6 {%05A legitimate question arises: can't the king, in heading for the pawn, simultaneously hinder the black king's movements towards the c7 square? It turns out that such a combination of tasks can be carried out. After} Kc3 2. Kd5 {! White's king as though pushes away the black king. The latter is forced to move aside, and can no longer reach c7 in time, e.g.} Kb4 3. Kc6 Ka5 4. Kb7 Kb5 5. Kxa7 Kc6 6. Kb8 $18 {, and the pawn queens. This king manoeuvre, which has received the name of ~2"shoulder-charging"~ is frequently employed in pawn endings.} * [Event "Karlovy Vary (Czech Republic)"] [Site "Karlovy Vary (Czech Republic)"] [Date "1929.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Yates Frederick D (ENG)"] [Black "Marshall Frank J (USA)"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/8/pK6/8/5P2/1k6 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] [EventDate "1929.??.??"] {It is useful to make the acquaintance of another typical manoeuvre.} 1... Kb2 {! Black is apparently intending to support the advance of his pawn, and threatens 2... a3. Therefore White replies %05The first impression is that things are bad for Black: he cannot get to the white pawn, and the fate of his own pawn is settled. But nevertheless:} 2. Kxa4 {, but then comes} Kc3 3. f4 Kd4 {, and Black succeeds in stopping the pawn. By this "feint" - a deceptive movement of the king to the left, in order then to dart to the right - Black managed to gain the necessary tempo.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/8/1P6/6k1/8/6K1 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] {And in conclusion, a rule which enables one quickly and without calculation to determine whether or not a king can catch a pawn: "the rule of the square". } 1. b5 {The result depends on who it is to move. If White begins, he queens his pawn:} Kf4 2. b6 Ke5 3. b7 Kd6 4. b8=Q+ $18 * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/8/1P6/6k1/8/6K1 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] {%15N #B(1I1I1I1I1I12/1I1I1I1I1I12/1I1I1I1I1I12/1I1I1I1I1I12/1I1I1I1I1I12/8/8/ 8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1... Kf4 { %05But if it is Black to move, he succeeds in stopping it: %15N #B (1I1I1I1I1I12/1I1I1I1I1I12/1I1I1I1I1I12/1I1I1I1I1I12/1I1I1I1I1I12/8/8/8) #S(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. b5 {%15N #B (1I1I1I1I13/1I1I1I1I13/1I1I1I1I13/1I1I1I1I13/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke5 {%15N #B(1I1I1I1I13/1I1I1I1I13/ 1I1I1I1I13/1I1I1I1I13/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. b6 {%15N #B(1I1I1I14/1I1I1I14/1I1I1I14/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd6 {%15N #B(1I1I1I14/ 1I1I1I14/1I1I1I14/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8)} 4. b7 {%15N #B(1I1I15/1I1I15/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc7 {%15N #B(1I1I15/1I1I15/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) = The dotted line on the diagram shows the "square" of the b4 pawn (b4-b8-f8-f4). Its sides are equal to the distance of the pawn to its queening square. ~2The "rule of the square" is as follows: if the king is inside the "square" of the pawn, or on its move can step into it, then it catches the pawn: if this is not so, it cannot catch the pawn.~ When calculating at the board it is simpler to draw mentally only one line - the diagonal of the "square". After all, in terms of number of individual squares, the diagonal of the "square" is equal to its side. It should also be borne in mind that, with a pawn in its original position, when it still has the right to advance two squares, the "square" should be constructed from the square in front of the pawn. And lastly: the presence on the board of other pawns can prevent the king from stepping into the "square" of a passed pawn.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1925.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Bianchetti R"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5p2/4p3/8/3P4/5k2/P7/5K2 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] [EventDate "1925.??.??"] 1. d5 {! %05Correct is first} (1. a4 {? %05White fails to win after %15N #B (I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke4 {%15N #B(I1I1I1I1I13/ I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. a5 {%15N #B(I1I1I1I14/I1I1I1I14/ I1I1I1I14/I1I1I1I14/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8)} Kd5 {%15N #B(I1I1I1I14/I1I1I1I14/I1I1I1I14/I1I1I1I14/8/8/8/8) #S(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. a6 {%15N #B(I1I1I15/ I1I1I15/I1I1I15/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8)} Kc6 {%04etc. %15N #B(I1I1I15/I1I1I15/I1I1I15/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)}) 1... exd5 2. a4 {%15 N #B (I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke4 {%15N #B(I1I1I1I1I13/ I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. a5 $18 {, when the king is powerless to stop the pawn. %15N #B(I1I1I1I14/I1I1I1I14/I1I1I1I14/I1I1I1I14/8/8/8/8) #S (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "3k4/8/4K3/3P4/8/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "3"] 1. Kd6 {%05But what will be the result with the king at e6? If its opponent is at d8, a by-pass manoeuvre is immediately decisive:} Kc8 (1... Ke8 {%05or} 2. Kc7 $18) 2. Ke7 $18 * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "4k3/8/4K3/3P4/8/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] 1. d6 {%05while if it is at e8, the advance of the pawn is decisive:} Kd8 2. d7 Kc7 3. Ke7 $18 {Continuing the analysis, it is easily established that White also wins when his king reaches d6 or c6, irrespective of where the opponent's king is placed. This means that, along with e7, d7 and c7, the squares e6, d6 and c6 are also key squares of the d5 pawn: the occupation by the king of any one of these squares leads to the promotion of the pawn. Black can draw the ending if he succeeds in not allowing he white king is at e5, Black's king must defend the two squares in front of its opponent - e6 and d6, i.e. it must be at d7 or e7, wile when the white king is at c5 it must be at c7 or d7.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/3k4/8/2KP4/8/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "2"] {In the previous chapter, when we made the acquaintance of the concept of key squares, we examined an important final position of mutual zugzwang (cf. ~3( 2) ~ ). It serves as a direction finder in the following position.} 1. d6 { he must retreat his king so that after 2. Kc6 he can reply 2... Kc8. This condition is satisfied by only one move - %05Suppose Black's king is at d7. Then on} Kd8 $40 {! =} (1... Ke8 {%05whereas} 2. Kc6 Kd8 3. d7 $18 {leads to zugzwang and to Black's defeat .}) * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "5k2/8/3P4/8/6K1/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] 1. Kf5 {%04But} Kf7 {also does not help:} (1... Ke8 {%05On 1. Kf5 Black loses immediately after} 2. Ke6 {, when White has obtained known position with Black^013^010 to move ~3($402)~}) 2. Ke5 Kf8 {Black is stubborn} 3. Kf6 { ! (the decisive move)} (3. Ke6 {, then %05if now} Ke8 {, and it is White to move}) 3... Ke8 4. Ke6 Kd8 5. d7 $18 {%04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/3k4/8/3K4/3P4/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "10"] {Another important position of mutual zugzwang. Let us check it. %15N #B(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/2XIXIXI3/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1... Kc5 {%05Suppose it is Black to move. He is forced to play %15N #B(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/2XAXAXD3/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} ( 1... Ke5 {%05or %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/ 2XDXAXA3/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)}) 2. Ke4 {(or correspondingly 2. Kc4) Now the pawn promotes automatically, e.g. %05, on which there follows %15N #B(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/3XIXI3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd6 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/2XIXIXI3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kd4 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/ 8/8/2XIXIXI3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc6 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/2XAXAXD3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Ke5 {%15N #B (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/3XIXI3/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8)} Kd7 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/2XIXIXI3/8/8/8/ 8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kd5 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/2XIXIXI3/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/2XDXAXA3/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Kc6 $18 {After several times carrying out a by-passing "herring-bone" manoeuvre, White has occupied one of the basic key squares of the pawn and can now advance it.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/3k4/8/3K4/3P4/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "18"] 1. Kc3 {Black replies %05It is another matter if it is White to move. On} (1. Ke3 {%05or} Ke5) 1... Kc5 {, not allowing the opponent's king forward. After} 2. d4+ Kd5 3. Kd3 Kd6 (3... Kc6) (3... Ke6 {is also possible %05or}) 4. Ke4 Ke6 {(all other moves lose)} 5. d5+ Kd6 6. Kd4 Kd7 7. Kc5 Kc7 8. d6+ Kd7 9. Kd5 Kd8 {!= , as we already know, Black draws the ending. Thus, depending on which rank the pawn is situated, it has a definite system of key squares. As the pawn advances, the key squares move with it. Thus for a pawn at d3 the key squares will be c5, d5 and e5, and for a pawn at d4 they will now be c6, d6 an e6. Since the struggle is basically for three key squares in a row along a rank, it is natural that the vertical opposition of the kings acquires importance.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "4k3/8/8/8/8/8/4P3/4K3 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/3XIXIXI2/8/8/8/8) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kd2 {%05Here White immediately penetrates onto the key squares: %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/3XIXIXI2/8/8/8/ 8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd7 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/ 8/8/3XIXIXI2/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Ke3 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/3XIXIXI2/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 {! %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/3XIXIXI2/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8)} 3. Ke4 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/ 3XIXIXI2/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke6 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/3XIXIXI2/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. e3 {! Here it is, the decisive move. In this way White puts his opponent in zugzwang, and gains the possibility of a by-pass. %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (8/8/8/3XIXIXI2/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd6 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/3XAXAXD2/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kf5 { %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/4XIXI2/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/3XIXIXI2/ 8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Ke5 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8) #C(8/8/3XIXIXI2/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf7 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/3XDXAXA2/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 7. Kd6 $18 {%04etc. And now let us move the pawn forward one square.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "4k3/8/8/8/8/4P3/8/4K3 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "6"] {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/3XIXIXI2/8/8/8/8) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Ke2 {%05The slight change in the position is immediately reflected in the result: White will no longer have a reserve pawn move, and so Black is able to maintain the balance. %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(8/8/8/3XIXIXI2/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/3XIXIXI2/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kd3 {The only correct reply now is %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (8/8/8/3XIXIXI2/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd7 {! %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/3XIXIXI2/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Ke4 { %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/3XIXIXI2/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke6 {= , retaining control over the key squares. %15N #B(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/3XAXAXA2/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "4k3/8/8/8/3PK3/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "3"] {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/2XIXIXI3/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1... Kd8 {! , to answer %05Black is saved by %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/2XIXIXI3/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} ( 1... Ke7 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/2XIXIXI3/8/8/8/8/ 8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) , then %05What should Black play? If} 2. Ke5 {%15N #B(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/2XIXIXI3/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8)} Kd7 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/2XIXAXA3/8/8/8/8/ 8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kd5 $18 {, and the battle for the key squares is lost %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/2XIXIXI3/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)}) (1... Kd7 {White has the immediately decisive %05while on %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/2XIXIXI3/8/8/8/8/8) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kd5 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/ 2XIXIXI3/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)}) 2. Ke5 {%04with %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/3XIXI3/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (2. Kd5 {%04with %05and %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/2XIXIXI3/8/ 8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd7 {= %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8) #C(8/8/2XAXAXA3/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)}) 2... Ke7 {= %15N #B(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/3XAXA3/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "5k2/8/8/8/8/2P5/8/3K4 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] {Let us try to find the solution, proceeding from the theory of key squares. %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/1XIXIXI4/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kc2 {! %05If the white king reaches d4, Black's king must be able to stand at d6, if c4 - at c6, and if b4 - at b6. Only in this case will the key squares be fully defended against the penetration of the white king. All three squares - d4, c4 and b4 - can be reached by the white king in 3 moves, whereas to reach d6 the black king requires 2 moves, to reach c6 it requires 3, and to reach b6 it requires 4. It is clear that, if the white king immediately advances to b4, Black will be unable to reach b6 in time.^013^010 Thus the solution is as follows: %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/1XIXIXI4/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/1XIXIXI4/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kb3 { %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/1XIXIXI4/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd6 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/ 1XIXAXA4/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kb4 {! %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/1XIXIXI4/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc6 {%15N #B(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/1XIXIXI4/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8)} 4. Kc4 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/1XIXIXI4/8/8/ 8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kb6 {(too late) %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/1XAXAXD4/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kd5 $18 {, and White wins. Let us examine a similar position, only with a knight's pawn.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "5k2/8/8/8/1P6/8/8/3K4 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "14"] {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/XIXIXI5/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kc2 {! %05From the previous example it is clear that the white king must advance to a5. %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (8/8/XIXIXI5/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/XIXIXI5/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kb3 { %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/XIXIXI5/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd6 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/XIXIXI5/ 8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Ka4 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8) #C(8/8/XIXIXI5/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc6 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/XIXI6/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Ka5 { %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/XIXI6/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8)} Kb7 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/XIXIXI5/8/ 8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kb5 {! %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8) #C(8/8/XIXIXI5/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ka7 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/XAXAXD5/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Kc6 Ka6 7. b5+ Ka7 $18 * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/k7/2K5/1P6/8/8/8/8 w - - 0 8"] [PlyCount "9"] 8. Kc7 {! %05The correct continuation is} (8. b6+ {?? leads to a draw after %05White has penetrated onto the basic key squares, but the struggle is not yet over, since due to the proximity of the edge of the board he has to be careful - there is the possibility of stalemate. Thus} Ka8 {! %04on} 9. Kc7 { Black has no move.}) 8... Ka8 9. Kb6 {(driving the king out of the corner)} Kb8 10. Ka6 Ka8 11. b6 Kb8 12. b7 $18 {, and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1969.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Mandler Artur"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/k5p1/8/8/8/K7/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1969.??.??"] {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/5XIXIXI/8/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kb2 {! %05The battle for the key squares begins at the very distant approaches: %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/ 5XIXIXI/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (1. Ka3 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/5XIXIXI/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) %05Bad is} Ka5 $19 { %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/5XIXIXI/8/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)}) (1. Kb3 {%05or %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (8/8/8/8/5XIXIXI/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kb5 {, when Black seizes the key squares. %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/5XIXIXI/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)}) 1... Kb6 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/5XIXIXI/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (1... Kb5 {%05If now %15N #B(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/5XIXIXI/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8)} 2. Kb3 {! , and White maintains the balance. %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/5XIXIXI/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)}) 2. Kc2 {! %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/5XIXIXI/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8)} Kc6 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/5XIXIXI/8/ 8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kd2 {! %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8) #C(8/8/8/8/5XIXIXI/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd6 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/5XIXIXI/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Ke2 { ! %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/5XIXIXI/8/8/8) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke6 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/ 5XIXIXI/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kf2 {! %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/5XIXIXI/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf6 {%15N #B(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/5XIXIXI/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Kg2 {! Draw. By moving along a "narrow road", White's king has gained control of the key squares. %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/ 8/8/8/5XIXIXI/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "5k2/8/6K1/7P/8/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "4"] 1... Kg8 {, when his king cannot be evicted from the corner, e.g. %05Black to move plays} 2. h6 Kh8 3. h7 {- stalemate.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "5k2/8/6K1/7P/8/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "8"] 1. Kh7 {%05If it is White to move, he can play} Kf7 2. h6 {, but after} Kf8 { he can make no progress, e.g.} (2... Kf6 {?} 3. Kg8 $18) 3. Kh8 (3. Kg6 {%05or} Kg8 4. h7+ Kh8 {=}) 3... Kf7 4. h7 Kf8 {=} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/7K/5k2/7P/8/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "2"] {An exception to the rule is provided by the following position.} 1. Kg8 { , but in doing so he leaves his pawn undefended, and Black is saved by %05White can penetrate to g8} Kg5 {Therefore in this case g8 will not be a key square. How the struggle develops for the key squares when there is a rook's pawn is shown in the following example.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/8/1k6/7K/7P/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] 1. Kg4 Kc5 2. Kg5 Kd6 3. Kg6 Ke7 4. Kg7 {, and the struggle is over: the king cannot prevent the advance of the pawn.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/8/1k6/7K/7P/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] 1... Kc5 {%05It is a different picture with Black to move:} 2. Kg4 Kd6 3. Kf5 Ke7 4. Kg6 Kf8 5. Kh7 Kf7 {= , and by controlling g7 and g8, Black draws ~3 ($4142)~.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/k1P5/2K5/8/8/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "1"] {In conclusion we should mention those very rare cases, where to avoid stalemate the pawn must be promoted to a rook.} 1. c8=R {! wins. %05but} (1. c8=Q {? gives stalemate}) * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/Pk6/1P6/2K5/8/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "8"] {~13. KING AND TWO PAWNS AGAINST KING~ An advantage of two pawns normally ensures an easy win. A draw is possible only in exceptional cases, when both pawns are lost, or one is lost and the second proves insufficient for a win, or finally, with rook's pawns or far-advanced pawns, when there is a possibility of stalemate. ~2 Connected pawns, if they are defending each other, always win.~} 1... Ka8 2. Kd6 Kb7 3. a8=Q+ {!} Kxa8 4. Kc6 Kb8 5. b7 $18 { and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "1k6/8/1P6/8/1P1K4/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] {With doubled pawns, the second can always be used to gain a tempo.} 1. Kc5 Kb7 2. Kb5 (2. b5 {?? , when White can no longer win. %05A bad blunder, making the second pawn worthless, would be}) 2... Kb8 3. Ka6 {!} (3. Kc6 {%05This is stronger than} Kc8 4. b7+ Kb8 5. b5 Ka7 {, when the only way to win is by} 6. b8=Q+ {!} Kxb8 7. Kb6 {%04etc.}) 3... Ka8 4. b5 Kb8 5. b7 Kc7 6. Ka7 $18 { , and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1935.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/4k1P1/8/8/6P1/2K5 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] [EventDate "1935.??.??"] {When there is a possible attack from the side on one of a pair of doubled pawns, the second pawn may be able to defend the critical squares of the first against invasion by the opponent's king.} 1. g4 {! , covering the f5 square against the opponent's king. After %05There is only one way to win -} Ke6 2. Kd2 Kf7 3. Ke3 Kg7 4. Ke4 {!} Kg6 5. Kf4 $18 {White succeeds in defending his pawn, and wins ~3($4048)~.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1961.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Pogosyants E"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/3P4/1k6/1P3K2/8/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "6"] [EventDate "1961.??.??"] {~2If the pawns are isolated, a typical winning procedure is the sacrifice of one pawn so as to queen the other.~} 1... Kc7 {%05After} 2. Ke6 Kd8 {White must play} 3. Kd5 {!} Kxd7 4. b6 $18 {, reaching the winning example ~3($4030) ~. But if the position is moved one file to the left, this plan no longer succeeds due to the rook's pawn.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5k1K/5P1P/8/8/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "2"] 1. Kh8 {%05Here the white king cannot get out from in front of the pawn, e.g.} Kf8 {= %04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5k1K/5P1P/8/8/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "2"] 1... Kxf6 {%05But if it is Black to move, he loses after both} (1... Kf8 2. Kg6 $18 {%04etc.}) 2. Kg8 $18 * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/1k6/8/P1P5/8/8/7K b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "2"] {Isolated pawns can usually defend each other indirectly: in capturing one, the king moves out of the "square" of the other.} 1... Ka5 {comes %05The king can attack either of the pawns, but this does not bring Black any relief. On} ( 1... Kc5 {%04- %05and on} 2. a5 $18) 2. c5 $18 {By advancing one step, the critical square of the first pawn is covered against attack from the side by the second pawn. This allows White to gain time for the approach of his king.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1950.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Skuja Aivars (LAT)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/4k3/8/3p1p2/5K2/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] [EventDate "1950.??.??"] {The following position is truly unique.} 1. Ke4 {!! , and depending on where the opponent's king moves, White captures the pawn on that side, e.g. %05White achieves his aim by the splendid move} d3 2. Kxd3 Kf5 3. Ke2 Kg4 4. Kf2 { = Draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/4k3/8/3p1p2/5K2/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "2"] 1. Ke3 {%05But if the previous position is moved one rank down the %05board, after} d2 {(or 1. ... f2) wins, since a position of type ~3($4130)~ arises. ^013^010 ^013^010 %05 the sacrifice of either pawn} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/1k6/8/P2P4/8/8/K7 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] 1... Ka5 2. d5 (2. Kb2 {%05The sacrifice of the pawn is pointless:} Kxa4 3. Kc3 Kb5 4. Kd3 Kc6 5. Ke4 Kd6 {= with a draw.}) 2... Kb6 3. Kb2 Kc5 {= , with a draw. From the solution it becomes clear why the defensive possibilities of the pawns are poorer here than in example ~3( 53)~ , where the critical square of one pawn was defended by the other.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1k6/8/P2P4/8/8/8/7K w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] 1. d6 {%05Suppose, for example, that in the diagram position the black king is at b7. With White to move there follows} Kc6 2. a6 Kxd6 3. a7 * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1k6/8/P2P4/8/8/8/7K b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "4"] 1... Ka6 {is met by %05While with Black to move} 2. d6 Kb7 3. a6+ {%04etc. Of course, the rule of the "wandering square" is applicable only when the opponent's king has not yet invaded the critical squares of either of the pawns.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1860.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Durand Philippe A (FRA)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "4k1K1/8/8/3p4/3P4/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "16"] [EventDate "1860.??.??"] {%15N #B(8/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/8) #S(8/A+5A+1/A+5A+1/A+A+A+1A+A+A+1/ CDCDCD1CDCDCD1/CD5CD1/CD5CD1/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) ~14. PAWN AGAINST PAWN~ Material equality gives reason to suppose that the ending of pawn against pawn should normally end in a draw, and in many cases this is indeed so. But in fact the decisive role is played not by the material equality, but by the presence or absence of a positional advantage to one of the sides. The forms of this advantage are varied: if the pawns are not passed - activity of the kings; if they are passed - the greater degree of advancement of one of them, and the ability of the kings to battle against pawns. It will be expedient to divide the endings under consideration into three main groups: 4.1 Pawns on the same file. 4.2 Pawns on adjacent files. 4. 3 Both pawns passed. ~14.1 PAWNS ON THE SAME FILE~ In the first chapter we have already considered several positions with blocked pawns (4, 5, 7, 8). It was established that alongside a blocked pawn there are several critical squares, which must be defended against invasion by the enemy king. At the time we did not try to determine the entire system of critical squares, and it will be useful to do this now.} 1. Kg7 {%05We will consider various relative placing of the kings. First, a case where one king attacks, and the other defends, the critical squares of the pawn:^013^010 %05 g8/e8. In this position White's king inevitably enters the zone of critical squares of the black pawn, and therefore he wins it both with and without the move. E.g., with White to move: %15N #B(8/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/8/8/8/8) #S(8/ A+7/A+5A+1/A+A+A+1A+A+A+1/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 {%15N #B(8/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/8/8/8/8) #S(8/A+7/ A+5A+1/A+A+A+1A+A+A+1/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kg6 {%15N #B(8/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/8/8/8/8) #S(8/ A+5A+1/A+7/A+A+A+1A+A+A+1/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke6 {%15N #B(8/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/8/8/8/8) #S(8/ A+5A+1/A+7/A+A+A+1A+A+A+1/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kg5 {! As we see, in order to achieve success White had to take his king onto one of the main critical squares of the pawn, which for white are key squares. The remainder is simple: %15N #B(8/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/ I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/8/8/8/8) #S(8/A+5A+1/A+5A+1/A+A+A+1A+A+2/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd7 {%15N #B(8/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/ I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/8/8/8/8) #S(8/A+5A+1/A+5A+1/A+A+A+1A+A+2/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kf6 {%15N #B(8/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/ I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/8/8/8/8) #S(8/A+5A+1/A+5A+1/A+A+A+1A+A+A+1/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd6 {%15N #B(8/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/ I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/8/8/8/8) #S(8/A+5A+1/A+5A+1/A+A+A+1A+A+A+1/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kf5 {%15N #B(8/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/ I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/8/8/8/8) #S(8/A+5A+1/A+5A+1/A+A+A+1A+1A+1/8/8/ 8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc7 {%15N #B(8/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/ I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/8/8/8/8) #S(8/A+5A+1/A+5A+1/A+A+A+1A+1A+1/8/8/ 8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Ke6 {%15N #B(8/ I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/8/8/8/8) #S(8/A+5A+1/A+5A+1/ A+A+A+1A+A+A+1/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc6 {%15N #B (8/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/8/8/8/8) #S(8/A+5A+1/A+5A+1/ A+A+A+1A+A+A+1/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 7. Ke5 { You will no doubt have noticed how the white king gradually, one after another, won back the key squares, which in the end led to the loss o the pawn, although, as we know, in giving it up defending the key squares of the d4 pawn against invasion by the white king. Black can still gain a draw: %15N #B(8/ I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/8/8/8/8) #S(8/A+5A+1/A+5A+1/ A+A+A+2A+A+1/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc7 8. Kxd5 Kd7 {%04etc. =} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "K1k5/8/8/3p4/3P4/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] {%15N #B(8/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/8/8/8/8) #S(8/ A+5A+1/A+5A+1/A+A+A+1A+A+A+1/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Ka7 {%05a8/c8. Events develop similarly in this position: %15 N #B(8/ I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/8/8/8/8) #S(8/6A+1/A+5A+1/ A+A+A+1A+A+A+1/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc7 {%15N #B (8/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/8/8/8/8) #S(8/6A+1/A+5A+1/ A+A+A+1A+A+A+1/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Ka6 { %15N #B(8/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/8/8/8/8) #S(8/A+5A+1/ 6A+1/A+A+A+1A+A+A+1/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc6 { %15N #B(8/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/8/8/8/8) #S(8/A+5A+1/ 6A+1/A+A+A+1A+A+A+1/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Ka5 { ! %15 N #B(8/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/8/8/8/8) #S(8/ A+5A+1/A+5A+1/1A+A+1A+A+A+1/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd7 {%15N #B(8/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/8/8/8/8) #S(8/ A+5A+1/A+5A+1/1A+A+1A+A+A+1/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kb6 {%15N #B(8/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/8/8/8/8) #S (8/A+5A+1/A+5A+1/A+A+A+1A+A+A+1/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8)} Kd6 {%15N #B(8/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/8/8/8/8) #S (8/A+5A+1/A+5A+1/A+A+A+1A+A+A+1/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8)} 5. Kb5 {%04etc. = %15 N #B(8/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/ I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/8/8/8/8) #S(8/A+5A+1/A+5A+1/A+1A+1A+A+A+1/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/5k2/3p4/3P3K/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "4"] {%15N #B(8/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/8) #S(8/A+5A+1/A+5A+1/A+A+A+1A+A+A+1/ CDCDCD1CDCDCD1/CD5CD1/CD5CD1/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kg4 {%05h4/f6. Here the pawn cannot be won: %15 N #B(8/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/ I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/8/8/8/8) #S(8/A+5A+1/A+5A+1/A+A+A+1A+A+A+1/8/8/ 8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (1. Kh5 {%15 N #B(8/ I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/8) #S(8/A+5A+1/A+5A+1/A+A+A+1A+A+A+1/ CDCDCD1CDCDCD1/CD5CD1/CD5CD1/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) ? %05By contrast, it would be fatal to play} Kf5 {, since Black's king not only keeps the opponent's king out of the critical squares of the d5 pawn, but itself aims for the critical squares of the opponent's pawn. %15N #B(8/ I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/8) #S(8/A+5A+1/A+5A+1/A+A+A+1A+1A+1/ CDCDCD1CDCDCD1/CD5CD1/CD5CD1/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)}) 1... Kg6 {%15N #B(8/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/8/8/8/8) #S(8/ A+5A+1/A+7/A+A+A+1A+A+A+1/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kf4 {%15N #B(8/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/8/8/8/8) #S(8/ A+5A+1/A+7/A+A+A+1A+A+A+1/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf6 {= %15 N #B(8/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/8/8/8/8) #S(8/ A+5A+1/A+5A+1/A+A+A+1A+A+A+1/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "3K4/8/3k4/3p4/3P4/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "2"] {%15N #B(8/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/8) #S(8/A+5A+1/A+5A+1/A+A+A+1A+A+A+1/ CDCDCD1CDCDCD1/CD5CD1/CD5CD1/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kc8 {%05This is a position by Leick (1948). White's king is too far cut off from his pawn, and if it is his move he even loses: %15N #B(8/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/ I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/8) #S(8/A+5A+1/A+5A+1/A+A+A+1A+A+A+1/CDCDCD1CDCDCD1/CD5CD1/ CD5CD1/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (1. Ke8 {%05or %15 N #B(8/ I1I1I1I1I1I1I1I1/I1I1I1I1I1I1I1I1/I1I1I1I1I1I1I1I1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/8) #S(8/A+5A+1/A+5A+1/A+A+A+1A+A+A+1/ CDCDCD1CDCDCD1/CD5CD1/CD5CD1/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke6 { ! %15 N #B(8/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/8) #S(8/A+5A+1/A+5A+1/A+A+A+1A+A+A+1/ CDCDCD1CDCDCD1/CD5CD1/CD5CD1/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)}) 1... Kc6 {! , and the black king picks up the d4 pawn. %15 N #B(8/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/ I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/8) #S(8/A+5A+1/A+5A+1/A+A+A+1A+A+A+1/CDCDCD1CDCDCD1/CD5CD1/ CD5CD1/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/4k3/8/3p4/3P4/5K2/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "1"] {%15N #B(8/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/8/8/8/8) #S(8/ A+5A+1/A+5A+1/A+A+A+1A+A+A+1/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1... Kf7 {! %05Here Black keeps the opponent's king off the critical squares of his pawn only by %15N #B(8/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/ 8/8/8/8) #S(8/A+5A+1/A+5A+1/A+A+A+1A+A+A+1/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/3p2K1/k2P4/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "8"] {%15N #B(8/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/8) #S(8/A+5A+1/A+5A+1/A+A+A+1A+A+2/ 1CDCD1CDCDCD1/CD5CD1/CD5CD1/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kf5 {%05Here we have a double-edged position - both kings are already on critical squares of the pawns. The question is - who is it to move? The side that begins, win a pawn. E.g., with White to move: %15N #B(8/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/ I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/8) #S(8/A+5A+1/A+5A+1/A+A+A+1A+1A+1/1CDCD1CDCDCD1/CD5CD1/ CD5CD1/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kb5 {! %15 N #B(8/ I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/8) #S(8/A+5A+1/A+5A+1/A+1A+1A+1A+1/ CDCDCD1CDCDCD1/CD5CD1/CD5CD1/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (1... Kb4 {%15 N #B(8/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/8) #S(8/A+5A+1/A+5A+1/ A+A+A+1A+1A+1/1CDCD1CDCDCD1/CD5CD1/CD5CD1/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8) %05Before it is too late, Black must switch to defence - the %05attempt to counter-attack leads to defeat:} 2. Ke6 {%15 N #B(8/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/ I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/8) #S(8/A+5A+1/A+5A+1/A+A+A+1A+A+A+1/CD1CD1CDCDCD1/CD5CD1/ CD5CD1/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc4 {%15N #B(8/ I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/8) #S(8/A+5A+1/A+5A+1/A+A+A+1A+A+A+1/ CDCD2CDCDCD1/CD5CD1/CD5CD1/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Ke5 $18 {etc.^013^010 With Black to move, it is the other way round: 1... Kb4 2. Kf4 Kc4 3. Ke3 Kc3 etc.}) 2. Ke6 {%15 N #B(8/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/ I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/8) #S(8/ A+5A+1/A+5A+1/A+1A+1A+A+A+1/CDCDCD1CDCDCD1/CD5CD1/CD5CD1/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc6 {%15N #B(8/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/ I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/8/8/8/8) #S(8/A+5A+1/A+5A+1/A+A+A+1A+A+A+1/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Ke5 {%15N #B(8/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/ I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/8/8/8/8) #S(8/A+5A+1/A+5A+1/A+A+A+2A+A+1/8/8/8/ 8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc7 4. Kxd5 Kd7 {= , with a draw. Thus ideas about the critical squares of a blocked pawn are an important guide, determining the manoeuvring of the kings, and they allow one to establish in advance whether or not the pawn can be won.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "k7/8/1p6/8/1P3K2/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "1"] 1. b5 {, and then seizes the critical squares of the n6 pawn and wins. If it is Black to move, he saves the draw by 1... b5. %05If White begins, he plays} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1851.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Horwitz & Kling"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "4k3/4p3/4K3/8/8/8/4P3/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "4"] [EventDate "1851.??.??"] 1. e4 {%05In this position White is unable to win, e.g.} (1. e3 Kd8 2. e4 Ke8 3. e5 Kd8 4. Kf7 Kd7 5. Kf8 (5. e6+ {even loses ?}) 5... Ke6 6. Ke8 {=}) 1... Kf8 2. Kd7 e5 {!= Draw.} * [Event "Bad Homburg (Germany)"] [Site "Bad Homburg (Germany)"] [Date "1927.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Yates Frederick D (ENG)"] [Black "Tartakower Saviely G (RUS)"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/1p1k4/1P6/1p6/8/1K6 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] [EventDate "1927.??.??"] 1. Kb2 {%05Black thought that he would win here, but in reply to} Kc4 2. Ka3 {! } b2 {came the unforeseen} 3. Ka2 {!= , when White won the battle for the key squares of the b5 pawn.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1926.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Cheron Andre (FRA)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "4k3/8/4p3/8/1K2P3/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] [EventDate "1926.??.??"] 1. e5 {!} Kf7 (1... Kd7 2. Kb5) 2. Kc5 Kg6 3. Kc6 {! In breaking through with his king onto the critical squares of the pawn, White takes account of the imminent position of mutual zugzwang.} Kg5 4. Kd7 Kf5 5. Kd6 $18 {, and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1952.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Moravec"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/3p4/8/5K2/k2P4/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] [EventDate "1952.??.??"] 1. Kf4 {!} (1. d4 {? %05after} Kb3 {White has to think in terms of drawing}) 1... Kb3 2. Ke5 Kc4 3. d4 $18 {, and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1931.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1p6/1P6/8/7K/8/8/1k6 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1931.??.??"] {Unusual king manoeuvring in the struggle for the critical and key squares is well expressed in the following study by Grigoriev. The attempt to break through to c7 - a critical square of the b7 pawn - does not prove successful: in the same 5 moves the black king reaches a6, and White loses his pawn. But if this is so, the route of the white king must change: in reply to the capture of the b6 pawn White must be able to reach b4 - in this case Black will be unable to penetrate to the key squares of his pawns, and White will draw.} 1. Kg3 {! %05White saves the game by a subtle manoeuvre, enabling him to avoid an unpleasant %05encounter with the opponent's king:} (1. Kg4 { %05But moving directly towards the b4 square leads to defeat:} Kc2 2. Kf4 Kd3 { ! , and Black's king pushes aside its opponent.}) 1... Kc2 2. Kf2 {!} Kd3 3. Ke1 {!} Kc4 4. Kd2 Kb5 5. Kc3 Kxb6 6. Kb4 {Draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1p6/1P6/8/7K/8/8/2k5 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] {To study the ~2 "shoulder-charging"~ mechanism and ways of avoiding it, it is useful to consider also other placings of the kings in example ~3( 71)~.} 1. Kg3 {%05Thus, for example, with the black king at c1 the same^013^010 %05saving manoeuvre is still possible:} Kd2 2. Kf2 Kd3 3. Ke1 {%04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1p6/1P6/8/7K/8/8/3k4 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "2"] 1. Kg3 {%05But if the king is at d1, e1 or f1, White is unable to avoid defeat: } Ke2 {!$19 , and he path to e1 is closed.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1p6/1P6/8/7K/8/8/6k1 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "1"] 1. Kg3 $40 {%05With Black's king at g1 or h1, he is unable to reach the^013^010 %05opponent's pawn in time, and so here it is White who^013^010 %05wins. Thus in position ~3 ( 71)~ if the black king is at a1,b1, or c1 White draws., if it is at d1, e1 or f1 he loses, and if it is at g1 or h1 he wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1p6/1P6/7K/8/8/8/1k6 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "4"] 1. Kg4 {%05Let us now consider various positions of the white king on the rook's file. With his king at h1, h2 or h3 it is even easier for White to avoid the "shoulder-charge", but with his king at h5 (as well as h6, h7 or h8) he loses:} Kc2 2. Kf3 Kd3 {!$19 , and the king reaches b4 too late.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1p6/1P6/7K/8/8/8/k7 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] 1. Kg4 {%05But if we move the black king from b1 to a1, White is again able to avoid being pushed away:} Kb2 2. Kf3 Kc3 3. Ke2 {!= %04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1982.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Averbakh Yuri L (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1p6/1P5K/8/8/8/8/k7 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] [EventDate "1982.??.??"] {The following is perhaps an even more expressive example, showing how to avoid being pushed away.} 1. Kg5 Kb2 2. Kf4 Kc3 3. Ke3 {!} Kc4 4. Kd2 {= %04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1p5K/1P6/8/8/8/8/k7 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "6"] 1. Kg6 {%05But if White king is at h7, he is unable to avoid being pushed away: } Kb2 2. Kf5 Kc3 3. Ke4 Kc4 {!$19 %04etc. In all the examples considered, Black was able to win if he managed to "shoulder-charge" the opponent's king. And, on the contrary, a draw was possible only when White managed to avoid being pushed away, when bringing back his king.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p7/P7/3K4/5k2/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "0"] {We will make a similar analysis of the position with rook's pawns, with which we dealt briefly in ~3( 21)~. We will now examine it more thoroughly, for various positions of the kings. %15N T2(a3:h3)clBlack Lossing zone #B(6I1I1/ 6I1I1/6I1I1/6I1I1/I1I1I1I1I11I1I1/I1I1I1I1I1I1I1I1/I1I1I1I1I1I1I1I1/ I1I1I1I1I1I1I1I1) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) White wins if the black king is inside the zone This position is to a certain extent a critical one. Black will draw if, after the capture of his pawn, his king can reach c7, controlling the key squares b7 and b8. To be able to do this when it is the opponent to move, it is essential for black's king to be within the marked zone. Note that, in the lower half of the board, there is only one square (f4) from which his king, stepping behind its opponent and thus avoiding being pushed away, can reach c7 in time. The white king can approach d5 via two diagonals - from a2 or g8, and from g2. We will consider all three routes.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p7/P7/8/8/8/K7/7k w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "6"] {However far away Black's king is, he gains a draw in this position, since the white king is not able to push aside his king and prevent it moving to the cherished f4 square.} 1. Kb3 {%05E.g., with the black king at h1:} Kg2 2. Kc4 Kf3 3. Kd5 Kf4 {%04etc. ! =} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p7/P7/8/8/8/K7/2k5 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "6"] 1. Kb3 {%05Or, finally, with the king at c1:} Kd2 2. Kc4 Ke3 3. Kd5 Kf4 { = %04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "6K1/p7/P7/8/8/8/8/1k6 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] {The situation is slightly different with the white king at g8. %15N #B(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/I1I16) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kf7 {%05Black gains a draw if his king is on the 1st rank between h1 and c1: in this case his king is able to reach f4 at the moment when the opponent's king is at d5. But if Black's king is at a1 or b1, he loses, since he is not able to avoid being pushed away. E.g. with the king at b1:} Kc2 2. Ke6 Kd3 3. Kd5 {!$18 , and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p7/P7/8/8/8/6K1/2k5 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] {The most favourable position for the white king is at g2, which is quite natural, since in moving to d5 it can take control both of f4, and of the squares adjoining it. %15N T1(d1:h1)clBlack Lossing zone #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ I1I1I1I1I1I1I1I1) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kf3 {%05Here the losing zone includes the entire 1st rank. E.g., with the king at c1:} Kd2 2. Ke4 Kc3 3. Kd5 $18 {%04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p7/P7/8/8/5K2/7k/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "4"] {It is useful to consider also the position with the white king at f3. %15N T2 (a1:h1)clBlack Lossing zone #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/I1I1I1I1I1I1I11/I1I1I1I1I1I1I1I1) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Ke4 {%05The losing zone now includes all the back two ranks, with the exception of the h2 square. Indeed, if his king is at h2, Black saves the draw:} Kg3 2. Kd5 Kf4 { = %04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1924.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Sackmann"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "6K1/8/6k1/8/8/p7/P7/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "3"] [EventDate "1924.??.??"] 1. Kh8 {! %05Since we are familiar with the previous example, the solution does not cause any difficulty:} Kf6 2. Kh7 {!= %04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1949.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Mandler Artur"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/2p5/8/2P5/8/6K1/3k4 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] [EventDate "1949.??.??"] {If the pawns are not yet blocked, in calculations one has to take into account the reserve tempi, which may be used to achieve a position of zugzwang. } 1. Kf2 {%05Correct is} (1. Kf1 {loses after %05 White cannot defend his pawn, therefore he must bring his king behind the opponent's king, in order to avoid being pushed away. But the straightforward} c5 {!} 2. Kf2 Kd2) 1... Kd2 (1... c5 {%05or} 2. Ke3 Kc2 3. Ke2 {!} Kc3 4. Kd1 {!= %04etc.}) 2. c5 {!} Kd3 3. Ke1 {! with a draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1947.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Prokes Ladislav (CZE)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "K7/8/p7/8/8/2k5/P7/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] [EventDate "1947.??.??"] {After our very thorough analysis of examples with blocked rook's pawns, the solution of the following two studies will not cause any difficulty. One must merely count the tempi correctly.} 1. Kb7 {! %05When the black king arrives at a3, the white king must reach e4. Therefore:} a5 2. Kc6 {!} a4 3. Kd5 a3 (3... Kb2 {%05or} 4. Kc4 Kxa2 5. Kc3 {= etc. ~3($4043)~}) 4. Ke4 {Draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1952.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Moravec"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p7/2K5/8/8/8/P4k2/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1952.??.??"] 1. Kb7 a5 (1... Ke3 {does not help after} 2. Kxa7 Kd4 3. Kb6 {!}) 2. Kb6 a4 3. Kb5 a3 4. Kb4 Ke3 5. Kxa3 Kd4 6. Kb4 $18 {, and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p7/2K5/8/6k1/8/P7/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] 1. Kb5 {! , not allowing the pawn to advance, e.g. %05Correct is} (1. Kb7 { would be a mistake, leading to a draw: %05If the black king were at g4, the natural} a5 2. Kb6 a4 3. Kb5 Kf5 4. Kxa4 Ke6 5. Kb5 Kd7 {=}) 1... Kf5 2. Ka6 Ke6 3. Kxa7 Kd7 4. Kb7 $18 {, and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1938.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1p6/8/8/7K/5k2/1P6/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "19"] [EventDate "1938.??.??"] {If the pawns are at a significant distance from each other, and the kings are fairly remote from the pawns, the assessment of such positions becomes a difficult matter, demanding precise calculation.} 1. Kg5 {%05Black is threatening to attack the b2 pawn, so that extreme measures must be taken.} Ke4 2. Kf6 Kd5 (2... Kd3 {, then %05if} 3. Ke5 Kc2 4. Kd4 Kxb2 5. Kc5) 3. Ke7 Kc6 ( 3... b5 {White embarks on a distant by-pass: %05In reply to} 4. Kd7 b4 5. Kc7 Kc5 6. Kb7 b3 (6... Kb5 {, then %05If after 6. Kb7 Black plays} 7. Kc7 { ? loses after} (7. b3 {! , when it is Black who has to think in terms of drawing. %05Correct is} Ka5 8. Kc6 Ka6 9. Kc5 Kb7 10. Kxb4 Kb6 {=}) 7... b3 8. Kd6 Kc4 $19) 7. Ka6 Kb4 8. Kb6 Kc4 9. Ka5 {, and it is now Black who must force a draw by giving up his pawn.}) 4. Ke6 {!} (4. Kd8 {? %05Here the attempt at a by-pass leads to a fiasco:} b5 5. Kc8 b4 6. Kb8 b3 7. Ka7 Kb5 { !$19 , and White's king is too late in reaching a3 to defend his pawn.}) 4... b6 (4... b5 {, then %05If} 5. Ke5 Kc5 6. Ke4 Kc4 7. Ke3 Kb3 (7... b4 8. Kd2 Kb3 9. Kc1 Ka2 10. Kc2 {with a draw.}) 8. Kd4 {!= with a draw. Therefore Black tries to preserve the tempo.}) 5. Ke5 {!} Kc5 6. Ke4 Kc4 7. Ke3 b5 8. Kd2 Kb3 9. Kc1 Ka2 10. b4 {! Draw. Grigoriev also examined a similar situation with certain other king positions. If, for example, in the previous example the kings are replaced at h3 and f2 respectively, the draw is achieved even more quickly - analogous fashion given in the note to Black's 3rd move.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1938.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1p6/8/7K/5k2/8/1P6/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "14"] [EventDate "1938.??.??"] {But if the kings are placed at h5 and f4, White is no longer able to save the draw.} 1. Kg6 Ke5 2. Kf7 Kd6 3. Ke8 b5 4. Kd8 b4 5. Kc8 Kc6 {!} 6. Kb8 b3 7. Ka7 Kb5 {!$19 , and the white king is too late.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1940.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Moravec"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1p6/8/8/8/8/1P6/K6k w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "17"] [EventDate "1940.??.??"] 1. Kb1 {! %05 White's task is not allow the black king to occupy the important e4 square, from which it can both defend its own pawn and the white pawn. Therefore correct is} (1. Ka2 {%05The immediate advance of the king towards the opponent's pawn leads only to a draw:} Kg2 2. Kb3 Kf3 3. Kc4 Ke4 {!} 4. b4 Ke5 5. Kc5 Ke6 {%04etc.}) 1... Kg2 2. Kc2 Kf3 3. Kd3 {!} Kf4 4. Kd4 Kf5 5. Kd5 Kf6 6. Kd6 Kf7 7. b4 Ke8 8. Kc7 b5 9. Kb6 $18 {, and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1952.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Moravec"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/6p1/8/8/k7/7K/6P1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] [EventDate "1952.??.??"] {White wins in similar fashion in the following study. %15N T1(a1:b2)clBlack Lossing zone #B(I17/I17/I17/I17/I17/I17/I1I16/I1I16) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kg4 {! %05The composer has the black king at a7, but a simple analysis shows that White wins irrespectively of which square on the a-file the enemy king occupies. E.g., with the king at a4:} Kb5 2. Kf5 {!} (2. Kg5 {?} Kc5 3. Kg6 Kd5 4. Kxg7 Ke5 {= with a draw}) 2... Kc6 (2... Kc5 {%05or} 3. Ke5 {!} Kc6 4. Ke6 {!$18}) 3. Ke6 {!} Kc7 4. g4 $18 { In all cases White succeeds in pushing aside the opponent's king.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/6p1/8/8/8/7K/1k4P1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] 1. Kg4 {%05Moreover, White also wins when the black king is at b1 or b2. E.g., with the king at b2:} Kc3 2. Kf5 Kd4 3. g4 Ke3 4. g5 Kf3 5. g6 $18 {, and white wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/6p1/8/8/8/1k5K/6P1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "8"] 1. Kg4 {%05Having his king on any of the remaining squares of the b-file guarantees Black a draw. E.g., with the king at b3:} Kc4 2. Kf5 Kd5 3. g4 Kd6 4. g5 (4. Kg6 Ke5) 4... Ke7 {= %04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/6p1/8/8/8/7K/6P1/2k5 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "10"] 1. Kg4 {%05The position of the king at c1 also leads to a draw:} Kd2 2. Kf5 (2. Kf3 Kd3 {etc. ~3($4190)~}) 2... Ke3 3. g4 Kf3 4. g5 Kg3 5. g6 Kh4 {%04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1904.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Duclos Samuel (FRA)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2p5/8/1k1P4/8/K7/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] [EventDate "1904.??.??"] {~14.2 PAWNS ON ADJACENT FILES~ With pawns on adjacent files, the only positions of interest to us those where one side has a certain positional advantage. For the given balance of forces this advantage consists of a superior (more active) king position. We will first consider cases where the pawns are as close as possible, and there are no reserve moves. Here a typical defensive procedure is the sacrifice of the pawn with the aim of transposing into a drawn ending.} 1. d6 {! %05Black is threatening to win the white pawn, while retaining control over the key squares of his own pawn. But by sacrificing his pawn, White forces a favourable displacement of the key squares:} cxd6 2. Kb3 Kc5 3. Kc3 {= Draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1933.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "3k4/8/8/5p2/3K4/6P1/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] [EventDate "1933.??.??"] 1... f4 {! %05Here the goal is achieved by} 2. gxf4 Ke8 {!} 3. Ke4 Kf8 { != %04Draw} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1952.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Moravec"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/3k2p1/8/5P2/8/8/8/1K6 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] [EventDate "1952.??.??"] 1. Kc2 {%05Correct is} (1. f6 {? %05It would be a mistake to play} gxf6 2. Kc2 Ke6 3. Kd2 Kf5 4. Ke3 Kg4 {, when Black wins.}) 1... Kd6 2. f6 {!} gxf6 3. Kd2 {! Draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1887.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Salvioli C"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/k7/p1K5/8/1P6/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "6"] [EventDate "1887.??.??"] 1. Kc7 {%05Here Black gains a draw, only because his pawn is a rook's pawn. After} Ka8 2. Kb6 {he has the reply} a5 {with an immediate draw. E.g.} 3. Kxa5 (3. b5 Kb8 {!=}) 3... Ka7 {= With the pawns on other files, this sacrifice would not have worked, due to the capture with the pawn. Let us now move this position one rank up the board.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1890.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Berger Johann N (AUT)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "k7/p1K5/8/1P6/8/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "2"] [EventDate "1890.??.??"] 1... a5 {%05 The composer shows that after 1. Kc8 a5 2. b6 White wins, or, more precisely, gives mate in 4 moves. However, as was pointed out by Zinar (1974), in the diagram position it must be Black to play, since he has no previous move. Therefore the solution becomes:} 2. b6 $18 {etc. This is thus an example in retro-analysis, although it is unlikely that its composer suspected this.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1910.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Tattersall"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/5k2/8/p7/8/1PK5/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1910.??.??"] {The composer of this position is incorrectly thought by some to be Dedrle, who published it, without indicating its source, in one of his articles (1921). However, as was established by Maizelis, the position (Kc2, pawns b2,e5/ Kd5, pawn a4) arose in a practical game. A certain Dr Cassidy (1884) pointed out the winning path, beginning with 1. Kb1. In the same year the well-known study composer Horwitz used this finish in one of his studies, after devising only in the Tattersall collection differs from the original position only in a reduction of the material.} 1. Kb1 {! %05The correct continuation is} (1. Kc3 { is wrong because of %05In order to win, White must capture the black pawn and at the same time seize the key %05squares of his own pawn (a4, b4 and c4). But the plausible} a3 {!} 2. b3 (2. b4 {is also useless.}) 2... Ke5 {, when the draw is obvious.}) 1... a3 (1... Ke5 {%05or} 2. Ka2 Kd4 3. Ka3 Kc5 4. Kxa4 $18 {, and White wins.}) 2. b3 {!} Ke5 3. Ka2 Kd5 4. Kxa3 Kc5 5. Ka4 Kb6 6. Kb4 $18 * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1952.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Moravec"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "2k5/8/8/7p/8/8/6P1/5K2 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "3"] [EventDate "1952.??.??"] 1. Kf2 {! (threatening 2. Kg3)} h4 2. Kg1 {! , and the rest is already familiar.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1952.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Moravec"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/8/k6p/8/2K3P1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] [EventDate "1952.??.??"] 1. Kd3 {%05The black pawn is doomed, but, in moving towards it, White has to reckon with the threat of ... h3:} Kb4 2. Ke4 Kc5 3. Kf5 (3. Kf4 {%05of course, not} h3 {with a draw}) (3. Ke5 {is possible %05but}) 3... Kd6 (3... h3 4. gxh3 Kd6 5. Kf6 $18 {, and wins.}) 4. Kg4 $18 * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1940.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Moravec"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/3p3k/8/1K6/4P3/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] [EventDate "1940.??.??"] {If the pawns have not converged, the play is considerably complicated by the existence of reserve tempi. It is essential to take them into account, since positions of mutual zugzwang often arise.} 1. Kb4 {! %05He wins by attacking the pawn from the side:} (1. Kc3 {%05The direct} Kg5 2. Kd4 {does not succeed, since after} Kf4 {it is White who ends up in zugzwang.}) 1... Kg5 2. Kc5 Kf4 3. Kd4 {!$18 , and it is Black who is in zugzwang.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1926.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Dobias Richard (SVK)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/6p1/1k6/4K3/8/5P2/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "3"] [EventDate "1926.??.??"] {As in other situations, an important role here is played by "shoulder-charging".} 1. Kd4 {! White not only suppresses the attack on his own pawn from the rear, but also occupies the long diagonal, along which his king will then approach the opponent's pawn. Black has no satisfactory reply: if %05By} Kb4 (1... Kc6 {%05or} 2. Ke5 Kc5 3. f4 {, and White wins.}) 2. f4 * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1915.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Adamson"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "2K5/k7/7p/8/8/8/6P1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "21"] [EventDate "1915.??.??"] {In the following example White does not let the opponent's king off the rook's file, until he has improved the position of his own king and prepared a zugzwang position.} 1. Kc7 {%05White first aims to eliminate the attack of his pawn from the rear.} (1. g4 {is even more premature. %05 The immediate approach of the king to the pawn does not succeed: when the king captures on h6, Black will have the reply Kf4. And}) 1... Ka6 (1... Ka8 {is decisively met by} 2. g4 Ka7 3. Kd6 {, when Black is too late}) 2. Kc6 Ka5 3. Kc5 Ka4 4. Kc4 Ka3 5. Kc3 Ka2 6. Kc2 Ka3 (6... Ka1 {is bad because of} 7. g4) (6... h5 { is met by %05while} 7. Kd3) 7. g3 {! Only this modest advance of the pawn ensures a win.} (7. g4 {%05If} Kb4 8. Kd3 Kc5 9. Ke4 Kd6 10. Kf5 {, then} h5 {! } 11. gxh5 Ke7 {, and the king reaches the saving f8 square just in time.}) 7... Ka4 {The most tenacious defence.} (7... Ka2 {%05If} 8. g4 {!}) (7... h5 { %05while after} 8. Kd3 Kb4 9. Ke4 Kc5 10. Kf5 {! White wins as in example 71.}) 8. Kc3 {! A necessary finesse. The opponent's king must still be kept at the side of the board.} (8. Kd3 {%05A draw results from} Kb4 9. Ke4 Kc5 10. Kf5 Kd4 {!}) 8... Kb5 9. Kd4 Kc6 10. Ke5 {!} (10. Ke4 {%05not} Kc5 {!} 11. g4 Kd6 12. Kf5 h5 {! with a draw.}) 10... Kc5 11. g4 $18 {, and White wins. Grigoriev, who published this splendid study in the chess column of Izvestiya (1925), pointed out that, with the white pawn at g3, it would not have been possible to win. Let us change the position of the white king.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1952.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Moravec"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/k7/7p/8/8/8/6P1/6K1 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] [EventDate "1952.??.??"] 1. Kf2 {%05As in the previous example, it is pointless to approach the pawn directly: in this case the opponent's king reaches f4 in time. The correct plan is play for a convergence of the kings.} Kb6 2. Ke3 Kc5 3. Ke4 {In moving to meet its opponent, the white king simultaneously approaches the opponent's pawn.} Kd6 (3... Kc4 4. g4) 4. Kf5 Kd5 5. g4 {, and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1948.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Leick"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/7p/8/8/k5P1/3K4/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "1"] [EventDate "1948.??.??"] {%15N T1(d5:h5)clRed WINNING ZONE #B(3D1D1D1D1D1/3D1D1D1D1D1/3D1D1D1D1D1/ 3D1D1D1D1D1/3D1D1D1D1D1/2D1D1D1D1D1D1/2D1D1D1D1D1D1/1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1) #S(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) This position, without the white king, was put forward by the composer with the question: where should White's king be placed, so that he can win? The extent of the white king's winning zone is shown in the diagram. It is clear that from d8,d7, d6, d5, d4, d3, e3, e2, f2, g2, or h2 the king can eliminate the black pawn in 4 moves, while Black is not able to capture the white pawn.} 1. Kc2 {! , when ~3($40107) ~ Adamson's study is reached.^013^010 However, as will be seen, the c2 square does not come^013^010 into the zone, since in this case it is White who is in^013^010 zugzwang. %05With his king at c3, b1, c1, or d2 White wins by} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1952.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Moravec"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/k7/8/1K6/7p/8/6P1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] [EventDate "1952.??.??"] 1. Kc6 {! %05Correct is} (1. Kc5 {%05 Here approaching the pawn with the king does not succeed: Black's king aims for f8, and by a timely ... h3 he saves the game. E.g.} Kb7 2. Kd6 Kc8 3. Ke7 Kc7 4. Kf6 Kd6 5. Kg5 h3 {%04etc.}) 1... Kb8 2. Kd7 {! (in this way White wins an extremely important tempo)} Kb7 3. Ke6 Kc8 4. Kf5 h3 5. gxh3 Kd8 6. Kf6 Ke8 7. Kg7 {, and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1952.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Moravec"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/1K6/7p/k7/6P1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] [EventDate "1952.??.??"] 1. Kc4 {%05To reach the black pawn, White's king requires the same number of moves as its opponent requires to reach the white pawn. The problem is to force the black king, if only once, to mark time on the same file:} Kb2 2. Kd3 Kc1 3. Ke2 Kc2 {(here it is, the required tempo)} 4. Kf3 {, and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1952.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Moravec"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5k1K/8/8/2p5/8/3P4/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] [EventDate "1952.??.??"] 1. Kh8 {! , e.g. %05To save the game, White must manage to reach d5 at the moment when the black king is at d3. The only way to do this is by} Kf6 2. Kg8 Ke5 3. Kf7 Kd4 4. Ke6 Kd3 5. Kd5 {Draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1905.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Duras Oldrich (CZE)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/6p1/7k/8/1K6/8/1P6/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "17"] [EventDate "1905.??.??"] {~14.3 BOTH PAWNS PASSED~ If the pawns of both sides are passed, the result depends on who is the first to queen a pawn. Cases are also possible where the queens appear simultaneously, but either the new-born queen can be won, or mate given. If neither of the pawns can be queened, the ending, naturally, ends in a draw. Apart from the advance of the pawns, a big role is played here by the manoeuvring of the kings. The aims of this manoeuvring can be very varied: the gaining of a tempo, pushing away the opponent's king, or luring it onto an unfavourable square, so that, for example, one's pawn can then be promoted with check or the enemy queen can be won by a double attack, and so on. All these features will be explained in more detail in the analysis of examples.} 1. Kc5 {! Black has two possibilities: %05 The pawns are at an identical distance from the promotion squares, but White's king is more active. It can simultaneously stop the opponent's pawn and support its own, and this proves decisive.} g5 (1... Kg6 2. b4 Kf7 (2... Kf6 {%05if} 3. Kd6 {!}) 3. b5 Ke7 4. Kc6 {!} Kd8 5. Kb7 g5 6. b6 g4 7. Ka7 {, and White wins by queening with check.}) 2. b4 g4 3. Kd4 Kg5 4. b5 g3 (4... Kf4 {%05after} 5. b6 {the pawn queens with check}) 5. Ke3 Kg4 6. b6 Kh3 7. b7 g2 8. Kf2 {, and Black cannot reply} Kh2 {because of} 9. b8=Q+ * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1929.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p7/8/8/2K5/5k2/2P5/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "19"] [EventDate "1929.??.??"] 1. Kd4 {! , maintaining control over the black pawn and "shoulder-charging" the opponent's king. %05Correct is} (1. Kb5 {suggests itself, but after %05Were should the king make for, in order to clear the way %05for its pawn?} Ke4 2. c4 Kd4 3. c5 Kd5 4. c6 Kd6 {Black avoids danger. =}) (1. Kb4 {, after %05Had White played} Ke4 {!} 2. c4 Ke5 {!} 3. c5 Ke6 {the draw would have been obvious.}) 1... Kf4 (1... a5 {%05If now} 2. c4 a4 3. c5 a3 4. Kc3 $18 {and game is over, so Black tries to bring his king into play.}) 2. c4 Kf5 3. Kd5 Kf6 (3... a5 {is not dangerous, since after} 4. c5 {the pawn queens with check} ) 4. Kd6 Kf7 (4... a5 {dos not help, since after a check at h8 the new-born queen is immediately lost. %05Here too}) 5. c5 Ke8 6. Kc7 {!} a5 7. c6 a4 8. Kb7 a3 9. c7 a2 10. c8=Q+ {, and White wins. But White has interesting possibilities after 1. Kb4 Ke3, when the following position is reached.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1931.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p7/8/8/1K6/4k3/2P5/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] [EventDate "1931.??.??"] 1. c4 {%05White succeeds in putting the opponent in zugzwang:} Kd4 2. c5 Ke5 { ! The strongest.} (2... a5+ {, then %05If} 3. Kb5 {!} a4 4. c6 a3 5. c7 a2 6. c8=Q a1=Q 7. Qh8+ {, winning the queen}) (2... Kd5 {%05while after} 3. Kb5 { Black is in zugzwang.}) 3. Ka5 {!} (3. Kb5 {%05But now} Kd5 {leaves White in zugzwang.}) 3... Ke6 4. Ka6 {! , and White wins, e.g.} Kd5 5. Kb5 Ke6 6. Kc6 a5 7. Kb7 {, and the pawn queens with check. This same idea - queening with check - is the basis of the play in the following position.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1952.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Moravec"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/7p/1PK2k2/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] [EventDate "1952.??.??"] 1. b5 Ke5 2. b6 Kd6 3. Kb5 h4 4. Ka6 h3 5. b7 {, and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1928.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/1p6/8/8/6P1/k1K5/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "17"] [EventDate "1928.??.??"] 1. Kc3 {!} (1. g4 {%05The immediate advance of the pawn does not succeed, %05since Black queens a move earlier:} b5 2. g5 b4 3. g6 b3+ 4. Kc3 b2 5. g7 b1=Q 6. g8=Q+ Ka1 {= By skilful manoeuvring White overcomes this difficulty.}) 1... Ka3 2. Kc4 {!} Ka4 3. g4 b5+ 4. Kd3 {! This subtle move is the whole point: in this way White regains his lost tempo} Ka3 (4... b4 {he has the immediately decisive %05since on} 5. Kc2) 5. g5 b4 6. g6 b3 7. g7 b2 8. Kc2 {!} Ka2 {The kings have returned, but the situation has change significantly. After } 9. g8=Q+ {White gives mate.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1928.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/1p6/8/k7/3K4/5P2/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] [EventDate "1928.??.??"] {The following example shows the winning of the new-born queen by a vertical check.} 1. Kd4 {! Now Black has two possibilities:} (1. f4 {is met by} Kb5 { , when Black's king is able either to stop the opponent's pawn, or to queen his own.}) 1... Kb5 (1... b5 2. f4 b4 3. f5 b3 4. Kc3 Ka3 5. f6 b2 6. f7 b1=Q 7. f8=Q+ {, and White either wins the queen or gives mate.}) 2. Kd5 {!} Ka6 3. f4 Kb7 4. f5 Kc7 5. Ke6 Kd8 6. Kf7 {!} b5 7. f6 b4 8. Kg7 {, and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1938.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Mandler Artur"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1pK5/8/8/8/8/k4P2/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] [EventDate "1938.??.??"] 1. Kd6 {!} (1. Kxb7 {%05After} Kb3 {Black succeeds in eliminating the white pawn. =}) 1... Ka3 {!} (1... b5 {, then %05if} 2. Kc5 {!} Kb3 3. Kxb5 Kc3 4. Kc5 Kd3 5. Kd5 $18 {, and the king manages to defend the pawn}) 2. Kc5 {!} Ka4 3. f4 b5 4. f5 b4 5. Kc4 {! (now White lures the king to a3)} b3 6. Kc3 Ka3 7. f6 b2 8. f7 $18 {, and White wins ~3 ($40118)~} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1952.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Moravec"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "6K1/3k4/p7/8/8/8/4P3/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] [EventDate "1952.??.??"] {Some of the unexpected finesses which are possible in this ending are shown by the following study.} 1. Kf7 Kd6 2. Kf6 Kd5 3. Kf5 a5 4. e4+ Kc6 {!} 5. e5 a4 6. e6 a3 7. Kg6 {! %05But White's play can be improved:} (7. Kf6 {%05Black appears to have won the battle - after} a2 $19 {his pawn queens with check.}) 7... a2 8. e7 {= Draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1968.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Iriarte"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/1k4K1/1p6/8/8/4P3/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "12"] [EventDate "1968.??.??"] {The Argentinian chess composer Iriarte has composed several studies, which essentially demonstrate one and the same procedure: how to avoid the enemy pawn queening with check.} 1. Kf5 {!} Kc5 2. Kf4 {! Only in this way can the king safely leave the dangerous diagonal.} (2. Ke4 {? %05After} Kc4 3. Ke3 Kc3 4. Kf2 b4 5. e4 Kd4 6. Kf3 b3 {Black wins.}) 2... b4 3. Ke3 Kc4 4. Kd2 Kb3 5. e4 Ka2 6. e5 b3 {, and the queens appear simultaneously. Draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/1k4K1/1p6/8/8/3P4/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "8"] 1. Kf5 {%05Had the white pawn been at d2, the draw would have been achieved differently:} Kc5 2. Ke5 (2. Ke4 {%05or} Kc4 3. Ke3 b4 4. Ke2 {!} (4. d4 {?} b3 5. Kd2 Kxd4 $19) 4... b3 (4... Kb3 5. d4 {=}) 5. Kd1 {=}) 2... b4 3. d4+ Kc4 4. d5 b3 {%04etc. =} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1968.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Iriarte"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/1k4K1/1p6/8/8/6P1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "8"] [EventDate "1968.??.??"] 1. Kf5 {!} Kc5 2. Ke4 {!} Kc4 3. Ke3 Kc3 {, and now the pawn can be advanced:} 4. g4 b4 {etc. Draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1943.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Prokop Frantisek Josef (CZE)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/7p/8/3K1k2/8/3P4/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] [EventDate "1943.??.??"] {In the following examples too, White manages to avoid stepping on a "mined" square.} 1. Kd4 {!} (1. Kc5 {%05The natural} h5 2. d4 h4 3. d5 h3 4. d6 { loses after} Ke6 {, since the king is forced onto the fatal c6 square. The draw is achieved by subtle manoeuvring, with the aim of diverting the black king from e6.}) 1... Kf4 {(otherwise 2. Ke3)} 2. Kc5 h5 3. d4 h4 4. d5 Ke5 5. d6 Ke6 6. Kc6 {(White has managed to gain a tempo, and now this move has become possible)} h3 7. d7 {Draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1941.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Moravec"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5p2/8/8/1K1k4/8/1P6/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] [EventDate "1941.??.??"] 1. Kb3 {! %05An original king manoeuvre saves the draw:} (1. Ka5 {? %05If White immediately leads his pawn forward, this ends catastrophically for him:} f5 2. b4 f4 3. b5 Kc5 {!} 4. b6 Kc6 5. Ka6 f3 6. b7 f2 7. b8=Q f1=Q+ 8. Ka5 Qa1+ {, and Black wins the queen.}) 1... Kd3 2. Ka2 {!!} f5 3. b4 Kc4 4. b5 {!} (4. Kb2 {?} Kxb4 5. Kc2 Kc4 {leads to a loss}) 4... Kxb5 5. Kb3 {Draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1952.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Moravec"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/1K1pk3/8/8/1P6/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] [EventDate "1952.??.??"] 1. Kb4 {! %05The draw is achieved by} (1. b4 {%05After} d4 2. Kc4 Ke4 3. b5 d3 {White loses his queen.}) 1... Ke4 (1... Kd4 {, then %05If instead Black replies} 2. Ka5 {! followed by the advance of the pawn becomes possible.}) 2. Kc3 Ke3 3. Kc2 Ke2 4. Kc3 {=} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1921.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Reti Richard (CZE)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "7K/8/k1P5/7p/8/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1921.??.??"] {In conclusion we give a group of positions, in which the theme of the play is king manoeuvring with a double aim. We have already met a number of such manoeuvring comprises the entire strategy of the play. We will begin with a famous study, in which this idea was the first expressed in striking form.} 1. Kg7 {For the moment the king does not appear to be threatening anything, so Black has a choice: %05White's king is hopelessly behind the opponent's pawn, whereas its black opponent is ready to eliminate the white pawn. At first sight the task seems impracticable, but nevertheless...} Kb6 (1... h4 2. Kf6 h3 {(the pawn has escaped, but...)} 3. Ke7 h2 4. c7 Kb7 5. Kd7 {with a draw.}) 2. Kf6 h4 3. Ke5 {(threatening 4. Kf4)} h3 4. Kd6 {(the king has unexpectedly ended up beside the pawn)} h2 5. c7 Kb7 6. Kd7 {, and the draw is obvious. Reti's original idea, which later the chess Composer Gurvich picturesquely called "chasing two birds", made a strong impression in its time, stimulated a search for similar positions, and considerably enriched chess theory. Reti himself returned several times to this theme.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1922.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Reti Richard (CZE)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/k6p/2P5/K7/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] [EventDate "1922.??.??"] 1. c6 (1. Kb4 h5 2. c6 {is also possible.}) 1... h5 (1... Kb6 {, then %05if} 2. Kb4 h5 3. Kc4 Kxc6 4. Kd4 {=}) 2. Kb4 Kb6 (2... h4 {%05or} 3. Kc5 {!} h3 4. Kd6 {=}) 3. Kc4 {!} h4 4. Kd5 {!} Kc7 5. Ke4 {Draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1928.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Reti Richard (CZE)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/6p1/k1P2p1p/7K/8/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] [EventDate "1928.??.??"] 1. Kg6 {Black has three possibilities, but they all lead to a draw: %05Here the draw seems even more improbable. After} Kb6 (1... h5 2. Kxg7 h4 3. Kxf6 {=} ) (1... f5 2. Kxg7 f4 3. Kf6 f3 4. Ke7 {=}) 2. Kxg7 h5 (2... f5 3. Kf6 f4 4. Ke5 f3 5. Kd6 {=}) 3. Kxf6 {, and then as in example ~3 ($40127)~.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1922.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Rinck Henri (FRA)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/8/8/P4p2/k6K/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] [EventDate "1922.??.??"] 1. a4 {%05Thanks to the fortunate position of his king, White is able to refute Black's plan:} Kb3 2. a5 Kc3 (2... Kc4 3. a6 Kd3 4. a7 f2 5. a8=Q f1=Q 6. Qa6+ {leads to the loss of the queen.}) 3. Kg1 {! The only move to win.} (3. a6 {? %05If} Kd2 {!}) (3. Kg3 {%05or} Kd4 {!} 4. a6 Ke3 {with a draw.}) 3... Kd4 4. a6 Ke3 5. Kf1 $18 {, and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1922.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Adamson"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/7K/k1P5/p7/8/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] [EventDate "1922.??.??"] 1. Kg6 a4 2. Kf5 a3 (2... Kb6 {%05or} 3. Ke5 {!} a3 (3... Kxc6 4. Kd4) 4. Kd6 { =}) 3. Ke6 {=} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1946.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Prokes Ladislav (CZE)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "6K1/8/p7/8/7k/5P2/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1946.??.??"] 1. Kf7 {%05Correct is} (1. f4 {? is wrong:} Kg4 2. Kf7 Kf5 $19) 1... a5 2. f4 { !} (2. Ke6 {? %05but not} a4 3. f4 a3 4. f5 a2 5. f6 a1=Q 6. f7 Qa3 $19 { , when Black wins}) 2... a4 (2... Kg4 {%05or} 3. Ke6 a4 4. f5 {with a draw}) 3. f5 a3 4. f6 a2 5. Kg8 {!} (5. Ke7 {? , then after %05Had White played} a1=Q 6. f7 Qe5+ 7. Kf8 Kg5 $19 {Black would have won.}) 5... a1=Q 6. f7 {Draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1952.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Moravec"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1p6/8/8/k7/7K/3P4/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1952.??.??"] 1. Kg4 {%05Here the play is more complicated, since it involves pawn advances:} b5 (1... Kb3 {, then %05There is nothing better. If} 2. Kf5 Kc4 3. Ke5 Kd3 ( 3... b5 4. d4 {, and the queens appear simultaneously}) 4. Kd5 {with a draw.}) 2. d4 b4 3. d5 {!} Kb5 4. d6 {!} Kc6 5. Kf5 b3 6. Ke6 {Draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1948.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Leick"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/1p6/8/8/4k3/6PK/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] [EventDate "1948.??.??"] {The composer analyzed this position for the most varied positions of the white king. He established that, wherever his king stands, White cannot win, but he loses only if his king is on one of the following 6 squares: a8, b8, c8, g3, h1 or h8.} 1. g4 {%05In all other cases the game ends in a draw. E.g., with the king at h2:} Kf4 2. g5 {! (the standard pawn sacrifice)} Kxg5 3. Kg3 { =} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "3K4/8/1p6/8/8/4k3/6P1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] 1. g4 {%05And with king at d8 the draw is achieved by "chasing two birds":} Kf4 2. Ke7 b5 3. Kf6 {!} Kxg4 4. Ke5 {= , and the king enters the "square" of the pawn. A study with similar king manoeuvres, combined with a pawn sacrifice, was earlier created by the Dutch study composer Feijter.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1939.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Feijter"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "K7/8/p7/1k6/5P2/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1939.??.??"] 1. Kb7 a5 2. Kc7 Kc5 3. Kd7 Kd5 4. Ke7 Ke4 {(White's resources appear to be exhausted, but...)} 5. Ke6 {!} Kxf4 6. Kd5 {Draw. This idea of a deceptive king move was first employed in practice by Emanuel Lasker in a game against Tarrasch (St. Petersburg, 1914). It was first expressed in a study in 1930 by Grigoriev.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1947.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Prokes Ladislav (CZE)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "3K4/7p/3k4/P7/8/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] [EventDate "1947.??.??"] {Among the numerous studies on this theme with the given balance of forces the following is perhaps the most successful.} 1. Kc8 Kc6 2. Kb8 Kb5 3. Kb7 {!} Kxa5 4. Kc6 {= , and the king has entered the "square" of the pawn.} * [Event "St. Petersburg (Russia)"] [Site "St. Petersburg (Russia)"] [Date "1914.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Lasker Emanuel (GER)"] [Black "Tarrasch Siegbert (GER)"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/6K1/8/ppp2k2/8/1P6/1P5P/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] [EventDate "1914.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ329 %212045826630=4HLJ335} 1. h4 {! %05The continuation was} Kg4 2. Kg6 {!} Kxh4 3. Kf5 {= , and it was now Black who had to fight for a draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/5kP1/4p2P/4K3/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "4"] {~15. TWO PAWNS AGAINST ONE~ Practice has shown that, the more pawns there are on the board, the greater the importance of one side being a pawn up. Therefore with two pawns against one the material advantage must be considered minimal. As a rule, it is nevertheless sufficient for a win, although there are numerous exceptions. The most favourable positions for the stronger side are those where his pawns stand at some greater or lesser distance from the enemy pawn, and his king is in front of the pawns. Therefore one should as far as possible avoid the premature advance of the pawns, and in particular their maximum convergence (blocking). As the basis for arranging the material we have taken the pawn structure in combination with the presence or absence of a passed pawn for the stronger side. It has therefore been divided into the following three main groups: 5.1 Connected pawns. 5.2 Isolated pawns. 5.3 Doubled pawns. In each of these groups the task is to differentiate between those cases where the possibility of a draw is caused by the position itself, and those where a draw is gained (or eliminated) by the employment of certain methods. ~15.1 CONNECTED PAWNS~ ~15.11 All pawns passed~ If all the pawns are passed, the question is whether or not the stronger side's king can stop the enemy passed pawn. If it can, play reduces to a straightforward ending of king and two connected pawns against king. But if the pawn cannot be stopped, the material advantage of course loses its significance, and everything depends on who is the first to obtain a queen. The following examples illustrate both the normal course of play, and also certain exceptions, caused in the main by the proximity of the edge of the board.} 1... Ke5 {%05Black is faced with an impossible task - that of restraining the enemy pawns and defending his own. If it is Black to play, he loses immediately:} 2. g6 Kf6 3. h5 $18 * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/5kP1/4p2P/4K3/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] 1. Kf2 {%05If White begins, he must give his opponent the move. He achieves this by a familiar procedure - "triangulation":} Kg6 2. Ke2 (2. Kg2 { %05However,} Kf5 3. Kg3 {is also possible.}) 2... Kf5 3. Ke3 $18 {and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "6k1/8/5KPP/8/8/4p3/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "10"] 1... e2 {%05Here White carries out a mating attack. For example, with Black to move:} 2. h7+ Kh8 3. Kf7 e1=Q 4. g7+ Kxh7 5. g8=Q+ Kh6 6. Qg6# {mate.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "6k1/8/5KPP/8/8/4p3/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] 1. g7 {%05If White begins, he can also give mate in a different way:} e2 2. Kg6 e1=Q 3. h7# {mate.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "6k1/8/5KPP/8/8/1p6/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] 1... b2 {%05Had the black pawn been at b3, with Black to move White would have been unable to win:} 2. h7+ Kh8 3. Kf7 b1=Q 4. g7+ Kxh7 5. g8=Q+ Kh6 {, and there is no mate, since g6 is controlled by the queen. =} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1928.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Gorgiev Tigran B (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2p4K/8/7k/8/8/6PP/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] [EventDate "1928.??.??"] {Now we consider a case where, due to the unfortunate position of his king, it is the stronger side that has to aim for a draw. The procedure used here is that of sacrificing a pawn with the aim of entering the "square" of the opponent's passed pawn.} 1. g4+ {!} Kxg4 (1... Kg5 {%05Declining the pawn sacrifice does not help:} 2. Kg7 {!} (2. h4+ {? %05but not} Kxh4 3. Kg6 Kxg4 4. Kf6 Kf4 $19 {and wins}) 2... c5 3. h4+ {! and now either} Kxh4 (3... Kxg4 { %05or} 4. Kg6 Kxh4 5. Kf5 {with a draw.}) 4. Kf6 c4 5. g5 {=}) 2. Kg6 c5 { (otherwise 3. Kf6)} 3. h4 {! Draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1948.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Prokes Ladislav (CZE)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "5K2/1p6/8/8/3Pk3/4P3/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] [EventDate "1948.??.??"] 1. Ke7 {(threatening 2. Ke6)} Kd5 2. Kd7 {!} b5 3. e4+ Kxd4 (3... Kxe4 4. Kc6 b4 5. d5) 4. Kd6 Kxe4 5. Kc5 {Draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/1k6/pP6/P7/2K5/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "24"] {If only one of the two connected pawns is passed, two types of pawn formation are possible: (a) an immobile formation, where the weaker side's pawn is blocked; (b) a mobile formation, where all the pawns retain the possibility of moving. ~15.12 One passed pawn, pawns blocked~ In this group of endings the stronger side has a protected passed pawn, restricting the mobility of the enemy king, as a result of which a positional advantage is added to the material one. Nevertheless, here too draw positions are possible, in particular with pawns at the side of the board. We will first consider the pawn formation where the protected passed pawn is closer to the centre, and the immobile pawn supporting it is closer to the side of the board. In these positions the stronger side's king supports the passed pawn, which normally ensures an easy win. Exceptions occur mainly with wing pawns which are too far advanced, or, on the contrary, with pawns which are therefore the most important practical positions with wing pawns, remembering that the features caused by the proximity of the pawns to the side of the board will disappear as the pawns approach the central files.} 1... Kc5 {%05White wins by occupying c5 with his king. Black can create only a temporary hindrance.} 2. Kd3 Kd5 3. Ke3 Ke5 4. Kf3 Kd5 {(the king must of course remain within the "square" of the b5 pawn)} 5. Kf4 Kd6 6. Ke4 Ke6 7. Kd4 Kd6 8. Kc4 Kc7 9. Kd5 {!} (9. Kc5 { , in view of %05Not immediately} Kb7 10. b6 {?} Ka6 {with a draw. The c5 square must be occupied when black king is at b7. Of course, in an analogous position moved to the right there will be no stalemate, and the necessity for such manoeuvring will not arise.}) 9... Kb6 (9... Kd7 10. b6 Kc8 11. Kc6 $18) 10. Kd6 Kb7 11. Kc5 Kc7 12. b6+ Kb7 13. Kb5 $18 {, and White wins. From the finish it will be apparent that a win is not possible in the position moved one rank up the board, since the concluding moves lead to stalemate.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1930.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/4K1k1/6Pp/7P/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] [EventDate "1930.??.??"] {The king manoeuvring in such situations may also prove to be rather more complicated.} 1. Kd6 {!} Kf7 2. Kd7 Kf8 (2... Kg7 3. Ke7 Kg6 4. Ke6) 3. Ke6 Kg7 4. Kf5 $18 {, and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1930.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Selezniev Alexei"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p7/1p6/8/P3k3/2K5/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "8"] [EventDate "1930.??.??"] {The stalemate shown in the note to White's 9th move in example ~3( 146)~ can be achieved by force in certain positions.} 1. a5 {!} b5 2. a6 Kd5 3. Kb4 Kc6 4. Ka5 Kc5 {Stalemate.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2k5/1pP5/1P6/3K4/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] 1. Kd5 {%05White wins easily by sacrificing his passed pawn at the appropriate moment, and penetrating into the critical zone of the black pawn:} Kc8 2. Kd6 ( 2. Ke6 Kc7 3. Ke7 Kc8 4. c7 $18) 2... Kd8 3. c7+ Kc8 4. Ke6 Kxc7 5. Ke7 $18 { %04etc. If the position is moved a further file to the right, another solution becomes possible: White transfers his king to a5, and in reply to ... Kb7 continues d6-d7. With a protected passed pawn on the 6th rank, such a sacrifice is a typical procedure.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "2k5/1pP5/1P6/3K4/8/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "0"] {An obvious draw results in positions of type ~3( 149)~ , moved as far up the board as possible. But if this position is moved one file to the right, it will no longer be a draw, since the white king acquires the possibility of a by-pass to the left.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/8/2k5/1pP5/1P6/3K4 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "0"] {In the position in question is moved as afar down the board as possible, White to play can no longer win, since if his king moves away Black has time to win the rear pawn and to queen his own. But if this position is moved one file to the right, White acquires the additional possibility of a by-pass to the left and can win.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/8/3k4/2pP4/2P5/4K3 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "4"] 1... Ke3 {%05For example:} 2. Kd1 {, and if} Kd4 (2... Kf3 {%05or} 3. Kc1 $18 { etc. ~3($4016)~}) 3. Ke2 $18 * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/3k4/2pP4/2P5/2K5/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "3"] {Some peculiar features are displayed by the following position - with the same pawn formation, but moved one rank up the board.} 1. Kc1 {leads to a win. Indeed, in this case White remains at the same distance from the d2 and a3 squares, whereas Black is forced to move away from one of the corresponding squares - e4 or b5. E.g., %05Euwe (1940) showed that} (1. Kd2 Ke4 2. Ke2 Kf4 3. Kf2 Ke4 4. Kg3 Kd3 5. d5 Kxc3 6. d6 Kb2 7. d7 c3 8. d8=R c2 {= with a draw (Black has a bishop's pawn, and the white king is far away).}) (1. Kd1 { is also possible, e.g. %05 Cheron (1952) repeated Euwe's indication, and other authors declared 1. Kc1 to be the only move to win.^013^010 But in fact any move by the white king wins. 1. Kc1! is simplest, but} Ke4 2. Kd2 Kd5 (2... Kf4 {%05or} 3. Kc2 $18) 3. Ke3 $18) 1... Ke4 {(otherwise 2. Kd2 and 3. Ke3)} 2. Kb2 $40 {%04etc. That which has been stated in examples ~3( 146) - ( 152)~ shows that, the further the pawns are from the side of the board, the fewer the drawing chances for the weaker side; and for central pawns (on the d- and e-files) there are altogether none.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2k5/8/8/Pp6/1P6/6K1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "1"] {If the protected passed pawn is closer to the side of the board, and the immobile pawn is closer to the centre, the stronger side's king can no longer give its passed pawn direct support, and the manoeuvring of the kings takes on a quite different character. The essence of this manoeuvring is disclosed in the following examples. The manoeuvrability of the black king is restricted by the a4 pawn: it must remain within its "square", and at the same time defend the critical squares of the b4 pawn. The squares along the lines c4-e4 and e4-e8 are the boundary of Black's critical zone, the main line of his defence. %15N #B(I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/8/8/8) #S (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/2XAXAXA3/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kf3 { and 2. Ke4, occupying one of the critical squares. %05 For the play in such positions, old books give the following recipe: "Assume the opposition and then retain it on each move". But in the given position this rule does not work. If it is White to move, assuming the opposition (1. Kg3) does in fact win, but it is much simpler to play %15N #B(I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/ I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/ 2XAXAXA3/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2k5/8/8/Pp6/1P6/6K1/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] {%15N #B(I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1C1C1C13/8/8/8) #S (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/2XAXAXA3/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1... Kd6 { %15N #B(I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1C1C1C13/8/8/8) #S (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/303I04I03D04D03D/302I01I02D01D02D/2XA03I04I03D04D03D/ 302D01D02D01D02D/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) ! (rejecting the opposition!) gives a draw. vivid example of how ruinous a mechanical use^013^010 of the opposition can be!^013^010 Black merely has to defend the invasion squares, and if it is him to move he is perfectly^013^010 capable of doing this. ^013^010 In 1922 Grigoriev showed that, as long as the white king is moving along the 2nd rank, it^013^010 is sufficient for Black to move his king between d6 and e6, but as soon as the white king^013^010 steps onto the 3rd rank a precise choice of corresponding square becomes essential.^013^010 To Ke3 or Kg3 Black must answer ... Ke5!, while to Kd3, Kf3 orKh3 his only reply is^013^010 ... Kd5! Therefore Black must aim to occupy d6 or e6 as soon as possible, regardless^013^010 of opposition considerations.^013^010 Now it becomes clear why, if it is Black to move, he must play 1... Kd6! The white king^013^010 is ready to step onto the 3r rank, so that Black's relies must be extremely precise. E.g. %05The situation is even more striking with Black to move:} (1... Kc6 {? (taking the opposition) loses. %15 N #B(I1I1I1I1I13/ I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1C1C1C13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (8/8/303I04I03D04D03D/302I01I02D01D02D/2XA03I04I03D04D03D/302D01D02D01D02D/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kg3 {! %05After the incorrect 1... Kc6? White continues so as to prevent Black from taking the close opposition: %15N #B (I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1C1C1C13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/303I04I03D04D03D/302I01I02D01D02D/2XA03I04I03D04D03D/ 302D01D02D01D02D/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (2. Kf3 {? %15 N #B(I1I1I1I1I13/ I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (8/8/303I04I03D04D03D/302I01I02D01D02D/2XA03I04I03D04D03D/302D01D02D01D02D/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd5 {%15N #B(I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/ I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/303I04I03D04D03D/ 302I01I02D01D02D/2XA03I04I03D04D03D/302D01D02D01D02D/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)}) 2... Kc5 {%15N #B(I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1C1C1C13/ 8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/303I04I03D04D03D/302I01I02D01D02D/ 2XA03I04I03D04D03D/302D01D02D01D02D/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (2... Kd6 { , then %05if %15 N #B(I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/ I1I1C1C1C13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/303I04I03D04D03D/ 302I01I02D01D02D/2XA03I04I03D04D03D/302D01D02D01D02D/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kf4 {! %15 N #B(I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1C1C1C13/ 8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/303I04I03D04D03D/302I01I02D01D02D/ 2XA03I04I03D04D03D/302D01D02D01D02D/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd5 {%15N #B (I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1C1C1C13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/303I04I03D04D03D/302I01I02D01D02D/2XA03I04I03D04D03D/ 302D01D02D01D02D/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kf5 {invading the critical zone %15 N #B(I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1C1C1C13/8/8/8) #S (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/303IXA03D04D03D/302IXA02D01D02D/2XA03IXA03D04D03D/ 302D01D02D01D02D/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)}) 3. Kg4 {! exploiting the fact that c4 is inaccessible to Black %15N #B(I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/ I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1C1C1C13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/303I04I03D04D03D/ 302I01I02D01D02D/2XA03I04I03D04D03D/302D01D02D01D02D/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (3. Kf4 {? is met by %05But now %15 N #B(I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/ I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1C1C1C13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/303I04I03D04D03D/ 302I01I02D01D02D/2XA03I04I03D04D03D/302D01D02D01D02D/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd4 {= %15 N #B(I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1C1C1C13/8/ 8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/303I04I03D04D03D/302I01I02D01D02D/ 2XA03I04I03D04D03D/302D01D02D01D02D/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)}) 3... Kc6 { %15N #B(I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1C1C1C13/8/8/8) #S (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/303I04I03D04D03D/302I01I02D01D02D/2XA03I04I03D04D03D/ 302D01D02D01D02D/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kf4 {! %15 N #B(I1I1I1I1I13/ I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1C1C1C13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (8/8/303I04I03D04D03D/302I01I02D01D02D/2XA03I04I03D04D03D/302D01D02D01D02D/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd5 {%15N #B(I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/ I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1C1C1C13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/303I04I03D04D03D/ 302I01I02D01D02D/2XA03IXA03D04D03D/302D01D02D01D02D/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kf5 $18 {and wins. White has gained the opposition on one of the main ranks (here there are three: 5th, 6th and 7th). %15N #B(I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/ I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1C1C1C13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/ 303I04I03D04D03D/302I01I02D01D02D/2XA03IXA03D04D03D/302D01D02D01D02D/8/8) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)}) 2. Kg3 {%15 N #B(I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/ I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1C1C1C13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/303I04I03D04D03D/ 302I01I02D01D02D/2XA03I04I03D04D03D/302D01D02D01D02D/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (2. Kh3 {%05If after %15 N #B(I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/ I1I1C1C1C13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/303I04I03D04D03D/ 302I01I02D01D02D/2XA03I04I03D04D03D/302D01D02D01D02D/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd5 {! White moves his king up the h-file, Black should keep his king on the d-file, retaining the possibility of taking the close opposition. E.g. %15N #B (I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1C1C1C13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/303I04I03D04D03D/302I01I02D01D02D/2XA03I04I03D04D03D/ 302D01D02D01D02D/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kh4 {%15N #B(I1I1I1I1I13/ I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1C1C1C13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (8/8/303I04I03D04D03D/302I01I02D01D02D/2XA03I04I03D04D03D/302D01D02D01D02D/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd4 {! %15 N #B(I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/ I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1C1C1C13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/303I04I03D04D03D/ 302I01I02D01D02D/2XA03I04I03D04D03D/302D01D02D01D02D/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kg4 {%15N #B(I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1C1C1C13/8/ 8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/303I04I03D04D03D/302I01I02D01D02D/ 2XA03I04I03D04D03D/302D01D02D01D02D/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke4 {! %15 N #B (I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1C1C1C13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/303I04I03D04D03D/302I01I02D01D02D/2XA03I04I03D04D03D/ 302D01D02D01D02D/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kh5 {%15N #B(I1I1I1I1I13/ I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1C1C1C13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (8/8/303I04I03D04D03D/302I01I02D01D02D/2XA03I04I03D04D03D/302D01D02D01D02D/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd5 {! %15 N #B(I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/ I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1C1C1C13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/303I04I03D04D03D/ 302I01I02D01D02D/2XA03I04I03D04D03D/302D01D02D01D02D/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Kh6 {%15N #B(I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1C1C1C13/8/ 8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/303I04I03D04D03D/302I01I02D01D02D/ 2XA03I04I03D04D03D/302D01D02D01D02D/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd6 {! %15 N #B (I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1C1C1C13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/303I04I03D04D03D/302I01I02D01D02D/2XA03I04I03D04D03D/ 302D01D02D01D02D/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 7. Kg6 {%15N #B(I1I1I1I1I13/ I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1C1C1C13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (8/8/303I04I03D04D03D/302I01I02D01D02D/2XA03I04I03D04D03D/302D01D02D01D02D/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke6 {!= %04etc. %15 N #B(I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/ I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1C1C1C13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/ 303I04I03D04D03D/302I01I02D01D02D/2XA03I04I03D04D03D/302D01D02D01D02D/8/8) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)}) 2... Ke5 {! %15 N #B(I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/ I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1C1C1C13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/303I04I03D04D03D/ 302I01I02D01D02D/2XA03I04I03D04D03D/302D01D02D01D02D/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kf3 {%15N #B(I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1C1C1C13/8/ 8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/303I04I03D04D03D/302I01I02D01D02D/ 2XA03IXA03D04D03D/302D01D02D01D02D/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd5 {! %15 N #B (I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1C1C1C13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/303I04I03D04D03D/302I01I02D01D02D/2XA03IXA03D04D03D/ 302D01D02D01D02D/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kf4 {%15N #B(I1I1I1I1I13/ I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1C1C1C13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (8/8/303I04I03D04D03D/302I01I02D01D02D/2XA03IXA03D04D03D/302D01D02D01D02D/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd4 {! %15 N #B(I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/ I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1C1C1C13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/303I04I03D04D03D/ 302I01I02D01D02D/2XA03IXA03D04D03D/302D01D02D01D02D/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kf5 {%15N #B(I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1C1C1C13/8/ 8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/303I04I03D04D03D/302I01I02D01D02D/ 2XA03IXA03D04D03D/302D01D02D01D02D/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd5 {! The fact that, at the main line of defence, the corresponding squares fully coincide here with the concept of opposition is merely a feature of the given position. %15N #B(I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1C1C1C13/8/8/8) #S (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/303I04I03D04D03D/302I01I02D01D02D/2XA03IXA03D04D03D/ 302D01D02D01D02D/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (5... Kc3 {? %05of course, not} 6. a5 $18) * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1925.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Dedrle Frantishek (CZE)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/8/Pp2k3/1P6/6K1/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "3"] [EventDate "1925.??.??"] {We now give four examples by Dedrle (1925) with the same pawn formation, but with the same different king positions, illustrating the possibility or otherwise of taking the opposition on the main ranks: %15N #B(I1I1I1I1I13/ I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I16/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/ 303I04I03D04D03D/302I01I02D01D02D/2XA03I04I03D04D03D/302D01D02D01D02D/503D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1... Kd4 {! %05Draw, whoever it is to move: %15 N #B (I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1C1C1C13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/303I04I03D04D03D/302I01I02D01D02D/2XA03I04I03D04D03D/ 302D01D02D01D02D/503D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kf2 {%15N #B(I1I1I1I1I13/ I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1C1C1C13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (8/8/303I04I03D04D03D/302I01I02D01D02D/2XA03I04I03D04D03D/302D01D02D01D02D/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke4 {! %04etc. %15 N #B(I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/ I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1C1C1C13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/ 303I04I03D04D03D/302I01I02D01D02D/2XA03I04I03D04D03D/302D01D02D01D02D/8/8) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1925.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Dedrle Frantishek (CZE)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/4k3/Pp6/1P4K1/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "0"] [EventDate "1925.??.??"] {White wins only if it is Black to move. %15N #B(I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/ I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1C1C1C13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/ 303I04I03D04D03D/302I01I02D01D02D/2XA03I04I03D04D03D/302D01D02D01D02D/8/8) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1925.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Dedrle Frantishek (CZE)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/4k3/8/Pp4K1/1P6/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "0"] [EventDate "1925.??.??"] {White wins whoever it is to move (in this example the critical square is e4). %15N #B(I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1C1C1C13/8/8/8) #S (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/303I04I03D04D03D/302I01I02D01D02D/2XA03I04I03D04D03D/ 302D01D02D01D02D/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1925.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Dedrle Frantishek (CZE)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/2k3K1/8/Pp6/1P6/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "3"] [EventDate "1925.??.??"] {%15N #B(I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1C1C1C13/8/8/8) #S (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/303I04I03D04D03D/201I02I01I02D01D02D/ 2XA03I04I03D04D03D/302D01D02D01D02D/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kg5 {%05White wins whoever it is to move: %15 N #B(I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/ I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1C1C1C13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/303I04I03D04D03D/ 201I02I01I02D01D02D/2XA03I04I03D04D03D/302D01D02D01D02D/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8)} Kc5 {%15N #B(I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1C1C1C13/8/ 8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/303I04I03D04D03D/302I01I02D01D02D/ 2XA03I04I03D04D03D/302D01D02D01D02D/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kg4 {! The close opposition (Kg6-Ke6) would assure Black of a draw, but the distant opposition loses due to the presence of the "crucial" c4 square. ^013^010 %15 N #B(I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1C1C1C13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/303I04I03D04D03D/302I01I02D01D02D/2XA03I04I03D04D03D/ 302D01D02D01D02D/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/3k4/Pp6/1P6/8/8/7K b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "6"] {%15N #B(I1I1I1I14/I1I1I1I14/I1I1I1I14/I1I1C1C1C13/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/2XAXAXA3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1... Kd5 {%05If the protected passed pawn has reached the 5th rank, i.e. it has crossed the middle of the board, one o the critical squares of the enemy pawn (in this case e5) ends up outside the "square" within which Black must keep his king, and this immediately shows that his position is indefensible, wherever his king stands and whoever it is to move. E.g. %15N #B(I1I1I1I14/I1I1I1I14/I1I1I1I14/ I1I1C1C1C13/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/2XAXAXA3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8)} 2. Kg2 {%15N #B(I1I1I1I14/I1I1I1I14/I1I1I1I14/I1I1C1C1C13/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/2XAXAXA3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc6 { %15N #B(I1I1I1I14/I1I1I1I14/I1I1I1I14/I1I1C1C1C13/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/2XAXAXA3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kf3 {%15N #B(I1I1I1I14/ I1I1I1I14/I1I1I1I14/I1I1C1C1C13/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/2XAXAXA3/ 8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd5 {%15N #B(I1I1I1I14/I1I1I1I14/I1I1I1I14/ I1I1C1C1C13/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/2XAXAXA3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8)} 4. Ke3 $18 {%15N #B(I1I1I1I14/I1I1I1I14/I1I1I1I14/I1I1C1C1C13/8/8/8/ 8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/2XAXAXA3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) , and wins. In positions ~3( 154) - ( 160)~ it is easily established that neither the character of the play nor the result changes, if they are moved one file to the right. In positions ~3 ( 154) - ( 159)~ where the protected passed pawn has not reached the 5th rank, the result, as we have seen, depends on the placing of the kings. If an invasion of the critical zone is not possible, a draw is inevitable.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/8/2k5/Pp6/1P6/2K5 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "6"] 1. Kd2 {%05After} Kd4 2. Ke2 Ke4 3. Kf2 {Black continue either} Kf4 {=} (3... Kd3 {followed by capturing on b2. %05or}) * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/2k5/Pp6/1P6/2K5/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "0"] {%15N #B(I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/I1I1C1C1C13/8/8/8) #S (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/303I04I03D04D03D/201I02I01I02D01D02D/ 2XA03I04I03D04D03D/302D01D02D01D02D/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) Here the pawns stand one rank further up, and the latter possibility no longer works (Black defends as in example ~3( 1540)~ . The attack on the pawn also does not work when the position is moved one file to the right.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/3k4/1Pp5/2P5/3K4/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] {If the kings are replaced at g3 and e5 respectively, Black does not lose even if it is him to move.} 1... Ke4 2. Ke2 Kf4 3. Kf2 Ke4 4. Kg3 Ke5 {!= gives a draw %05only} (4... Kd3 {?} 5. b5 Kxc3 6. b6 Kd2 7. b7 c3 8. b8=Q c2 9. Qb2 Kd1 10. Kf2 {, and if} c1=Q {%04then} 11. Qe2# {mate. This finish proved possible, because the white king was sufficiently close.}) * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/4k3/1Pp5/2P3K1/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] 1... Ke4 {! %05Exploiting the fact that he has a bishop's pawn, black can play} 2. Kg4 Ke5 {!} 3. Kg5 Ke4 {!} 4. Kf6 Kd3 {! , with a draw since the white king has moved away from f3.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/8/1k1p4/1P6/2P5/2K5 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "1"] {~15.13 One passed pawn, pawns mobile~ In this group of endings the stronger side has a passed pawn, but the pawns are not blocked. This mobile structure, in which all the pawns retain the possibility of advancing, possesses certain features which were discovered by Grigoriev.} 1. Kd2 {and 2. Kd3 etc. %05White to move wins simply by} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/8/1k1p4/1P6/2P5/2K5 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] 1... Kc3 {! %05But if it is Black to move he can draw by} (1... d3 {? fails to %05The attempt to undermine the pawn chain immediately %05by} 2. c4 $18 {!}) 2. Kd1 (2. Kb1 {%05or} d3 3. cxd3 Kxb3 {=}) 2... d3 3. cxd3 Kxd3 {! =} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/1k1p4/1P6/2P5/2K5/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] 1... d4 {%04Now %05 But if the position is moved one rank up the board, the c-pawn no longer has the right to advance two squares, and along with 1... Kc4 Black can play} 2. cxd4 {is met by} Kc4 {! , when White is in zugzwang; ^013^010 But if in this position it were Black to move, he who would be in zugzwang, and he would lose after 3... Kd4 (3... Kb4 4. Kd3!) 4. Kb3! Kd5 5. Ka4$18 etc.} 3. Kd2 (3. Kb2 {%05or} Kxb4 {! =}) 3... Kxd4 {! =} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1933.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "5k2/4p3/5p2/5K2/8/8/3P4/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1933.??.??"] 1. Ke6 {! %05From the notes to example ~3($40167)~ it is clear that %05after} Ke8 {White must advance his d-pawn in such a way as to be able to play d6-d5 only when the black king is at d8 or f8 (but not at e8). Therefore:} 2. d3 {!} Kd8 3. d4 Ke8 4. d5 Kd8 5. d6 exd6 6. Kxd6 {= Draw. Such calculations of advances by a pawn (or pawns) are typical, and to facilitate them it is useful to be guided by the following idea. ~2If the black king is at e8, it will end up at d8 or f8 in an odd number of moves, therefore the white pawn should complete its path to d6 in an even number. But if Black had started, then before the advance of the pawn his king would have already been at d8 or f8, and would have ended up on these squares within an even number of moves, and therefore White would have had to play 1. d4, in order to reach d6 in an odd number. ~ This is a general rule, also providing for cases where White has to advance two pawns. But in the given example, where only one has to be moved, the calculation is simpler: if it is White to move, the black king is not yet on the necessary square of the same colour as that occupied at the given moment by the enemy king. Having explained the basic idea of these endings, it will be easy to understand the manoeuvres of the two sides in the following position.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1933.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/3p4/1k6/1P6/K1P5/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] [EventDate "1933.??.??"] 1. Ka1 {!} (1. Kb2 {? %05An unusual way to win, but both} d4 2. Kc1 Kc3 {=}) ( 1. Kb1 {%05and ?} Kc3 {!} 2. Kc1 (2. Ka2 Kxc2) 2... d4 {lead only to a draw.}) 1... Kc3 (1... d4 2. Kb2) 2. Kb1 Kb4 (2... d4 3. Kc1) 3. Kc1 Kc3 4. Kd1 d4 5. Kc1 $18 {, and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1933.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/3p4/8/1k6/1P6/2P5/3K4/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "14"] [EventDate "1933.??.??"] 1... Kc4 {roughly the same situation is reached as in the previous example after White's 4th move, but the advance of the d-pawn by one or two squares has to be reckoned with. %05Here after} 2. Kd1 (2. Kc1 {%05or}) (2. Kc2 { %05but not ?} d5 {! - draw}) 2... Kb5 3. Kc2 {!} Kc4 {(the king must not be allowed in at d3)} 4. Kd2 {(using "triangulation", White gains a tempo, by giving his opponent the move)} d6 (4... d5 {White wins immediately by %05on} 5. Kc2 {, whereas now he has to gain a second tempo)}) 5. Kd1 Kb5 6. Kc2 Kc4 7. Kd2 d5 8. Kc2 $18 {, and White wins. The concluding zugzwang position may lose its obligatories (even if only partially) if there are other pawns on the board.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1934.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Alatortsev Vladimir A (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/p2p4/P3kP2/4P3/4K3/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "1"] [EventDate "1934.??.??"] {(from a correspondence game)} 1. Ke1 $18 {(the only move) and the threat of .. . d4 is parried. !} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Moravec"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2k2p2/8/3P4/4P3/8/8/3K4 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] {As an addendum to example ~3( 170)~, it remains to consider the case where the white pawns are one rank further up the board.} 1. Ke2 Kd6 2. Kf3 Ke5 3. Kg4 {!} f6 4. Kh5 {!} f5 5. d6 Kxd6 6. exf5 $18 {and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1936.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/7p/6k1/8/5P2/6P1/8/2K5 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "18"] [EventDate "1936.??.??"] 1. Kd2 {!} (1. g4 {? %05not} h5) 1... Kf5 2. Ke3 (2. Ke2 {? in view of %05Not} Ke4 {and 3... h5}) (2. Kd3 {? %05or} h5 3. Ke3 Kg4 4. Ke4 Kxg3) 2... h6 (2... h5 {%05Black loses immediately after} 3. Kf3) (2... Kg4 {%05or} 3. Ke4 $18) 3. Kf2 {!} (3. Kf3 {is not possible due to %05but now} h5 {=}) 3... Kg4 {But how is White to play now? The situation is quite^013^010 different from that in examples ~3 ($41168)~ and^013^010 ~3($41169)~ obviously doesn't work to obtain the position with the white king at g2 and black pawn at h5, even with Black to move, since he can play ... h4, exploiting the fact that after gxh4 the pawn becomes a rook's pawn and ...Kxf4 is possible. It is evident that White must play^013^010 to realize his f-pawn, especially since his king is^013^010 manoeuvring on the other side of the passed pawn.^013^010 He can only play} ( 3... Ke4 {, then %05If} 4. Kg2 h5 5. Kh3 Kf5 6. Kh4 Kg6 7. f5+ $18 {, and for the f-pawn White obtains the h-pawn, at the same time controlling the critical squares of the g3 pawn.}) 4. Ke2 {!} (4. Ke3 {%05Since after} h5 {White is in zugzwang}) 4... h5 (4... Kf5 {%05or} 5. Ke3 Kg4 6. Ke4 $18 {Now it is Black who ends up in zugzwang.}) 5. Ke3 {!} Kxg3 {, and after} 6. f5 h4 7. f6 h3 8. f7 h2 9. f8=Q h1=Q $18 {White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1939.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Leick"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5p2/8/3k4/1K1P4/4P3/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1939.??.??"] {With the pawns on the central files, the win involves fewer subtleties.} 1. Kc3 f6 (1... Ke4 {?} 2. Kc4) 2. Kd2 (2. Kc2 {is also possible %05in contrast to example ~3($40170)~, here}) 2... Ke4 3. Ke1 (3. Kd1 {is also possible}) 3... Kd5 4. Ke2 Ke4 5. Kf2 f5 6. Ke2 $18 {, and wins} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1936.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Herberg"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5p2/8/7k/7P/8/5KP1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] [EventDate "1936.??.??"] {Although the idea of giving up the passed pawn for the enemy pawn has already been shown in position ~3( 173)~ (the note to Black's 3rd move), for greater clarity we will give some separate examples.} 1. Kg3 {!} (1. g3 {in view of %05not} Kg4 {and ... f5-f4}) 1... f5 (1... f6 {, then %05if} 2. Kh3 f5 3. g3) 2. Kf3 {!} Kxh4 3. Kf4 $18 {and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1936.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Herberg"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/3p4/8/5k2/5P2/8/3KP3/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] [EventDate "1936.??.??"] 1. e3 {, e.g. %05 Originally the composer had the position moved 2 files to the left. It is clear that in this case, apart from 1. Ke3, White also wins by} Ke4 2. Ke1 (2. Kd1 {%05or}) 2... Kf5 3. Ke2 Ke4 4. Kd2 $18 {%04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1942.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Ebersz"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/2p5/2k5/P3K3/1P6/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] [EventDate "1942.??.??"] 1. a4 Kb4 2. Kd3 Ka5 {!} 3. Kc3 {!} Kxa4 4. Kc4 Ka5 5. Kxc5 $18 {%04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1p1k4/1P6/2PK4/8/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "12"] {Up till now we have been examining positions with two connected pawns against one, with the stronger side having a passed pawn. We will now cover cases where there is no passed pawn. Here two types of pawn. Here two types of pawn formation are again possible: (a) an immobile structure with a pair of blocked pawns; (b) a mobile structure. ~15.14 No passed pawn, pawns blocked~ Endings with blocked pawns and no passed pawn are of course less favourable for the stronger side. He normally wins, irrespective of who it is to move, if one of the connected pawns has reached the 6th rank - in other words, if the enemy pawn is still on its initial square. In remaining cases the result is determined by the placing of the kings and on whose turn it is to move. In positions with wing pawns the manoeuvring is often of the same character as that in position of type ~3 ( 154)~. But if the pawns are situated between the c- and f-files, the character of the manoeuvring becomes different, in view of the appearance of invasion points on both wings. We will first consider positions where the stronger side's backward pawn is closer to the central files.} 1... Kc8 {%05The black pawn is still on its initial square, and White wins^013^010 %05irrespective of who it is to move. E.g.} (1... Ke7 {%05if} 2. c6 $18) 2. Ke6 {!} (2. c6 {? %05but not} Kb8 {!= - draw}) 2... Kd8 3. Kd6 Kc8 4. Ke7 Kb8 5. Kd7 Ka8 6. c6 {!} bxc6 7. Kc7 $18 {, and mate in 3 moves.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1p1k4/1P6/2PK4/8/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] 1. Ke5 {%05If it is White to play, he uses "triangulation" to give his opponent the move:} (1. c6+ {? %05but not} Kc8 {!} 2. Kd6 Kb8 {!= with a draw.} ) 1... Kc6 2. Kd4 Kd7 3. Kd5 $18 {and wins} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2p1k3/2P5/3PK3/8/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] {If the position is moved to the right, the result does not change: White wins, whoever it is to move.} 1. Kf5 {%05If it is White's move, apart from} (1. d6+ { ! also becomes possible %05the simpler}) 1... Kd6 2. Ke4 Ke7 3. Ke5 Kd8 4. Kf6 Ke8 5. Ke6 Kd8 6. Kf7 Kc8 7. Ke7 $18 * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p1k5/P7/1PK5/8/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "3"] 1... Kb8 {%05Rook's pawns cause the usual exceptions. After} (1... Kd7 {?} 2. b6 {!$18}) 2. Kd6 Ka8 {the draw is obvious. Let us move both positions one rank down the board.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/1p1k4/1P6/2PK4/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "8"] {The result is also unchanged if the position is moved to the right: White wins only if it is Black to move.} 1. Ke4 {%05If it is White to move, he cannot win:} Ke6 (1... Kc5 {? , which would allow White to use "triangulation"; here Black does not have to fear the 2. c5 break %05of course, not}) 2. Kf4 Kd6 {!} 3. Ke4 Ke6 4. Ke3 Ke7 {= with a draw.} (4... Kd7 {= %05or}) * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/1p1k4/1P6/2PK4/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "2"] 1... Ke6 {%05But if it is Black to move, he again loses:} (1... Ke7 {%05or} 2. Ke5 (2. c5 {is also possible}) 2... Kd7 3. Kd5 {(seizing the critical squares of the b6 pawn)}) (1... Kc7 {%05or} 2. Ke5 {!$18}) 2. c5 $18 {It is clear that the result will not change if the position is moved further down the board.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/p1k5/P7/1PK5/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "2"] 1... Kd6 {it is pointless for White to play %05Here (or in positions moved further down the board) a draw is inevitable: on} 2. b5 {=} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/p1k5/P7/1PK5/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "2"] 1. Kd4 {can be met by %05While if it is his move} Kd6 (1... Kb5 {%05or even} 2. Kc3 Kc6 {, since the loss of the opposition is not dangerous for Black. =}) * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "2k5/8/p7/P7/1PK5/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "3"] 1... Kd8 {! %05If it is Black to move, to defend the critical squares b6, c6 and d6 he must play} 2. Kc5 (2. Kd5 {%05or} Kd7 {=}) 2... Kc7 {= But here it is important that in the position in question the kings have already taken up front-line positions. If this has not yet occurred, the result is determined by the position of the kings and their respective manoeuvring, as is shown by the following examples.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/4k3/2p5/2P5/3P4/4K3/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] 1... Kf7 {! %05 While manoeuvring in the rear, Black need not worry about the opposition: only, on Ke4 or Kf4 he must reply ... Ke6 or ... Kf6 respectively. The attempt to by-pass on the right is hopeless: on Kg4 Black replies ... Ke6 with the threat of ... Kd5. If he tries a by-pass on the left, White requires 4 moves to reach a5; it follows that, for the black king to reach b7 in time it can even be on the f-file. In this lies the whole idea of Black's defence.} (1... Kd7 {? in view of %05Not} 2. Kf4 {!} Ke8 {(there is nothing else)} 3. Ke4 {!} Kd8 (3... Kf8 {%05or} 4. d5 {and wins.}) 4. Kf5 $18) 2. Kf3 Ke7 {! , and the draw is obvious:} 3. Kg4 Ke6 {!} 4. Kf4 Kf6 {!} 5. Ke3 Kf7 (5... Ke7 { = %05or}) 6. Kd3 Ke7 {=} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1942.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Ebersz"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/3p1k2/8/2p5/2P3K1/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "19"] [EventDate "1942.??.??"] 1. Kf2 {! (in the given instance this defence only accidentally takes the form of opposition) %05Correct is} (1. Kf4 {? %05White cannot immediately bring his king into the front line:} d5 2. Kf3 (2. Kg4 d4) 2... Kf5 3. Ke3 Ke5) (1. Kg4 { ? %05or} d5 2. Kf4 Ke6 3. Kf3 Kf5 {and Black wins.}) (1. Kf3 {? is met by} Ke5) (1. Kg2 {? %04by %05and} Kf5 2. Kf3 d5 {, winning.}) 1... Ke6 2. Ke2 {(it is of crucial and practical importance that, apart from the composer's solution, 2. Ke3 is also possible)} Kf5 3. Ke3 Ke5 4. Kf3 Kd5 5. Kf4 (5. Ke3 {can also be played}) 5... Kc6 6. Ke4 Kc5 7. Ke3 d5 (7... Kb5 8. Kd4) 8. Kd2 Kb5 9. Kc2 Ka4 10. Kb2 {= with a draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5k2/3p4/3P4/4P3/5K2/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "2"] {How can the change in result be explained here in comparison with position ~3 ( 187)~ ? Since the weaker side's pawn is a central one, on the Q-side Black has to defend a wider front: no longer 2, but 3 squares. With the white king at b5 it is now insufficient to reply ... Kc7 in view of Ka6; on Kb5 it is essential to play ... Kb7. Hence the black king cannot move onto the g-file, since from there to b7 it requires 5 moves, whereas to reach b5 the white king as before requires 4 moves.} 1... Ke7 {%05If it is Black to move, he loses:} ( 1... Kg7 {%05or} 2. Ke3 {!} Kf7 3. Kd3 {!} Ke7 (3... Kf6 {%04with %05so as to meet} 4. Kd4 Kg5 5. e5 $18) 4. Kc4 $18) 2. Kg4 {!$18} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5k2/3p4/3P4/4P3/5K2/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "14"] 1. Kg3 {%05With White to move there is no win. Black is saved by maintaining the opposition (on the main f- and b-files);} Kg7 {!} 2. Kh3 Kf6 {!} 3. Kg3 Kg7 {!} (3... Kg5 {? , since after %05but not} 4. Kf3 {the f5 square is inaccessible to Black}) 4. Kf2 Kf6 5. Ke3 Ke7 6. Kd3 Kd7 7. Kd4 Kd8 {= %04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1p1k4/1P6/P2K4/8/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] {Let us now turn to positions in which the rear pawn is closer to the side of the board. This pawn structure is to a certain extent even less favourable for the stronger side. This is mainly explained by the fact that the king is not alongside its extra (rear) pawn, and therefore the advance of the latter (a breakthrough), which is sometimes possible, loses its effectiveness.} 1... Kc8 {%05The black king cannot be driven out of the corner:} 2. Kd6 Kb8 3. Kd7 Ka8 4. a6 Kb8 {! Draw. If the position is moved one or more ranks down the board, the result remains the same.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/1p1k4/1P6/P2K4/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "4"] 1... Ke6 {!} 2. Ke4 Kd6 {! with a draw} 3. Z0 (3. Kf5 {%05After} Kc5 {it is now White who has to worry about forcing a draw.}) * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1954.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Maizelis I"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/1p2k3/1P6/3K4/P7/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "6"] [EventDate "1954.??.??"] 1. Kc4 {%05Even the existence of an extra tempo for White does not change the result:} Kd6 2. Kb4 {Now Black can play} Kd7 {, to answer} (2... Kc7 {%05but the immediate} 3. a4 Kb7 {is also possible, since after} 4. Kc4 Kc7 5. Kd5 Kd7 {Black defends the critical squares in time, and White's reserve tempo has already been used up.}) 3. a4 {%04with} Kc7 {= There is a different result, however, in the position moved one rank down the board. This is because the rear pawn, which is at a2, still retains the right to move two squares.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1848.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Kling Josef (GER)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/1p2k3/1P6/3K4/P7/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] [EventDate "1848.??.??"] 1. Kc3 (1. Kc2 {! %05 The solution offered established, for methodological aims, the correspondence of the three main squares (the "front line"). Knowing this, one can shorten the solution by one move (by immediately using the "triangle"):} Kd6 (1... Kd4 2. Kb3) (1... Kd5 2. Kc3) 2. Kb2 {!} Kd5 3. Kc3 Kc6 4. Kb3 {%04etc.}) 1... Kd5 2. Kb3 Kc6 {Black's moves are forced: he cannot allow either the position Kd4/Kd6 because of^013^010 a2-a3, nor the position Kb3/Kd6 in view of a2-a4. The squares d3, c3 and b3 strictly^013^010 correspond to e5, d5 and c6.^013^010 In the resulting position White wins easily if he is able to give his opponent the move.^013^010 The usual method for this is "triangulation", which in the given instance means using the^013^010 rear squares b2 and c2. To maintain the balance, Black must use an analogous "triangle".^013^010 But it transpires that, in reply to 3. Kc2 or 3. Kb2, Black cannot use the rear squares^013^010 c7 and d7 because of Kc3 and Kd4, winning, while the triangle c6-c5-d6 is altogether^013^010 ruled out in view of the fact that c5 is inaccessible. It follows that the only triangle^013^010 remaining for Black is d6-d5-c6, but, in placing his king at d5 or c6, he allows the white^013^010 king to occupy the corresponding square c3 or b3, and thus is bound to lose.} 3. Kc2 {, and Black is helpless:} (3. Kb2 {%05or} Kd6 4. Kc2 Kc6 (4... Kd5 5. Kc3) 5. Kb3 {, and wins.}) 3... Kd6 (3... Kd5 4. Kc3 {, and if} Ke5 {, then} (4... Kd6 {%05or} 5. Kd4) (4... Kc6 { can be met by %05while} 5. Kd4 (5. Kb3 {%05or})) 5. Kb3 {and 6. a4}) 4. Kb2 Kc6 5. Kb3 Kb6 6. Kc3 Kc6 7. Kd4 Kd6 8. a3 $18 * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2p1k3/2P5/1P2K3/8/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] {If position ~3( 191)~ is moved one or more files to the right, White wins irrespectively of who it is to move.} 1. Kd5 {! %05For example, with White to move:} (1. Kf5 {?} Kd6) 1... Kd8 2. Ke6 Ke8 3. b6 {and wins. But if this position is moved one or more ranks down the board (so that the black pawn is no longer on its initial square!), there is no win, irrespective of who it is to move.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/2p1k3/2P5/1P2K3/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] {In the analogous position with blocked bishop's pawns, but with the pawn at d4 instead of b4, White won if it was Black to move, 1... Kf6 being decisively met by 2. d5. But here the 2. b5 break is ineffective: 2... cb 3. c6 Ke6, or 3. Kd5 b4. White also achieves nothing by 2. Kf4 Ke6 3. Ke4 Kf6 4. Kd4 Ke6 5. Kc4 (with the threat of 6. b5) 5... Kd7 etc.} 1. Kd4 {%05If it is White to move, he succeeds in driving the enemy king back one rank due to the %05fact that the d6 square is inaccessible to it, but the result is nevertheless a draw:} Kd7 {!} (1... Ke7 {?} 2. Ke5) (1... Kf7 {? %05or} 2. Kc4 Ke7 3. b5) 2. Ke5 Ke7 3. Kf5 Kf7 {=} 4. Z0 (4. Kg5 Ke6) * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1931.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2k5/2p5/2P5/8/8/1P6/5K2 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "23"] [EventDate "1931.??.??"] {If position ~3( 194)~ is moved one file to the right (after which blocked bishop's pawns result), neither the result nor the character of the play change. By slightly varying this position, Grigoriev enriched theory with an interesting and original idea.} 1. Ke2 {%05White has two tempi in reserve, but how is he to make %05use of them? At any rate, it is clear that a direct attack %05on the critical squares d6, e6 and f6 does not hold any %05promise: the black king will move between e6 and f6, %05and the play will revert to the previous position.^013^010 %05 White wins by a clever plan. Manoeuvring with the %05stated aim of seizing the centre, White transfers his king %05to a5, provoking the reply ... Kb7. After this he uses %05one of his tempi on b2-b3, forcing the diversion of the %05black king to a7. But this allows him to occupy e5, with %05the tempo needed for the win still in reserve. In carrying %05out this plan White has to overcome certain technical %05difficulties.} Kd7 (1... Kb7 2. Kd3 Ka6 {is unsatisfactory in view of} 3. b4 Kb5 4. Kc3 Ka6 5. Kc4 {!} Kb7 6. Kd4 {, winning.}) 2. Kd3 Ke7 {! A critical point.} 3. Kc3 {!} (3. Kc4 {, then %05If now} Ke6 {! , and White is in zugzwang:} 4. Kd4 (4. Kb4 Kd5) 4... Kf6 {!} 5. Kc3 Ke5 {!} 6. Kc4 Ke6 {! - draw. But there is another road open to White.}) 3... Ke6 (3... Kd7 {%05Or} 4. Kb4 {But now Black ends up in zugzwang. The whole point of these tactical manoeuvres lies in the decisive correspondence of the c4 and e6 squares.}) 4. Kc4 {!} Kd7 (4... Ke5 {is decisively met by} 5. b4 {and 6. b5.}) 5. Kb4 {%05Now the rest is simple:} Kc7 6. Ka5 Kb7 7. b3 {!} Ka7 8. Kb4 Kb7 (8... Ka6 {%05or} 9. Kc3 {, and if} Kb5 ( 9... Ka5 {%05or} 10. Kc4 Ka6 11. b4) 10. b4) 9. Kc4 Kc7 10. Kd4 Kd7 11. Ke5 Ke7 12. b4 {, and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/3p1k2/3P4/2P2K2/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "1"] {If one of the connected pawns is a central one, then in positions of type ~3( 195) ~ a win can always be achieved, irrespective of who it is to move. But if such a position is moved down the board, the stronger side wins only if it is the opponent to move.} 1... Kg6 {the black king is too far from a7 (6 moves), and White reaches a5 more quickly (5 moves). %05After} (1... Ke7 {%05or} 2. Kg5 Kf7 3. Kf5) * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1921.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Dedrle Frantishek (CZE)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/4k3/3p4/3P4/2P5/8/8/5K2 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1921.??.??"] 1. Kg2 {! %05This position is a classic example on the theme of the by-pass. White has to obtain the previous position with Black to move:} (1. Kg1 { is also possible}) (1. Ke2 {would have been an irreparable mistake. By replying %05It should be mentioned that the routine taking of the opposition - ?} Ke8 {! Black gains a draw.}) (1. Ke1 {?} Ke8 {!}) 1... Kf6 {If Black passively keeps his king at e7 and e8, the white king goes to g5.} (1... Kf7 { there would have followed %05On} 2. Kf3 {!}) 2. Kf2 {!} Ke7 (2... Ke5 {he decides matters by taking his king to the Q-side: %05Now White chooses his move, depending on where the black king goes to. For example, on} 3. Ke3 {!} Kf6 4. Kd4 Ke7 5. Kc3 Kd7 6. Kb4 Kc7 7. Ka5 Kb7 8. Kb5 $18 {, and White wins.}) 3. Kg3 {!} Kf7 4. Kf3 {!} (4. Kf4 Kf8 {!}) 4... Ke7 5. Kg4 {!} Kf6 6. Kf4 $18 { , and White has achieved his aim.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/4k3/3p4/3P4/2P5/8/8/5K2 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "21"] 1... Kf7 {! , e.g. %05If it is Black to move, he maintains the balance after} 2. Kg2 Kg6 3. Kh3 Kf7 (3... Kh7 {%05of course, not} 4. c5 $18) 4. Kg4 Kg6 5. Kf4 Kf6 6. Ke4 Ke7 7. Ke3 Ke8 {!} 8. Kd4 Kd7 9. Kc3 Kc7 10. Kb4 Kb6 11. Ka4 Ka6 {Draw. We will now turn to an examination of mobile pawn structures with no passed pawn, i.e. cases where the pawns are not blocked.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/4k3/4p3/8/3PP3/4K3/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] {~15.15 No passed pawn, pawns mobile~ If there is a direct convergence of the pawns, these can transpose into positions with blocked pawns. A basic feature of this pawn structure is that one of the connected pawns has opposite it an enemy pawn on the same file, while the other, having no direct barrier, has a greater ability to advance. It is clear that, if the stronger side's king is on the side of the more mobile pawn, this increases the pawn's significance, and this is more favourable than having the king on the opposite side. Also of considerable significance is the fact that the stronger side has a reserve tempo when transposing into a blocked position. Earlier we first examined positions with wing pawns, and then with central pawns. Here it will be expedient to do things in reverse order, since central positions are comparatively simple, while the flank positions, which are more important in practice, are not only more complicated, but also reveal a greater number of special features. If the weaker side's pawn is on one of the central files (d- or e-), the game can be saved only in exceptional cases, e.g. when the king is so far away that it is unable to give the connected pawns the necessary support. The stronger side normally wins.} 1. Kd3 {(supporting the more mobile pawn!) %05The simplest is} (1. Kf4 {%05But he also wins by} Kf6 2. Kg4 (2. e5+ {?} Kf7 {! - Draw}) 2... Kg7 (2... Kg6 {? White has the decisive %05on} 3. e5 { , since after} Kh6 {Black is too late to defend his Q-side}) 3. Kg5 Kf7 4. Kh6 Kf6 5. e5+ $18) 1... Kd6 2. Kc4 Kc6 3. e5 $18 {, and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/4k3/4p3/8/3PP3/4K3/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "2"] 1... Kf6 {%05If Black begins and plays} 2. Kf3 $18 {is correct} (2. Kd3 {%05or} ) (2. Kf4 {? because of %05White must not play} e5+ 3. dxe5+ Ke6 {= with a draw.}) * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "4k3/4p3/8/3PP3/4K3/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "3"] 1. Kf5 {%05It is clear that White also wins if the position is moved up or down the board. With the black pawn at e7 (white pawns at d5 and e5) after} Kf7 {he also wins by} 2. e6+ $18 * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1941.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Fine Reuben (USA)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/4p3/4k3/8/4K3/8/3PP3/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "19"] [EventDate "1941.??.??"] {The stronger side should not, without necessity, bring the pawns so close together that he has only one tempo in reserve. It is easier to win if the tempi are preserved.} 1. e3 {%05White's immediate task is to occupy e6 with his king:} Kd6 2. Kf5 Kd5 3. d3 Kd6 4. e4 Kd7 5. Ke5 Kd8 6. Ke6 Ke8 {(now the king must go to d7 or f7)} 7. e5 (7. d4 {%05or}) 7... Kf8 8. Kd7 Kf7 {(it only remains to win the e7 pawn)} 9. d4 Kf8 10. Ke6 $18 {, and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/6k1/8/8/3pp3/8/3P1K2/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] {In certain positions the manoeuvring of the kings is more complicated.} 1. Kg3 Kf6 2. Kf4 e3 {!} 3. Kf3 {%05Correct is} (3. dxe3 {? loses to %05Now} d3 4. Kf3 Ke5 {!} 5. Kf2 (5. e4 {%05or} Kd4 6. e5 Kc3 {! , winning}) 5... Ke4 6. Kf1 Kf3 {!} 7. Ke1 Kxe3 $19) 3... Ke5 4. Ke2 {! - Draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1941.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Leick"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/4p3/8/8/3kP3/3P4/3K4/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "19"] [EventDate "1941.??.??"] 1. Kc2 {!} (1. Ke2 {?} Kc3 2. Ke3 e5 {!}) 1... Kc5 2. Kd1 {!} (2. Kc1 {, since after %05not ?} e5 {Black has the opposition on the main file, e.g.} 3. Kd1 Kd6 {!} 4. Kd2 Kd7 {!} 5. Kc3 {White has won back the rank, but not the opposition} Kc7 {! , with a draw}) (2. Kc3 {%05or ?}) 2... Kd4 (2... e5 3. Ke2 {!}) (2... Kb4 3. Kd2 {!} e5 4. Ke2 {!} Kc3 5. Ke3) 3. Kd2 e6 (3... Kc5 4. Ke3) 4. Kc2 Kc5 5. Kd1 Kd4 6. Kd2 Kc5 7. Ke3 e5 8. Ke2 Kd4 (8... Kd6 9. Kf3) (8... Kb4 9. Kf3 Kc3 10. Ke3 Kb4 11. d4 $18) 9. Kd2 Kc5 10. Kc3 $18 {, and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1936.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/3pp3/8/8/2K5/8/4P3/k7 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] [EventDate "1936.??.??"] {The following position has a solution of typical "Grigoriev" difficulty.} 1. Kb3 {!} (1. e4 {in view of %05Nothing is given by the plausible} Ka2 {!} (1... Kb2 {?} 2. e5 {!} e6 3. Kb4 {with a draw}) 2. e5 e6 3. Kc3 {(the attempt to win the d-pawn is hopeless, since the black king occupies d5 in time)} Ka3 4. Kc4 Ka4 5. Kc5 Kb3 $19 {, and wins.}) (1. Kc5 {also fails to save the game after} Kb2 2. Kb6 Kc3 3. Kc7 e5 (3... d5 {%05or})) (1. Kc3 {? does not work, since it leaves Black the reply %05The only defensive possibility lies in exploiting the poor position of the black king. To this end} Ka2) 1... e6 (1... Kb1 {, then %05If} 2. e4 Kc1 (2... e6 {%05after} 3. e5 {the king cannot move off the 1st rank}) 3. Kc3 Kd1 4. Kd3 Ke1 5. e5 {!} (5. Ke3 {?} e5 {!}) 5... Kf2 (5... e6 {%05or} 6. Ke3) 6. e6 d6 7. Ke4 Kg3 8. Kf5 {with a draw..}) 2. e4 {!} d6 (2... Kb1 {%04or} 3. e5 {- draw}) 3. e5 {! This forces the draw. After} d5 4. Ka3 {the black king remains shut in, and the advance of the d-pawn is not any use.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/5p1k/8/4PP1K/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] {If the weaker side has a bishop's pawn, a factor of considerable importance is whether or not one of he connected pawns is a central one, and also, in certain cases, on which side of the pawns is the king supporting them, and who it is to move.} 1. Kg4 {%05Due to the lack of space, a breakthrough by the king on the right is not possible. But as before White wins by} Kg6 2. Kf3 (2. f5+ {?} Kf7 {with a draw} (2... Kg7 {%05or})) 2... Kf7 3. Ke3 Ke7 4. Kd4 Kd6 5. f5 $18 {%04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/5p1k/8/4PP1K/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "12"] 1... Kg6 {%05With Black to move:} 2. Kg3 {!} Kf7 3. Kf3 Ke7 4. Ke3 Kd7 5. Kd4 Kc6 (5... Kd6 6. f5) 6. Kc4 Kd6 7. Kb5 $18 {, and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/5p1k/8/5PPK/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "0"] {Here White does not have a central pawn, and therefore it is a draw irrespective of the turn to move. On reaching the position Kd4/Kd6 White can agree a draw after 1. f5 Kc6 or 1. Kc4 Kc6; he can win only if it is Black to move (1... Kc6 2. Ke4, or 1... Ke6 2. Kc5), but it is not possible to achieve such a situation. If the position is moved up the board, White wins, while if it is moved down the result is a draw. But if the kings are moved to the d-file, as before White wins only if it is his opponent to move.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Dedrle Frantishek (CZE)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/5p1k/8/4PP1K/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "4"] {If position ~3( 208)~ is moved up the board, the win becomes even simpler. But if it is moved one or two ranks down the board, Black acquires an amazing drawing possibility, but only if it is his move.} 1... Kg5 {! %05The secret of the defence is that Black must always be %05able to answer Kh4 with ... Kg6, Kg2 with ... Kf6, and %05Kg3 with ... Kf7. His king must be one file closer to the %05centre than White's. Why this is necessary will now %05become clear.} 2. Kg2 (2. Kg3 f4+ {=}) (2. Kh2 Kg6 {=}) 2... Kf6 {!} 3. Kg3 {, and we reach Dedrle's study (see the next example).} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1924.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Dedrle Frantishek (CZE)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/5k2/5p2/8/4PPK1/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "23"] [EventDate "1924.??.??"] {If it is White to move in this position, he wins by Kg3-f4 etc.} 1... Kf7 { ! (retaining the possibility of answering 2. Kh4 with 2... Kg6, and 2. Kg2 or 2. Kf4 with 2... Kf6)} 2. Kf2 Ke6 3. Ke2 Kd5 4. Kd3 (4. Kd2 Kd6 {!} (4... Kc6 { %05or !})) 4... Kc5 {!} 5. Kc3 (5. e4 Kd6 {!}) 5... Kd5 6. Kb4 f4 {!} 7. e4+ ( 7. exf4 {, then %05this the whole point; if} Ke6 {, and if the pawn is not captured, it is sufficiently close to^013^010 the queening square; this was not the case in example ~3($41208)~}) 7... Kd4 8. Kb3 Ke3 9. e5 Kxf3 10. e6 Kg2 11. e7 f3 12. e8=Q f2 {= Draw. If it is White to move in position ~3( 211)~ , he wins by Kg3-f2 etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/8/5p1k/8/4PP1K/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] 1... Kg4 {!} 2. Kg1 f3 {! , and after} 3. e3 Kf5 4. Kf1 (4. Kh2 Kg4) (4. Kh1 Kg5) 4... Ke4 {we reach Grigoriev's study ~3($4116)~:} 5. Ke1 Kd3 6. Kd1 Kc3 7. Kc1 Kd3 {= Draw. White to move wins by 1. Kg2(g1) etc. If the kings are replaced at d2 and d4 respectively, Black is no longer saved by the turn to move: 1... Kc4 2. e4!, and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1943.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Keres Paul (EST)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/8/5pk1/8/4PP2/7K w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "19"] [EventDate "1943.??.??"] 1. Kh2 {!} Kf5 2. Kg2 {!} Kf6 3. Kf1 Ke5 4. Ke1 Kd4 5. Kd2 Kc4 6. e4 {!} Kd4 7. f3 Kc4 8. Ke2 Kd4 9. Kf2 Ke5 10. Kf1 $18 {, and White wins as in example ~3 ($40153).~} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1890.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Berger Johann N (AUT)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/4kp2/8/4KP2/6P1/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] [EventDate "1890.??.??"] {The existence of reserve tempi naturally makes the win more probable, although sometimes there may there may be certain difficulties.} 1. Kd4 { %05With White to move the win is simple:} Kd6 (1... Kf5 {%05or} 2. Kd5 Kg4 3. Ke6 Kxg3 4. f5 $18) 2. g4 Ke6 (2... Kc6 3. Ke4 $18) 3. Kc5 $18 * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/4kp2/8/4KP2/6P1/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "3"] 1... f5+ {%05With Black to move he immediately forces a draw by} 2. Kd4 Kd6 { From this Berger drew the simple conclusion that if the pawn had been at g2, then 3. g3 would have been possible, and hence there would have been a win irrespective of the turn to move. But he did not show how in this case the win is achieved with White to move.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1890.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Berger Johann N (AUT)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/4kp2/8/4KP2/8/6P1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] [EventDate "1890.??.??"] 1. Kd4 {%05Fine (1941) suggested the following solution:} (1. f5+ {! %05But in initial position the win is achieved much more simply "a la Grigoriev" by} Kd6 2. Kf4 {! etc. ~3($40197)~.}) 1... Kf5 (1... Kd6 2. g4) 2. Ke3 Kg4 (2... Ke6 3. Ke4) 3. Ke4 Kh4 {!} (3... Kg3 {?} 4. Kf5) 4. Kf3 {!} (4. Kf5 {?} Kg3 {=}) 4... f5 (4... Kh5 5. g3 f5 6. Kf2 {!} Kg6 (6... Kg4 {%05or} 7. Kg2 Kh5 8. Kf3 Kg6 9. Ke3) 7. Ke3) 5. Kf2 {!} (5. g3+ {?} Kh3 6. Kf2 Kh2 {! =}) 5... Kg4 6. g3 Kh5 ( 6... Kh3 7. Kf3 Kh2 8. g4) 7. Kf3 {!} Kg6 8. Ke3 $18 {, and wins. This winning method retains its significance, if, or example, the position Ke3/Kf5 or Ke4/ Kg4 arises with Black to move.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1942.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Leick"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/5p2/7k/5P2/6PK/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "2"] [EventDate "1942.??.??"] {This position arose in a game Ed. Lasker - Ward (1913), in which 1. g4 led to a win as a result of a mistake by the opponent, but the position is of course drawn ~3( 210).~ The opinion was expressed that there was nevertheless a win, but that it was achieved by 1. Kh2} 1. Kh2 {Black can immediately force a draw by %05Leick showed that after} (1. Kg2 {, but against accurate defence it too is ineffective: %05A stronger try is} Kg4 {!} (1... f5 {%05all other moves lose:} 2. Kf3) (1... Kg6 2. Kf2 Kf7 (2... Kf5 {%05or} 3. Kf3 Kg6 (3... Ke6 4. Kg4 $18) 4. Ke4 $18) 3. Ke3 {!} (3. Kf3 {?} f5 {=}) 3... Ke6 4. Kd4 Kd6 5. g4 Ke6 6. Kc5 $18) 2. Kh2 (2. Kf2 {, then %05if} Kh3 3. Kf3 f5 {=}) 2... Kf5 { ! the only move} (2... Kf3 3. Kh3 $18) (2... Kh5 3. Kg1 $18) 3. Kg1 (3. Kg2 Kg4 ) (3. Kh3 Kg6 4. Kg4 f5+ {=}) 3... Ke6 {! Again the only move, but now Black threatens 4... f5, and after 4. g4 the draw is also obvious.}) 1... f5 {=} ( 1... Kh6 {?} 2. Kg2 Kg6 3. Kf2 {etc., transposing to position ~3($40215)~.}) * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1918.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Mattison Herman (LAT)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5p2/8/6Pk/5P2/8/8/7K w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] [EventDate "1918.??.??"] 1. g6 {! %05The pawns are doomed, but White sacrifices them, forcing a favourable shift of the critical squares:} fxg6 (1... Kxg6 {White succeeds in defending his f-pawn %05after}) 2. f5 gxf5 3. Kg1 {! - draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1935.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/2p5/8/7K/1PP2k2/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "19"] [EventDate "1935.??.??"] 1. Kg4 {! %05It is clear that the white king must avoid "imprisonment" and come into play.} (1. c3 {does not work in view of %05 White's pawns are under threat, and sooner or later he will have to play c2-c3, so as to parry the attack ... Kc2 with b2-b4. The reply ... c4 is not be feared, since after Kg4 the king reaches d4 in time. But even so the immediate} Kf3 {!} 2. Kh4 (2. Kh2 {? even loses after} c4) 2... Kf4 {with a draw.}) 1... Ke3 2. c3 {!} (2. Kf5 { ? But Black is already threatening %05Should White now continue} Kd2 {, on which there follows} 3. c3 Kc2 4. b4 {, and here a new defensive resource appears:} c4 {! , i.e. the threat of drawing thanks to a bishop's pawn^013^010 against a queen. To prevent this, the white king must be^013^010 sufficiently close (at f3 - ~3 ($41163)~). Therefore, for the^013^010 moment it cannot be moved off the 4th rank. The pawn^013^010 must nevertheless be advanced.}) 2... Ke4 {(an attempt to save the game in a different way)} 3. Kg5 Ke5 (3... Kd3 { , then of course %05If} 4. Kf4 {! The following king "walk' is to White's advantage: the danger to his pawns is reduced, and it only remains for him to attack the black pawn from the rear. To do this he must go round the enemy king (standing a knight's move away from it), and in this he is helped by the existence of reserve tempi (b2-b3 or c3-c4).^013^010 The subsequent play is now understandable, although in each variation a precise concrete calculation is involved.}) 4. Kg6 Ke6 5. Kg7 {!} (5. b3 {in view of %05It is early as yet for} Ke5 6. Kf7 c4 {!}) 5... Ke7 {%05Now there three possibilities:} (5... c4 6. Kg6 (6. Kf8 {?} Kf6 {- draw}) 6... Ke5 7. Kg5 Ke4 8. Kf6 {!} Kd3 9. Ke5 Kc2 10. Kd4 $18 {and wins.}) (5... Kf5 6. Kf8 {!! the only move} (6. Kf7 c4) (6. c4 Ke4) (6. Kg8 Kf6 {!}) 6... c4 (6... Ke6 {%05or} 7. c4) 7. Kf7 {!} Ke5 8. Ke7 $18 {, and White wins.}) 6. c4 {!} Ke6 7. Kf8 Ke5 (7... Kf6 8. b3) 8. Ke7 {!} Kd4 9. b3 Kc3 10. Kd6 $18 {and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/4k1p1/8/4KPP1/8/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "2"] {When the defender has a knight's pawn, it is also of great importance whether or not the opponent's "semi-passed" pawn is closer to the centre. This position is similar to example ~3 ( 178)~ , but, of course, it is even more favourable for White.} 1... Kd7 {, apart from the "normal" %05 After} 2. Kd5 $18 (2. f6 {%05he can even play} Ke8 3. fxg7 Kf7 4. g8=Q+ Kxg8 5. Kf6 $18) * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/8/4k1p1/8/4KPP1/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "2"] 1... Kd4 {White has the decisive %05 The result does not change if the position is moved any number of ranks down the board. There are no exceptions here, such as occurred when Black had a bishop's pawn. With the pawns at f2, g2 and g4, after} 2. f4 $18 {!} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/4k1p1/8/4K1PP/8/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "8"] 1. Kd5 {, Black plays the identical %05An interesting position. It is of no importance who begins, since both on his own move, and in reply to} Kf7 {After} 2. Kd6 Kf8 3. Ke6 {the draw is attained by} Ke8 {!} (3... Kg8 {? %05But it would be wrong, in apparent analogy with %05example~3($41191)~, to hide the king in the corner %05before g5-g6 is played. E.g.} 4. Ke7 Kh7 (4... Kh8 { is no better:} 5. Kf7 Kh7 6. h6 {!} (6. g6+ $18 {%05or})) 5. Kf8 (5. Kf7 { %05Also possible is} Kh8 6. Kg6 {! %05but} (6. h6 {? %05and now not} Kh7 {! =}) 6... Kg8 7. h6 Kh8 8. hxg7+ {!} Kg8 9. Kh6 {, and wins.}) 5... Kh8 6. h6 $18 { , and White wins.}) 4. Kf5 Kf7 {! =} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/6pk/8/6PP/6K1/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "1"] 1... Kg8 {!= %05If White's king is replaced at g4 and Black's at h7, then Black to play can draw by} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/6pk/8/6PP/6K1/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] 1. Kf5 {%05But if it is the opponent to move he loses:} Kg8 (1... g6+ {does not force a draw, since there follows %05here} 2. Kf6 gxh5 3. Kf7 $18) 2. Kg6 Kh8 3. Kf7 {!} (3. h6 {?} Kg8 {! - draw}) 3... Kh7 4. h6 g6 5. Kf6 $18 {%04etc. } * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1955.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Pospisil Dusan (CZE)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/6p1/8/4k1PP/8/6K1/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "4"] [EventDate "1955.??.??"] 1. Kh4 {%05White cannot win:} (1. Kg4 {%05or} Ke6 2. g6 Kf6 {!} 3. Kf4 Ke7 4. Kg5 Kf8 5. h6 Kg8 {- draw. The point is that, after g5-g6, the squares g4/f5 and h4/f5 are mutually corresponding (in view of the threat of h5-h6).}) 1... Ke6 {!} (1... Kf5 {? %05not} 2. g6 Kf6 3. Kg4 {%04etc.}) 2. g6 Kf5 {! = Maintaining the opposition also saves Black in positions moved one or more ranks down the board.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/4k1p1/8/4K1PP/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "4"] 1. Kd4 {%05Due to the existence of a reserve tempo for White (g4-g5), the squares d5 and e5 are critical. (therefore analogous positions with the white king at d5 or e5 and the black king on the 7th rank are won.) Black must maintain the opposition on the e- and d-files:} (1. Kf4 {, then %05If} Kf6 { , guarding the g5 and e5 squares against invasion. But how should Black play in reply to} 2. Kf3 {The only move is} (2. Ke3 {%05When Black is threatened with the loss of the opposition, his king finds a shelter on the f-file. E.g.} Ke5 (2... Ke7 {%05or}) 3. Kf3 Kf6 {!}) 2... Kf7 {! %04Now} (2... Ke6 {? %05He cannot play} 3. Ke4) (2... Ke7 {? %05or} 3. Ke3 {! , when White has the opposition.}) 3. Kg3 {can be met by} Kf6 {, since} 4. Kf4 {achieves nothing due to} g5+) 1... Kd6 2. Kc4 Ke5 {Now this has been explained, it will be easy to understand the play in the following example. Incidentally, here a new defensive resource for the weaker side is revealed, when the white pawns are on the 3rd, and also the 2nd rank.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1936.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1k6/8/6p1/8/6PP/8/1K6 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1936.??.??"] 1... Kc7 {In view of the threat of h3-h4, Black must step into the "square" of the h-pawn, i.e. it must move onto the c-file, but in any case the opposition remains with White. Salvation must be sought on the f-file!} 2. Kc1 (2. Kc2 { %05after} Kc6 {! the opposition passes to Black}) 2... Kd7 {!} 3. Kd1 Ke7 4. Ke1 (4. Kc2 {%05White still cannot begin a by-pass:} Ke6 {!} 5. Kc3 Ke5 6. Kd3 Kd5 {= - draw}) 4... Kf6 5. Kd2 {(Black seems to have reached an impasse: all king moves lose)} (5. Kf2 {%05Now} Kf5 {would lead to an obvious draw, so it is here that White begins a dangerous by-pass.}) 5... g4 {!! Here it is, the saving move! After} 6. h4 Ke6 {! Black attains position~3($41154)~ (the h-pawn has not^013^010 crossed the middle of the board!), and for a draw it is sufficient for his king to move between d6 and e6, as long as White's king remains on the 2nd rank.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/6p1/3k4/8/3K1PP1/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] {Curiously, in the 1st edition of his Chess Fundamentals, Capablanca asserted (he cater corrected this) that 1. f5 also id not win in view of 1... g6 (he left the analysis of the variation to the reader).} 1. Ke4 {%05Capablanca gave the solution} (1. f5 {! that White wins more quickly. If %05But it is precisely by} g6 {, then} 2. fxg6 {%04By} Ke7 (2... Ke6 {%05or} 3. g5 {!} Ke7 4. Ke5 Ke8 5. Ke6 Kf8 6. Kf6 Kg8 7. g7 Kh7 8. g8=Q+ $18) 3. Ke5 {! , and White wins.} (3. g5 {? %05Black provokes his opponent into a premature advance %05of his rear pawn:} Kf8 4. Ke5 Kg7 5. Kf5 Kg8 6. Kf6 Kf8 {= Draw.} (6... Kh8 {%05or }))) (1. g5 {? in view of %05Here the only move not to win is} g6 {=}) 1... Ke6 2. f5+ Kf6 3. Kf4 {%04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1930.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Novikov"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "7k/7p/8/8/6p1/8/6P1/5K2 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "8"] [EventDate "1930.??.??"] {In the following two examples the pawns are weakened by the lack of support from their own king.} 1. Kf2 Kg7 2. Kg3 h5 3. Kh4 Kg6 4. g3 {! and now} Kh6 { leads to stalemate.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1936.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Gorgiev Tigran B (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/7k/6p1/7p/8/8/6P1/5K2 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "10"] [EventDate "1936.??.??"] {This position is of great theoretical significance.} 1. Kf2 Kh6 (1... Kg7 2. g4 h4 3. g5 {=}) (1... g5 2. g3 {=}) 2. Kg3 Kg5 3. Kh3 {!} Kf5 (3... Kf4 4. Kh4 Kf5 5. g3 {!} Kf6 6. g4 {= with a draw}) 4. Kh4 {!} Kf4 5. g4 {!} hxg4 { Stalemate.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1843.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Von Der Lasa Thassilo (GER)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/6p1/8/5k2/8/8/5KPP/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] [EventDate "1843.??.??"] {This position - the object of numerous discussions in the past - received a correct evaluation only 80 years after its publication! Contrary to the opinions of Von der Las (who suggested this position), Berger and Fine, White cannot win if it is the opponent to move. The demonstration of a win with White to move has also contained mistakes, and requires correcting.} 1. Kg3 { %05Cheron gave a more precise solution:} (1. Kf3 {%05An instructive, although more lengthy solution, is that given by Sacconi:} Kg5 (1... g6 2. h4) (1... g5 2. g4+ {, transposing to example ($40194)} (2. Kg3 {and 3. h4 is of course simpler %05but})) 2. Ke4 Kg4 3. Ke5 Kg5 4. Ke6 Kg6 5. Ke7 Kh7 6. Kf7 Kh6 7. g4 Kh7 8. g5 Kh8 9. Kg6 $18 {etc. (cf. the notes to position ~3($40168)~ ) In the given^013^010 case after} Kg8 {the king stands on the requires square for h5-h6, therefore the pawn must move to a square of the opposite colour:} 10. h4 $18 {!}) 1... Kg5 2. h4+ {!} (2. h3 {%05Berger incorrectly gave a win by} Kh5 3. Kf3 Kh4 (3... Kg5 {%05or first} 4. Ke4 Kh4) 4. Kf4 g6 {! ensures a draw. %05But as shown by Sacconi,} (4... g5+ {?$18 , which does indeed lose. %05continuing now}) (4... Kh5 {?$18 %05or})) 2... Kh5 (2... Kf5 3. Kf3 g6 4. g3 ) 3. Kh3 g6 4. g3 {!} g5 5. g4+ $18 {and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/6p1/8/5k2/8/8/5KPP/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "21"] 1... Kf4 {! (now the white king is unable to stand in front of its pawns) %05With Black to move the play is more complicated. The main variation of the solution given below is based on an unpublished analysis by Grigoriev (This variation, without any comments, was written by Grigoriev in 1925 in the margin of a copy of Berger's book (refuting the latter's conclusions). The correct solution was also shown by Cheron (1952), quoting Sacconi; however, the analysis of the latter, beginning with the 6th move, is incorrect, and leads to the erroneous conclusion that White wins.)} 2. Ke2 (2. g3+ {, any move by the king onto a white square is sufficient to draw: %05If} Kf5 (2... Kg4 {%05Simplest of all is ! =}) 3. Kf3 (3. h4 g5 4. h5 g4 {=}) (3. h3 g5 4. Ke3 Ke5 {Draw.} (4... g4 {%05or} 5. h4 Ke5 {-~3($41154)~})) 3... Kg5 {, as in the main variation;}) 2... Ke4 {!} 3. g3 Kf5 {!} (3... g5 {? , which loses immediately to %05Berger and Fine continue} 4. h3 $18) (3... g6 {? %05Black also loses after} 4. h4 Ke5 (4... Kf5 5. Kf3 g5 (5... Ke5 {and 7. h5 %05or}) 6. g4+) 5. Ke3 g5 6. h5 Kf5 (6... g4 7. h6) 7. g4+ Ke5 8. Kd3 (8. Kf3 {%05this is simpler than} Kf6)) 4. Kf3 (4. h4 Kg4 5. Kf2 {is obviously weak in view of} g5 {=}) (4. h3 {transposes into the main variation after %05while} Ke4 (4... Ke6 { %05or =}) (4... g5 {?} 5. Kd3 {!}) (4... g6 {?} 5. Ke3 {!}) 5. Kf2 (5. h4 { %05or} Kf5 6. Kf3 g6 {!} 7. g4+ Kf6 {! -~3($41227)~}) 5... Kf5 6. Ke3 (6. Kf3 g5 {!}) 6... Ke5 7. Kf3 Kf5 8. g4+ Kg5 {! =}) 4... Kg5 {!} (4... g6 {? %05but not} 5. h4) (4... g5 {? %05or} 5. g4+ {~3- ($40194)~}) 5. h3 (5. h4+ {, then %05if} Kh5 6. Kf4 g6 {~3- ($41231)~}) (5. g4 {there follows %05while on} Kh4 {! }) 5... Kf5 {!} 6. Ke3 {%05Grigoriev analysis sets Black one further small test.} (6. h4 {%05Cheron continues here} g6 {!} (6... Kg6 {? %05Sacconi considers only}) (6... g5 {%05and}) 7. g4+ Kf6 {! draw ~3($41227)~}) (6. g4+ { %05The same finish results from} Kg5 7. Kg3 g6 {!}) 6... Ke5 7. Kd3 Kd5 { ! How should one interpret this exclamation mark, attached without any explanation?} (7... g5 {White wins by %05It is natural that on} 8. Ke3) (7... g6 {, White achieves the same by the subtle %05but if Black keeps a tempo in reserve by playing} 8. Ke2 {!! with the following continuations:} Ke4 (8... Kf5 9. Ke3) (8... Ke6 9. Kf3) (8... Kf6 9. Kf3 $18 {, and wins.}) 9. h4) 8. h4 Ke5 9. Ke3 Kf5 10. Kf3 g6 {!} 11. g4+ Kf6 {! , with a draw as in example ~3($41227) ~.} * [Event "Budapest (Hungary)"] [Site "Budapest (Hungary)"] [Date "1925.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Sarkozy"] [Black "Zinner"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/6p1/8/4k3/8/5K2/6PP/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] [EventDate "1925.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ337 %212045826630=4HLJ339 %212045826630=4HLJ349 White's active king position enables him to win easily in the following example.} 1. Kg4 {!} Kf6 2. h4 (2. Kh5 {%05Also possible is} Kf5 3. g3 Kf6 4. g4 $18 {gradually driving back the king.}) 2... Kg6 3. h5+ Kh6 4. Kh4 Kh7 (4... g6 {, then %05if} 5. hxg6 Kxg6 6. Kg4 $18 {%04etc.}) 5. Kg5 Kg8 6. Kg6 Kh8 7. h6 Kg8 8. g4 $18 {, and White won.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1936.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/5pp1/7k/4K3/8/6P1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "17"] [EventDate "1936.??.??"] 1. Kd5 {%05White is saved by an attack on the pawns from the side and from the rear:} Kg4 (1... Kg5 {%05 Nothing changes if after 1. Kd5 Black plays more reservedly, and tries to dislodge the white king from the corresponding squares:} 2. Ke6 f5 3. Kf7 f4 (3... Kh5 4. Kf6 Kh6 5. Ke6 {!} Kg5 6. Ke5 Kg4 7. Kf6 Kh5 (7... g5 8. Ke5 {=}) 8. g3 {!= with a draw}) 4. Ke6 {!} Kg4 5. Kf6 Kh5 6. Ke6 {!} (6. Ke5 {?} g5 {!}) 6... Kg4 7. Kf6 g5 8. Kg6 {!} Kh4 9. Kf5 {! =}) (1... Kh6 2. Ke6 f5 (2... Kg7 {%05or} 3. g4 {!}) 3. g3 {!}) (1... f5 2. Ke6 f4 3. Kf6 g5 4. Ke5 {!}) 2. Ke6 {!} f5 (2... Kg5 3. g3 {!} (3. Kf7 {?} Kf5 {!}) 3... f5 4. Kf7 {!} Kh5 5. Kf6 {!} Kh6 6. Ke6 {!}) 3. Kf6 g5 4. Ke5 {!} f4 { Black has advanced his pawns as far as he can, but that is the limit of his success: he can neither win the g2 pawn without losing both his pawns, nor exchange pawns without losing his g-pawn.} 5. Kf6 {!} Kh4 6. Kf5 {! A characteristic position for the kings: the side that achieves it by his move places the opponent in zugzwang.} Kh5 7. Ke5 {! Again the only move.} (7. Ke4 { ? , then %05If} Kg4 {and 8... f3.}) 7... Kg6 (7... Kg4 {there follows %05But now on} 8. Kf6 {=}) 8. Ke4 {!} Kh5 {(9. g3 was threatened)} 9. Ke5 {! Draw. It should nevertheless be clearly understood that, although Black cannot win here, this is only because for free manoeuvring he does not have at his disposal another file (to the right of the h-file). This is explained in the following examples.} * [Event "St. Petersburg (Russia)"] [Site "St. Petersburg (Russia)"] [Date "1909.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Spielmann Rudolf (AUT)"] [Black "Rubinstein Akiba K (POL)"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/5pK1/4k3/6p1/8/5P2/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "8"] [EventDate "1909.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ337 %212045826630=4HLJ339 %212045826630=4HLJ349} 1. Kh6 {! %05In this position White resigned. Rabinovich (1938) gave the following possible variation:} f5 2. Kh5 {!} Kd4 {!! here is the move, the equivalent of which Black did not have in example ~3($41235)~} 3. Kh4 (3. Kg5 {%05or} Ke4 {!$19}) 3... Kd3 {!} 4. Kg3 (4. Kg5 {%05or}) 4... Ke4 $19 {, and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1936.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Halberstadt Vitaly (FRA)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/3p2K1/8/2P5/8/1k1P4/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] [EventDate "1936.??.??"] 1. Kf6 Kb4 (1... Kc3 2. Ke7 Kd4 3. Kd6 $18) 2. d4 Kb5 (2... Kc4 3. Ke5 {!}) 3. Kf5 {!} (3. Ke5 {?} Kc6 4. Ke4 (4. Kf6 {%05or} Kd5 {!}) 4... d6) (3. Ke7 { ? %05or}) 3... Kb4 4. Ke4 {!} Kc4 5. Ke5 {and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1936.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/6p1/8/8/8/6PK/5P2/4k3 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] [EventDate "1936.??.??"] 1. Kg2 {! %05To win, White must exploit the distant position of the black king. } (1. f4 {cannot achieve anything after %05Here} Kf2 {(this is clear from example ~3($41235)~ ).}) (1. f3 {= %05or}) 1... Ke2 2. g4 {!} (2. f4 {? %05Now the king must not be granted the e3 square, e.g.} Ke3 3. Kh3 g6 {!}) (2. f3 { ? %05or} Ke3 3. g4 g6 {!} 4. Kg3 g5 {- draw.}) 2... Kd3 3. Kf3 {!} (3. Kh3 { %05Other moves lead to a draw:} Ke4 4. Kg3 g5) (3. f4 Ke4 4. Kg3 g6 {!}) (3. Kg3 Ke4 {!} 4. f3+ Ke5 5. f4+ Ke4 6. g5 (6. f5 {, then %05if} Ke5 7. Kh4 Ke4 {! }) 6... Kf5 7. Kf3 Ke6 {%04etc.}) 3... g5 4. Kg2 {!} (4. Kg3 {?} Ke4 5. f3+ Ke3 ) 4... Kd4 (4... Ke4 {, then %05If} 5. Kg3 Ke5 {(otherwise 6. f4)} 6. Kf3 Kd4 7. Ke2 Ke4 8. f3+ Kd4 9. Kd2 Kd5 10. Kd3 $18 {, and wins.}) 5. Kf1 {!} (5. Kf3 {%05But now nothing is achieved by either} Kd3) (5. Kg3 {%05or} Ke4) (5. Kh3 { %05or} Ke5 6. Kg3 Ke4) 5... Ke5 (5... Kd3 {there follows %05on} 6. f4) 6. Ke2 Ke4 (6... Kf4 {, then %05if} 7. f3) (6... Kd4 {%05or} 7. f3) 7. f3+ $18 { , and White wins. An analytical gem!} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1930.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "K7/8/1k6/1p6/8/2P5/1P6/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "35"] [EventDate "1930.??.??"] 1. b3 {!} (1. b4 {? does not work because of %05the threat of ... b4 must be averted, but} Ka6 {! with a draw}) 1... Ka5 (1... Ka6 2. b4 Kb6 3. Kb8 $18 { , and wins}) 2. Kb8 {!} (2. b4+ {?} Ka6) (2. Kb7 {?} b4 3. c4 {- stalemate}) 2... b4 (2... Kb6 3. b4) 3. c4 Kb6 4. Kc8 Kc6 5. Kd8 Kd6 6. Ke8 Ke6 7. Kf8 Kf6 8. Kg8 Kg6 9. Kh8 Kf6 (9... Kh6 10. c5) 10. Kh7 Kf7 11. Kh6 Kf6 12. Kh5 Kf5 13. Kh4 Kf4 14. Kh3 Kf5 (14... Kf3 15. c5) 15. Kg3 Kg5 16. Kf3 Kf5 17. Ke3 Ke5 18. Kd3 $18 {, and White wins. This amusing king march provoked a number of imitative studies.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5k1p/8/5KPP/8/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] {If the weaker side has a rook's pawn, the number of drawn positions increases considerably. These endings occur very often in practice, and therefore deserve special attention.} 1... Kg7 {%05but he can also continue} (1... h6 { %05It is of no importance whether the king is at f7 or g7. If it is Black to move he plays} 2. g6+ Kg7 {=}) 2. Ke6 Kh8 (2... Kg8 {%05or} 3. Kf6 Kh8 4. g6 Kg8 {!= , with a draw.}) 3. Kf7 h6 {=} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5k1p/8/5KPP/8/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "1"] 1. h6 {leads to position ~3($40181)~. %05If it is White to move,} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/5k1p/8/5KPP/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "2"] 1... h5 {%05Black is no longer saved by} (1... Ke6 {%05or by} 2. Ke4 Kf6 3. Kd5 Kg6 4. Ke5 Kg7 5. Kf5 Kf7 6. h5 $18) 2. g5+ {~3($40146)~} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/5k1p/8/5KPP/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "1"] 1. h5 {leads to a draw ~3($40184)~. %05With White to move,} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/6kp/8/6PP/6K1/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "1"] {If the kings have not approached as near as possible, the manoeuvring takes place on the basis of the normal opposition.} 1... Kg6 {! %05After a move by the white king onto the f-file, Black draws by taking the opposition on it. If it is Black's move, he draws by} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/5k1p/8/6PP/8/6K1 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "1"] 1. Kf1 {! %05The win is achieved by Black to move draws by 1... Kg5(g6) or 1... Ke5(e6).} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/8/5k1p/8/5KPP/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] {The result clearly does not change if position~3 ( 243)~ is moved one rank down, but if it is moved two ranks down the result will again be a draw, irrespective of the turn to move.} 1... Ke4 (1... h3 {?} 2. g3+ Kg4 3. Ke3 Kg5 4. Kd4 {!$18}) 2. Ke2 Kf4 3. Kd3 h3 {!} 4. g3+ Kf3 {%04etc. Thus in the examples considered ~3( 241) - ( 246)~ a draw is inevitable if the black pawn or the white pawns are on their initial squares; in intermediate positions the possession of the opposition is the decisive factor. If the kings differently placed, the result may change. For example, if in example ~3( 246)~ the black king stands at g4, White to play can win} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "6k1/7p/7K/6PP/8/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "1"] {An interesting situation is illustrated by the following example.} 1. g6 { leads to a draw, but with Black to move (after 1... Kh8)^013^010 2. g6 wins. We have here a zugzwang position, in which the turn to move is unfavourable for either side. There is a similar zugzwang in the position with the black king at h8 and the pawn at g4. ~2It follows that, when the connected pawns stand on squares of different colour, the kings too should occupy squares of different colour: while if the connected pawns are on squares of the same colour.~ This observation (Bahr, 1936) simplifies preliminary calculations.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/6kp/8/6K1/6P1/7P/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "3"] 1... Kg8 {! %05The connected pawns stand on squares of the same colour, therefore a draw is given by} 2. Kh6 Kh8 {!} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/6kp/8/6K1/6P1/7P/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "4"] 1. h4 {Black must play %05If} Kh8 {!} 2. Kh6 Kg8 {! Having free control over g8 and h8, Black cannot lose, whatever more order White resorts to.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "7k/7p/7K/7P/8/8/6P1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "1"] 1. g4 $40 {! while if his opponent begins he answers 1... Kg8 with^013^010 2. g3! %05But here, where the g-pawn has not yet moved,^013^010 %05White can always tip the scales in his favour. If he^013^010 %05begins, he plays, This ~2"colour rule"~ provides a quick evaluation of a position. Exceptions are provided by positions~3 ( 251)~ and ~3( 252)~ , in which White cannot win, in spite of the fact that one of his pawns has not yet moved.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/6kp/8/6KP/8/8/6P1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] 1. Kf5 {Black draws by any king move, except %05 White cannot place his king at h6, without making a preliminary move with his g-pawn, but in advancing it he loses all his advantage, and the result is a draw. After} Kh6 {? in view of} 2. Kg4 Kg7 3. Kg5 $18 {, when it is Black to move.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/6kp/8/6K1/6P1/8/7P/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "2"] 1. Kh5 {, then %05One of the pawns has advanced too far, and White does not have a tempo in reserve. If} h6 {! with a draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1911.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Marshall Frank J (USA)"] [Black "Schlechter Carl (AUT)"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/6p1/7p/5k2/8/4K2P/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "4"] [EventDate "1911.??.??"] 1... Kg4 {%05It is easy to see that after} (1... Ke4 {? %05Instead of this the game continued} 2. Kf2 Kd3 {(this by-pass is ineffective here)} 3. Kf3 g5 4. Kf2 Ke4 5. Ke2 Kf4 6. Kf2 Kg4 7. Kg2 h4 8. h3+ {Drawn.}) 2. Kf2 Kh3 3. Kg1 { White is unable to occupy the corresponding (by colour) h1 square and is bound to lose.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/6pp/5k2/8/5K1P/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] {Thus here the stronger side is not even helped by the fact that his king is in front of his pawns.} 1. Kg2 {%05As we have seen, Black to move cannot win, but even with White to move there is no win:} Kg4 2. Kh1 (2. Kf2 {is also possible}) (2. Kf1 {%05or}) 2... Kf3 (2... Kh3 3. Kg1 {-~3($40249)~}) 3. Kg1 g4 (3... h4 {%05or}) 4. Kf1 {!} (4. Kh1 {?} Kf2 5. h3 (5. h4 {%05or} Kg3 $19) 5... g3 $19) 4... h4 5. Kg1 (5. h3 {%05or}) 5... g3 6. hxg3 {Draw.} (6. h3 {= %05or} ) * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1930.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/7k/7p/8/7K/6PP/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "27"] [EventDate "1930.??.??"] {A comment should be added to Grigoriev's analysis. Black does not lose because his pawn has been weakened by its advance to h6, as might seem to be the case at first sight. The reason for his defeat lies in the unfavourable position of his king at h7. With his king at g7 it would be a draw, e.g. 1. Kh5 Kh7 2. h4 Kg7 3. Kg4 Kf6! (this is the whole point; 3... Kg6? loses to 4. Kf3!). Now on 4. Kf3 there follows 4... Kg6!, while 4. Kf4 can be met by 4... Ke6 or 4... h5. Thus if it is Black to play in our example, he draws by 1... Kg7! The same idea, but in a different situation, provides the main interest in following example.} {The following examples show the manoeuvring of the kings in positions with various features.} 1. Kh5 {!} (1. g4 {? %05 In this position, which is a very important one for theory, White wins only if it is his move.^013^010 It should first he mentioned that the black king should not be allowed to go to g6 earlier than necessary:}) 1... Kg7 2. h4 {!} Kh7 { (White's preparations are complete)} 3. Kg4 {!} Kg6 4. Kf3 {!!} (4. Kf4 {%05Now } Kf6 (4... Kh5 {! , and %05but in fact on 4. Kf4? there follows} 5. Kf5 { is not possible due to stalemate} (5. Kf3 {, then %05while if} Kg6 6. Ke4 Kf6 7. g4 Ke6 {- draw. This zugzwang position arising after 4... Kh5! is the reason for the subsequent play.})) 5. g4 {appears to win,}) 4... Kf5 (4... Kh5 {%05Other moves do not help:} 5. Kf4 {(now it is Black who is in zugzwang!)} Kg6 6. Ke5 {!} Kh5 7. Kf6 {!}) (4... h5 5. Ke4) (4... Kf6 {%05or} 5. Ke4) (4... Kf7 5. g4 Ke7 6. Ke3 Kf7 7. Kd4) (4... Kg7 5. Kf4 {!} (5. g4 {?} Kf7 {!}) (5. Ke4 {?} Kf6 {!}) 5... Kf6 6. g4 Ke6 7. Ke4 {, and wins.}) 5. g4+ Ke5 6. Ke3 { , and White wins, e.g.} Kd5 7. Kf4 Ke6 8. Ke4 Kf6 9. Kd5 Ke7 10. Ke5 Kf7 11. Kf5 Kg7 12. Ke6 {But the position for which he was aiming can be achieved by force by a simple transposition of moves:} h5 {!} (12... Kg6 {(with the intention of 13. Ke7 h5), overlooking %05Here Grigoriev, wishing to take play into a theoretically interesting position with the %05maximum difficulties for White, committed an inaccuracy:} 13. h5+ Kg5 14. Kf7) 13. g5 Kg6 14. Kd6 { !! , since the moves necessary for retaining the^013^010 opposition,^013^010 14... Kf6 or 14... Kh6, are not possible ~3($40146)~. %05Correct is} (14. Ke7 { %05Now} Kg7) (14. Ke5 {%05and} Kf7 {!} 15. Kf5 Kg7 16. Ke6 {!} Kg6 {lead only to a loss of time.}) * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1930.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/6p1/7p/5k2/7K/8/7P/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] [EventDate "1930.??.??"] 1. Kh5 {!} (1. h3 {? because of %05Of course, not} Kf4) (1. Kh3 {? Black also wins by %05It is important for the theory of these endings that on} Kg5 2. Kg3 h5 {! , e.g.} 3. Kf3 (3. Kh3 h4 4. Kg2 Kg4) (3. h3 Kf5 4. Kh4 (4. Kf3 g5) 4... g6 {(the same zugzwang as in example ~3($41255)~ )} 5. Kg3 Ke4 {%04etc.}) 3... Kh4) (1. Kg3 {? in view of %05nor} Kg5 2. Kf3 Kh4 {, transporting into position ~3($41250).~}) 1... Kf6 (1... Kf4 2. Kg6 Kf3 3. Kxg7 h5 {does not give a win in view of the by-passing manoeuvre^013^010 Kf6-e5-d4-e3 ~3($4187).~ }) 2. h4 {!} Kf7 (2... Ke7 {%05In contrast to example ~3($41255),~ here it is the %05weaker^013^010 %05side that uses zugzwang to his advantage. A draw^013^010 %05results both from} 3. Kg6 Kf8 4. h5) (2... Ke5 {%05and from} 3. Kg6 Kf4 4. Kxg7 h5 5. Kf6 {!}) 3. Kg4 Ke6 (3... g6 4. Kf3 {!}) 4. Kf4 (4. Kh5 { ?} Kf6 {!} 5. Kg4 Ke5 {, and wins}) 4... g6 5. Ke4 {Draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1763.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Lolli"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/7p/8/5k2/8/8/5KPP/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] [EventDate "1763.??.??"] 1... Kf4 {%05This position initially provoked conflicting assessments. With Black to move the draw is simple:} 2. g3+ (2. h3 h6 {!} 3. g3+ Kf5 4. Kf3 h5) 2... Kg4 3. Kg2 h5 4. h3+ Kg5 {!} 5. Kf3 Kf5 {=} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/7p/8/5k2/8/8/5KPP/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "8"] 1. Kf3 {%05It wasn't immediately that the correct defence was found with White to play:} (1. Kg3 Kg5 2. h4+ (2. h3 {%05or} h6 {!}) 2... Kf5) 1... h5 {! (Reichhelm, 1873)} 2. Ke3 (2. Kg3 Kg5) (2. h3 h4) (2. h4 Ke5 3. g3 Kf5) 2... Ke5 3. g3 Kf5 4. h3 Ke5 {%04etc. =} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/7p/8/4K1k1/8/8/6PP/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] {This position arose from the previous one at the time when (under the influence of Lolli and Walker) it was thought that Black did best not to move his pawn from h7 (1. Kf3 Kg5 2. Ke4 Kg4 3. Ke5 Kg5). Analysis by White in 1873 showed a win here.} 1. Ke6 Kg6 {if the king moves anywhere other than g6, then 2. Kf6} (1... h5 {, then %05Cheron (1952) observes that if} 2. Ke5 {!} (2. Kf7 {?} h4 {! with the threat of 3... h3} 3. h3 Kf5 {! with a draw}) 2... Kg4 3. Kf6 {and 4. h3}) (1... h6 {%05while if} 2. Kf7 h5 3. h3 h4 4. Kg7) 2. h3 Kg7 ( 2... h6 {%05Other moves also fail to draw:} 3. g3) (2... h5 3. h4) (2... Kg5 3. Kf7 Kh6 (3... h5 4. g3 Kf5 5. h4 Kg4 6. Kg6 $18) 4. Kf6 Kh5 5. Kg7 h6 6. g3 Kg5 7. h4+ Kh5 8. Kh7 $18) 3. Kf5 {, and White wins, e.g.} Kf7 4. Kg5 Kg7 5. h4 Kf7 6. Kh6 {etc. ~3 ($40250)~.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/7p/5k2/8/5K2/8/6PP/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "19"] {The winning path here is not the only one, but accurate play is required, taking account of the positions examined earlier. With reserve pawn moves at his disposal, White should leave at least one pawn in its place, and move it only in definitely won positions.} 1. Kg4 {%05With White to play:} Kg6 2. h3 h6 3. g3 Kf6 4. Kf4 Kg6 (4... Ke6 5. h4 Kf6 6. g4 $18) 5. Ke5 (5. g4 {also wins}) (5. h4 {? %05but not} Kh5 {! ~3- ($41256)~}) 5... Kh5 6. Ke6 Kg5 7. Kf7 h5 8. h4+ Kf5 9. Kg7 Kg4 10. Kg6 $18 {%04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/7p/5k2/8/5K2/8/6PP/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "14"] 1... Kg6 {%05With Black to play:} (1... h6 {, any pawn move wins. E.g. %05In the event of} 2. h3 (2. h4 Kg6 3. Kg4 {!! (~3($40256)~, cf. the note to White's 1st move)} Kf6 4. g3 Kg6 5. Kf3 {~3($40255)~.}) 2... Kg6 3. h4 {!} Kh5 4. g3 {~3($40256)~}) 2. Kg4 (2. Ke5 {is also possible, transposing into example ~3 ($40259)~}) 2... Kh6 3. Kf5 Kh5 4. Kf6 Kh6 5. h4 (5. Kf7 Kg5 6. Kg7 {?} h5 {! %04draw}) 5... Kh5 6. g3 Kg4 (6... Kh6 7. Kf7 $18) 7. Kg7 Kxg3 8. h5 {, and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1936.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Dedrle Frantishek (CZE)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/7p/8/3K1k2/8/8/6PP/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] [EventDate "1936.??.??"] 1. Kd6 {%05This example combines many of the ideas presented earlier, with the black king having rather greater freedom of manoeuvre (in comparison with previous positions).} (1. Kd4 {?} Kf4) (1. h3 {?} Kf4 2. Ke6 Kg3 3. Kf6 Kxg2 4. h4 Kf3 {! , with a by-pass}) 1... h6 (1... Kf6 2. Kd7 Kf7 {is futile in view of } 3. h3 Kf8 (3... Kf6 4. Ke8 h5 5. g3) 4. Ke6) (1... h5 {,then not %05while if} 2. Ke7 {?} (2. Kd5 {%05but !} h4 3. h3 Kf4 4. Ke6 {, and wins.}) 2... h4 { (with the threat of ... h3)} 3. h3 Ke5 {! , when the white king is shut out}) 2. h3 {!} Kf6 {!} (2... h5 {there follows %05On} 3. Ke7 h4 4. Kf7) (2... Kf4 { , then %05if instead} 3. Ke6 Kg3 4. Kf5 {!} Kxg2 5. h4 {etc., the} Kf3 { by-pass does not succeed due to the king at f5.}) 3. Kd7 {!} (3. g3 {? fails to win after} Kf5 4. Kd5 (4. Ke7 {%05or} Ke4 5. Kf6 Kf3 6. h4 Kxg3 7. h5 Kf4 { ! (the white king has not managed to occupy f5).}) 4... Kf6 5. Ke4 Ke6 { ~3($41253)~} 6. g4 Kf6 7. Kf4 Kg6 8. h4 Kf6) 3... Kf7 4. g3 {!} Kf6 (4... h5 { %05Or} 5. h4 Kf6 6. Kd6 {!} Kf5 7. Ke7 {! ~3($40260).~}) 5. Ke8 {!} (5. Kd6 { ? %05 Now White only has to avoid} Kf5 {with a draw (cf. the note to White's 3rd move).}) 5... Kf5 6. Kf7 Ke4 7. Kg6 $40 {, and wins. It will be expedient in conclusion to return to the Grigoriev positions of type ~3 ( 255)~ and ~3 ( 256)~ (some of the most complicated in this kind of ending), and make the acquaintance of certain earlier positions, and also of some later analyses.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1921.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Reti & Mandler"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "5k2/6p1/7p/8/7P/7K/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] [EventDate "1921.??.??"] {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/503I2/401I02I01I1/4XAXA102D/ 402D01D03D1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) Black has a tempo in reserve (... g6). Therefore White must avoid taking the vertical opposition, since after ... g6 he will be in zugzwang (and the opposition will pass to Black). This reveals the following correspondence of the front-line squares (the critical squares being e5 and f5, onto which the black king must not be allowed): ... Ke6 or ... Kg6 corresponds to Kf4, and ... Kf6 to Ke4 (at the distance of a knight's move!). But on ... Kf6 White cannot reply Kg4 (because of ... Ke5, winning). This disturbance of the correspondence harmony is explained by that tactical feature, characteristic of the given pawn structure, which was shown in position ~3( 256)~ (on ... Kf6 White can play Kh5, since ... Kf5, which would ensure a win in the position moved to the left, does not work because of stalemate). Hence the following corresponding squares are additionally defined: ... Kf6/Kh5 and ... Kf7/Kg4.} 1. Kg3 {! The establishment of these features is sufficient for the playing procedure to be perfectly understandable: %15N #B(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/503I2/401I02I01I1/4XAXA102D/ 402D01D03D1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/503I2/401I02I01I1/4XAXA102D/402D01D03D1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8)} (1... Kf7 {%04with %05to answer %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(8/503I2/401I02I01I1/4XAXA102D/402D01D03D1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kg4 {! %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/503I2/401I02I01I1/ 4XAXA102D/402D01D03D1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf6 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/503I2/401I02I01I1/4XAXA102D/402D01D03D1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} (2... Ke6 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/ 503I2/401I02I01I1/4XAXA102D/402D01D03D1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kf4 { %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/503I2/401I02I01I1/4XAXA102D/ 402D01D03D1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)}) (2... Kg6 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/503I2/401I02I01I1/4XAXA102D/402D01D03D1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kf4 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/503I2/ 401I02I01I1/4XAXA102D/402D01D03D1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kh5 {%15N #B(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/503I2/401I02I01I1/4XAXA102D/402D01D03D1/ 8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kg3 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8) #C(8/503I2/401I02I01I1/4XAXA102D/402D01D03D1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) - ($40)}) 3. Kh5 {Draw. %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/503I2/ 401I02I01I1/4XAXA102D/402D01D03D1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)}) 2. Kf3 {! %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/503I2/401I02I01I1/4XAXA102D/ 402D01D03D1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf6 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/503I2/401I02I01I1/4XAXA102D/402D01D03D1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8)} 3. Ke4 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/503I2/ 401I02I01I1/4XAXA102D/402D01D03D1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) ! %04Draw} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1934.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Bahr Peter (GER)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "4k3/8/7p/8/6P1/7P/8/4K3 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] [EventDate "1934.??.??"] {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/401I02I01I1/8/402D01D2/8/ 8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) Here too White has a reserve tempo, and it is clear in advance that Black will place his king at a knight's move from White's One position of mutual zugzwang is Kf4/Kg6 (in the event of h3-h4 there follows ... Kf6; if instead of h3-h4 the king moves, then ... h5, and vice versa: if ... h5, then g4-g5, while on ... Kf6 there follows h3-h4). But Kf4/Ke6 is also a zugzwang position, and thus the frontline corresponding squares are determined. } 1. Kd2 {! Therefore the play develops as follows: %05Black is ruined by the fact that, until h3-h4 is played, he cannot take the opposition. The win is achieved by %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/401I02I01I1/8/ 402D01D2/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/401I02I01I1/8/402D01D2/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (1... Kf7 { , then %05If now %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/ 401I02I01I1/8/402D01D2/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. h4 {! , and a winning position is reached where White begins a by-pass with the aim of transforming the distant opposition into close opposition. %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/401I02I01I1/8/402D01D2/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)}) (1... Kd7 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/401I02I01I1/8/ 402D01D2/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Ke3 {! %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/401I02I01I1/8/402D01D2/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)}) 2. Kd3 {! %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/401I02I01I1/8/402D01D2/ 8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke6 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/401I02I01I1/8/301D02D01D2/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kd4 {! , and White wins, since on %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/ 401I02I01I1/8/402D01D2/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd6 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/401I02I01I1/8/402D01D2/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) } (3... Kf6 {%05or}) 4. h4 {!$18 ~3($40243)~} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1936.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Bahr Peter (GER)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5k2/6pp/8/8/7P/8/5K2 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "0"] [EventDate "1936.??.??"] {White has one reserve tempo at his disposal, and Black has two. The advance of any one of the pawns leads to situations already considered - each with its own features, i.e. its own system of critical and corresponding squares. Since the black king cannot be prevented from occupying e5 or f5, the most important thing for White is to defend the critical squares e4 and f4. With the king at f5 this can apparently be achieved by Kf3 or Ke3.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1936.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Bahr Peter (GER)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/6pp/5k2/8/4K2P/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "1"] [EventDate "1936.??.??"] {Black in both cases occupying the necessary correspondence with his king.} { But Ke3? in reply to ... Kf5 does not work} 1... h5 {Black can make a favourable transposition into positions^013^010 of type ~3($41263)~ %05 since by} (1... g5 {can transpose into position ~3 ($41264)~ %05or}) * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1936.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Bahr Peter (GER)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/6pp/5k2/8/5K1P/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "2"] [EventDate "1936.??.??"] {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/501I2/8/501D2/8/8) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) Therefore the only correct defence to ... Kf5 is Kf3 (the opposition!)} 1... g5 {%05If %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/ 8/8/501I2/8/501D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (1... h5 {%05if} 2. h4 {%05then} ( 2. Ke3 {%05or})) 2. Kg3 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/ 501I2/8/501D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) = %05then} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1936.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Bahr Peter (GER)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5k2/6pp/8/8/7P/8/5K2 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] [EventDate "1936.??.??"] {Obviously a draw is also inevitable when it is Black to move.} {%15N #B(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/404I03I2/402I01I2/8/402D01D2/404D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) The other front-line corresponding squares will be e3/e5 and hence also the adjacent rear squares f2/f6 and e2/e6 (for the remaining rear squares further away, the opposition is no longer demanded)} 1. Ke1 { ! %05It is clear that the draw is given by %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/404I03I2/402I01I2/8/402D01D2/404D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/404I03I2/402I01I2/8/ 402D01D2/404D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kf1 {! (retaining the possibility of taking the opposition at e2 or f2 when Black moves to e6 or f6) %15N #B(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/404I03I2/402I01I2/8/402D01D2/404D03D2/ 8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf6 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/ 8/404I03I2/402I01I2/8/402D01D2/404D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kf2 { %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/404I03I2/402I01I2/8/ 402D01D2/404D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kg5 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/404I03I2/402I01I2/8/402D01D2/404D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8)} 4. Kg3 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/404I03I2/ 402I01I2/8/402D01D2/404D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kh5 {Now the simplest is %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/404I03I2/402I01I2/8/ 402D01D2/404D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. h4 {!} (5. Kg2 {also does not lose %05but}) (5. Kh2 {? ~3- ($40255)~ %05but not}) * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1936.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Bahr Peter (GER)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/6k1/7p/8/8/7P/6P1/4K3 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] [EventDate "1936.??.??"] {Here White's possibilities are wider: he can bring about either the necessity for knight's opposition by g2-g4, or the necessity for opposition play by g2-g3. But this latter move can be neutralized by ... h5. Therefore Black should play for the opposition, so that in reply to g2-g4 he can switch to knight's correspondence.} 1... Kf7 {%05E.g., with Black to move:} 2. Kf1 Ke7 { (manoeuvring deep in the rear, Black waits)} 3. Ke2 Ke6 {!} 4. Kf3 Kf5 5. g3 ( 5. g4+ {%05or} Kg5) 5... h5 {= Draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/6k1/7p/8/8/7P/6P1/4K3 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] 1. Ke2 {! (with the critical squares being e4, f4 and g4, and the main file the f-file, White begins a by-pass) %05But if White begins, he himself seizes the opposition, forcing Black either to be the first to move a pawn, or to make way for the white king, or to allow White to switch to a favourable system of corresponding squares.} Kf6 2. Kf2 {!} Kg5 3. Ke3 {!} Kf5 4. Kf3 Ke5 (4... h5 5. g3) (4... Kg5 5. Ke4) 5. Kg4 Kf6 6. Kf4 {!} (6. Kh5 {is pointless -~3 ($40255)~, but now White controls the critical squares}) 6... Kg6 (6... Ke6 {%05or}) 7. g4 {, and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/4p3/2p5/2K5/8/8/P4k2/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] {~15.2 ISOLATED PAWNS~ If there is no threat of the weaker side's pawn queening, two pawns usually win easily against one, when both pawns are passed or they stand sufficiently far apart. In the latter case the weaker side's king will be unable simultaneously to defend its own pawn and to prevent the advance of the enemy pawn. But if the exchange of one of the pawns is inevitable, the outcome will naturally be decided only by the possibilities afforded in the ending of king and pawn against king. The material will be grouped according to whether or not the stronger side has a passed pawn. ~15. 21 All pawns passed~ These cases are on the whole straightforward, provided they do not transpose into queen endings, or that the material advantage is not countered by significant positional defects. The latter may complicate the play, and at times lead to an unexpected result.} 1. Kd4 {! %05 Black's defeat results from the close placing of his pawns and the unfavourable position of his king. At the basis of the study is the ending of pawn against pawn.} (1. Kxc6 {? %05a draw follows after} Kf3 2. Kd5 Kf4 {%04etc.}) 1... c5+ (1... Kf3 { is inadequate in view of %05But now} 2. a4 {!} Kf4 3. a5 e5+ 4. Kc3) (1... e5+ {, then %05while if} 2. Kxe5 (2. Ke4 {?} Ke2 3. a4 c5 4. Kxe5 Kd3 {- draw}) 2... Ke3 3. a4 (3. Kd6 {?} Kd4) 3... Kd3 {!} 4. a5 c5 5. a6 c4 6. a7 c3 7. a8=Q c2 8. Qd5+ {! and wins.}) 2. Kxc5 Kg3 {!} (2... e5 {is hopeless:} 3. Kd5 Ke3 4. Kxe5 Kd3 5. Kd5 Kc3 6. Kc5) 3. a4 (3. Kd4 {? is not possible, due to %05But now } Kf4 4. a4 e5+ 5. Kc3 e4 {(with the threat of 6... Ke5)} 6. a5 e3 {!} 7. a6 Kg3 {! , with a draw.}) 3... e5 4. a5 e4 5. Kd4 {! , and White wins:} Kf4 6. a6 e3 7. Kd3 Kf3 8. a7 {%04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1928.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/2p1p3/8/8/4K1P1/k7/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "3"] [EventDate "1928.??.??"] 1. Kd4 {!} e5+ (1... Kb3 {%05or} 2. g4 e5+ 3. Ke3 {!}) 2. Kc3 {! and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1941.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Herberg"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "7k/7P/8/7p/4P3/6K1/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] [EventDate "1941.??.??"] 1. Kh4 Kg7 2. Kg5 Kxh7 3. Kxh5 {, and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1942.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Guy"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "4k3/8/5p2/2P5/2p5/8/8/6K1 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] [EventDate "1942.??.??"] 1. Kf2 Kd7 2. Ke3 Kc6 3. Kd4 c3 {!} 4. Kd3 {!} Kd5 5. Kc2 {!} Kc6 6. Kd3 c2 7. Kxc2 Kxc5 8. Kc3 {Draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1930.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Gulyaev Alexander P (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "K1k5/7p/P7/8/8/8/2P5/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "3"] [EventDate "1930.??.??"] 1. a7 h5 (1... h6 {%05or} 2. c4 {!}) 2. c3 {!= Draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1937.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Sevitov"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "K6k/7p/5P2/8/8/8/P7/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] [EventDate "1937.??.??"] 1. Kb7 h5 2. Kc6 Kg8 3. Kd5 Kf7 4. a4 {, and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/3pk3/8/2P2P2/3K4/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "2"] {~15.22 One passed pawn~ When the stronger side has only one passed pawn, his second pawn is usually on the same file as the enemy pawn: in this case they are frequently blocking each other. Of course, formations also occur where the pawns are not on the same, but on adjacent files. In this case the result is quickly determined by the possibility and expediency of an exchange. Theory has devoted hardly any attention to these endings, and here are virtually the only examples to be found in theoretical literature.} 1... d5 {is countered by %05The exchanging attempt} 2. c5 $18 * [Event "Vienna (Austria)"] [Site "Vienna (Austria)"] [Date "1922.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Alekhine Alexander A (RUS)"] [Black "Reti Richard (CZE)"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5k2/8/7P/1p4K1/8/P7/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "1"] [EventDate "1922.??.??"] 1... Kg7 {, and if White tries to win the b-pawn, Black picks up the h-pawn and then reaches c8 in time.^013^010 With pawns at a3/b5 (instead of a2/b4) White wins, while with pawns at a4/b6, apart from approaching the b-pawn, White can also win by stalemating the black king in the h8 corner and answering ... b5 with a4-a5 etc. This last example brings us by analogy to the practically important cases with blocked rook's pawns.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5k2/8/p4KP1/P7/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "0"] {%15N LI4(a4:d6) LD4(a3:d5) LA4(a2:d4) #B(8/8/3I14/3D1I13/3A1D1I12/3A1A1D1I11/ 3A1A1A1D1I1/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) The plan here is extremely simple: using his passed pawn to divert the enemy king, White heads for the rook's pawn with his king, and everything is decided in the ending with rook's pawn against king. In 1936 Bahr established a rule for determining the result in such endings. Depicted in the diagram are three triangles, which show the winning zone of the passed pawn. With blocked pawns at a4/5 the triangle is d2-d6-h2, with pawns at a3-a4 it is d2-d5-g2, and with pawns at a2-a3 it is d2-d4-f2. Note that this rule assumes only the placing of the kings as in the diagram: the stronger side's king is at the side of the pawn, and does not have the possibility of advancing. ~2Bahr's rule states that, with the kings placed as shown, the stronger side wins if his pawn has not yet moved out of the indicated zone.~ Let us examine a few positions, to become acquainted with the employment of this rule.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/5k2/p7/P4KP1/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "10"] {%15N #B(8/8/3I14/3I1I13/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I1I11/3I1I1I1I1I1/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Ke4 Kg5 2. Kd5 Kxg4 3. Kc5 Kf5 4. Kb5 Ke6 5. Kxa5 Kd7 {%04etc. =} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/4k3/p7/P3KP2/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] {%15N #B(8/8/3I14/3I1I13/3I11I12/3I1I1I1I11/3I1I1I1I1I1/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kd4 Kf5 2. Kc4 Kxf4 3. Kb5 Ke5 4. Kxa5 Kd6 5. Kb6 Kd7 6. Kb7 $18 {%04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1935.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Bahr Peter (GER)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/p7/P2k4/8/3KP3/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "25"] [EventDate "1935.??.??"] {Black can eliminate the a4 pawn, but White nevertheless wins by transposing into Lolli's ancient position. %15N #B(8/8/3I14/3I1I13/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I1I11/ 3I1I1I1I1I1/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. e3+ Kc4 2. Kc2 Kb4 3. Kd3 {!} Kxa4 4. Kc4 {!} Ka3 5. e4 Kb2 6. e5 {!} (6. Kb5 { ?} Kb3 {!} 7. Kxa5 Kc4 {with a draw}) 6... a4 7. e6 a3 8. e7 a2 9. e8=Q a1=Q { , and White easily sets up a mating net:} 10. Qe2+ Ka3 11. Qd3+ Kb2 12. Qd2+ Kb1 13. Kb3 {, and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1936.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/3k3p/7P/7K/4P3/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "21"] [EventDate "1936.??.??"] {%15N #B(8/8/4I13/3I1I13/2I1I1I13/1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/501I2/8/501D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) An exception to Bahr's rule was found by Grigoriev.} 1. Kg3 {! %05In manoeuvring with his king, White must avoid the opposition of the kings at f2/f4 when it is him to move: %15N #B(8/8/ 4I13/3I1I13/2I1I1I13/1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/ 501I2/8/501D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke4 {%15 N #B(8/8/4I13/3I1I13/2I1I1I13/ 1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/501I2/8/501D2/8) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kg2 {! %15 N #B(8/8/4I13/3I1I13/2I1I1I13/1I1I1I1I13/ I1I1I1I1I13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/501I2/8/501D02D1/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8)} Ke3 {%15 N #B(8/8/4I13/3I1I13/2I1I1I13/1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/8) #S(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/501I2/8/501D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (2... Kf4 { , then %05If %15 N #B(8/8/4I13/3I1I13/2I1I1I13/1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/8) #S(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/501I2/8/501D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kf2 { ! %15 N #B(8/8/4I13/3I1I13/2I1I1I13/1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8) #C(8/8/8/8/501I2/8/501D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kg4 4. Ke3 Kxh4 5. Kf4 {!} Kh3 6. e4 h4 7. e5 Kg2 8. e6 {, and White wins as in example~3 ($40282).~}) 3. Kf1 {%15 N #B(8/8/4I13/3I1I13/2I1I1I13/1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/501I2/8/501D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke4 {%15 N #B(8/8/4I13/ 3I1I13/2I1I1I13/1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/501I2/ 8/501D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Ke1 {! %15 N #B(8/8/4I13/3I1I13/2I1I1I13/ 1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/501I2/8/501D2/8) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke3 {%15 N #B(8/8/4I13/3I1I13/2I1I1I13/1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/ 8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/501I2/8/501D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kd1 {%15 N #B(8/8/4I13/3I1I13/2I1I1I13/1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8) #C(8/8/8/8/501I2/8/501D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf4 {%15 N #B(8/8/4I13/ 3I1I13/2I1I1I13/1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/501I2/ 8/501D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Kd2 {%15 N #B(8/8/4I13/3I1I13/2I1I1I13/ 1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/501I2/8/501D2/8) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke4 {%15 N #B(8/8/4I13/3I1I13/2I1I1I13/1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/ 8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/501I2/8/501D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 7. e3 { %15 N #B(8/8/4I13/3I1I13/2I1I1I13/1I1I1I1I13/I1I1I1I1I13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/501I2/8/501D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf3 8. Kd3 Kg3 9. Ke4 {!} Kg4 10. Ke5 Kxh4 11. Kf4 $18 {%04etc. !} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Bahr Peter (GER)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p7/8/7p/P1k4P/8/1K6/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] {In the following example White uses Bahr's rule to draw the ending.} 1. Kc2 { ! %05Correct is} (1. Ka3 {? %05It is clear that} Kc3 2. a5 Kc4 3. Ka4 Kc5 4. a6 Kb6 5. Kb4 Kxa6 6. Kc5 Kb7 7. Kb5 {loses, since the black pawn is inside the zone. %15N #B(8/I1I1I1I1I13/1I1I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/3I1I13/4I13/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)}) 1... Kb4 2. Kd3 {!} Kxa4 3. Kc4 {, pressing the opponent's king to the edge of the board and creating a zugzwang position. After} a6 4. Kc5 {!} Ka5 5. Kc4 Kb6 6. Kb4 {the draw becomes obvious. %15N #B(8/I1I1I1I1I13/1I1I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/3I1I13/4I13/8/8) #S (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1982.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Zinar M"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/4K1pk/p7/P7/8/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1982.??.??"] {%15N #B(8/3I1I1I1I11/3I1I1I12/3I1I13/3I14/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) The triangles shown in diagram ~3 ( 279)~ are an important guide, and a skilful use of them enables the correct plan to be found in the most varied positions.} 1. Kd6 {%15N #B(8/3I1I1I1I11/3I1I1I12/ 3I1I13/3I14/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) ! %05Here White is saved by the active position of his king. %05His problem is to lure the pawn out of the winning zone %05(the triangle d7-d4-g7). This is achieved as follows:} g5 {%15N #B(8/3I1I1I1I11/3I1I1I12/3I1I13/3I14/8/8/8) #S (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kc5 {! %15N #B(8/ 3I1I1I1I11/3I1I1I12/3I1I13/3I14/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} g4 {With the king threatening the a6 pawn, the g-pawn is forced to advance. But the king's manoeuvre has a dual aim: while threatening the pawn, it is simultaneously leading for g2.} 3. Kd4 {! %15N #B(8/3I1I1I1I11/ 3I1I1I12/3I1I13/3I14/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8)} Kg6 {%15N #B(8/3I1I1I1I11/3I1I1I12/3I1I13/3I14/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Ke3 {%15N #B(8/3I1I1I1I11/ 3I1I1I12/3I1I13/3I14/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8)} Kg5 {%15N #B(8/3I1I1I1I11/3I1I1I12/3I1I13/3I14/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kf2 {%15N #B(8/3I1I1I1I11/ 3I1I1I12/3I1I13/3I14/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8)} Kh4 {%15N #B(8/3I1I1I1I11/3I1I1I12/3I1I13/3I14/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Kg2 {Draw. %15N #B(8/ 3I1I1I1I11/3I1I1I12/3I1I13/3I14/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1979.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Zinar M"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p4p1k/8/P7/8/8/2K5/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "14"] [EventDate "1979.??.??"] {Subtle play arises in the following study.} 1. Kd3 {!} (1. a6 {does not succeed: the f7 pawn is inside the winning triangle, and the problem is again how to lure it out of there. %05The primitive %15N #B(8/3I1I1I12/3I1I13/3I14/8/ 8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)}) 1... Kg6 2. Ke4 {!} (2. Kc4 {? %05The straightforward} f5 {!} 3. Kd4 Kg5 4. Ke3 Kg4 5. Kf2 a6 {!} 6. Kg2 Kf4 {leads to a loss}) 2... Kf6 {!} (2... Kg5 {%05This is stronger than} 3. a6 {!} f5+ 4. Kf3 {with a draw %15N #B(8/3I1I1I12/3I1I13/ 3I14/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)}) ( 2... a6 {would have allowed a false attack: %05while} 3. Kd4 {!} f5 4. Ke3 { %15N #B(8/3I1I1I1I11/3I1I1I12/3I1I13/3I14/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) != %04etc.}) 3. Kd5 {!} Ke7 4. Kc6 {!} (4. a6 {? } Kd7 {%15N #B(8/3I1I1I12/3I1I13/3I14/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)}) 4... f5 5. Kd5 {This return king is the whole point!} (5. Kb7 {%05White loses after} f4 6. Kxa7 f3 7. a6 f2 8. Kb7 f1=Q 9. a7 Kd7 10. a8=Q Qb5+ 11. Ka7 Kc7 {%04etc.}) 5... Kf6 6. a6 {, and Black is in unusual form of zugzwang: if} Kg5 {, then} (6... f4 {%05while if} 7. Ke4 Kg5 8. Kf3 {, and the black pawn is outside the winning zone.}) 7. Kc6 {since} f4 { now leads only to a draw The manoeuvring of the kings in such situations is of a fairly complex nature, but the problem is normally always the same - to create a zugzwang position.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1982.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Zinar M"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/8/p1k5/5P2/P7/4K3 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] [EventDate "1982.??.??"] {Here are two further typical examples.} 1. Kd2 {%05Correct is} (1. Ke2 {%05If} Kc3 {!} 2. f4 {, then, as in the previous position, Black is saved by} Kd4 {!} 3. Kf3 a3 {! , when White is in zugzwang. %15N #B(8/8/8/8/3I14/3I1I13/3I1I1I12/ 8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)}) (1. Kd1 { %05White is also unsuccessful with} Kd3 2. Kc1 a3) 1... Kd4 (1... Kb4 {%05After } 2. Kc2 Ka3 3. Kb1 Kb4 4. Kb2 a3+ 5. Kc2 Kc4 6. f4 Kd4 7. Kb3 Ke4 8. Kxa3 Kxf4 9. Kb4 {White wins.}) 2. Kc1 {!} Kc5 (2... Ke3 {, then %05There is nothing better. If} 3. Kb2 Kxf3 4. Ka3 Ke4 5. Kxa4 Kd5 6. Kb5) (2... Kc3 {, then %05while if} 3. f4 Kd4 4. Kb2 Ke4 5. Ka3 Kxf4 6. Kxa4 Ke5 7. Kb5) 3. Kd1 {!} ( 3. Kb2 Kb4 4. f4 {? is incorrect due to} a3+ {!} 5. Kc1 Kc5 6. Kc2 Kc4 7. f5 Kd5 8. Kb3 Ke5 9. Kxa3 Kxf5 {with a draw.}) 3... Kd5 4. Ke2 {!} Kc4 (4... Kd4 5. a3 {%15N #B(8/8/8/3I14/3I1I13/3I1I13/3I11I1I11/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)}) 5. Ke3 {!} a3 6. Kd2 {!} Kd4 7. Kc2 Kc4 8. f4 {, and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1982.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Zinar M"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/8/p4k2/P7/5P2/6K1 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] [EventDate "1982.??.??"] {%15N #B(8/8/8/3I14/3I1I13/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I1I11/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kf1 {! , which sets Black a difficult choice. %05The correct move is} (1. Kg2 {there follows %05On} Ke4 2. Kg3 Kd5 { ! , attacking the a3 pawn in order to lure the second pawn out of the winning zone:} 3. f4 {(forced)} Ke6 {!} 4. Kg4 Kf6 {with a draw. %15N #B(8/8/8/3I14/ 3I1I13/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I1I11/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8)}) 1... Ke5 (1... Kf3 {%05If, for example} 2. Ke1 Kf4 {, then} (2... Ke4 {, then %05If instead} 3. Ke2 Kd4 4. f3 {!} Kc4 5. f4 {! (the pawn has moved out of the zone, but White has the more active king, and this is decisive)} Kd5 (5... Kd4 6. Kf3 Kd5 7. Kg4 Ke6 8. Kg5 Kf7 9. Kf5 Ke7 10. Kg6 { , and wins.}) 6. Kd3 {!} Ke6 7. Kc4 Kf5 8. Kb4 Kxf4 9. Kxa4 Ke5 10. Kb5 Kd6 11. Kb6 {, and wins.}) 3. Kd2 {, and White wins by picking up the a4 pawn.}) 2. Ke1 {!} Kd5 3. Kd1 {! The positions of mutual zugzwang are: c2/c4, d2/d4 and e2/e4. Black is no longer able to maintain the distant opposition. %15N #B(8/8/8/3I14/ 3I14/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I1I11/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/201I02I03I3/8/ 201D02D03D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd4 {%15N #B(8/8/8/3I14/3I14/3I1I1I12/ 3I1I1I1I11/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/201I02I03I3/8/201D02D03D3/8) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kd2 {! %15 N #B(8/8/8/3I14/3I14/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I1I11/8) #S(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/201I02I03I3/8/201D02D03D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc4 5. f3 {!} Kd4 6. Ke2 Kc4 7. f4 {, and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1982.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Zinar M"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/6k1/8/6K1/p5P1/P7/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "16"] [EventDate "1982.??.??"] {If the stronger side's king is in front of the pawn, the chances of success are naturally improved. %15N #B(8/8/8/7I1/6I1I1/7I1/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kf5 {%05Here the drawing zone includes only 4 squares: h3, h4, h5 and g4.^013^010 We have already considered the position with the pawn at f4 in the analysis of the previous example. But here, with the pawn at g4, it is a draw:} Kf7 2. Ke5 Kg6 3. Kd5 Kg5 4. Kc4 Kxg4 5. Kb5 Kf5 6. Kxa4 Ke6 7. Kb5 Kd7 8. Kb6 Kc8 {%04etc. =} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Zinar M"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5k2/8/5K2/5P2/p7/P7/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "12"] {%15N #B(8/8/8/7I1/5I1I1I1/6I1I1/7I1/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Ke5 {%05Here a further 3 squares enter the drawing zone: f4, g3 and h2. E.g., with the pawn at f4:} Ke7 2. Kd4 Kf6 3. Kc4 Kf5 4. Kb4 Kxf4 5. Kxa3 Ke5 6. Kb4 Kd6 {Draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p7/P7/8/2k5/8/2KP4/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "1"] {If the stronger side's rook pawn has crossed the demarcation line, Bahr established that the material advantage can usually be realized. These are the only exceptions to Bahr's rule: Draw, whoever it is to move} 1. Z0 * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/p7/P1k5/8/2KP4/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "1"] {Draw only with White to move.} 1. Z0 * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/p7/P7/3k4/8/3KP3/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "0"] {Draw only with White to move.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p7/P7/8/3k4/8/3KP3/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "1"] {Draw, whoever it is to move} 1. Z0 {On the basis of this position the following study was composed.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1913.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Crum"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p7/P7/8/4k3/8/4P3/3K4 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] [EventDate "1913.??.??"] 1. Ke1 {!} Ke3 2. Kf1 {!} Kd4 3. Kf2 Kc5 4. e4 {!} Kb6 5. e5 $18 {%04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1982.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Zinar M"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/3p4/8/k7/8/p3K3/P7/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "17"] [EventDate "1982.??.??"] {With a blocked pawn on the 6th rank, positions with a d-pawn turn out to be drawn, but here too positions of mutual zugzwang are possible.} 1. Ke4 { ! %05Situations of mutual zugzwang develop on the squares d4/b4 and d5/b5. Correct is} (1. Kd4 {? would be a mistake because of} Kb4 2. Kd3 Kc5 3. Kc3 d6 4. Kb3 Kd4 5. Kxa3 Kc3 {! , when Black wins.}) 1... Ka4 2. Ke5 {!} Ka5 3. Ke4 { !} Kb6 4. Kd4 {!} Kb5 5. Kd5 Kb4 6. Kd4 d6 7. Kd3 Kc5 8. Kc3 Kd5 9. Kd3 {Draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/5k1p/7P/5K2/5P2/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] {Let us now turn to an examination of examples where the blocked pawns are rook's pawns, and the passed pawn in on the bishop's file.} 1. Ke3 {%05White wins easily, by the typical manoeuvre of %05~2"shoulder-charging"~ the opponent's king:} (1. Kg3 {%05But White can also win by} Ke4 {!} 2. f3+ (2. f4 {%05Not} Kd5 {!} 3. Kf3 Kd4 {with a draw}) (2. Kg2 {is perfectly possible: %05but} Kf4 3. f3 Ke5 4. Kf1 Kf4 5. Kf2 Ke5 6. Ke3 Kf5 7. f4 Kg4 8. Ke4 Kxh4 9. Kf3 {%04etc.} (9. f5 {also wins after %05Incidentally,} Kg5 10. Ke5 h4 11. f6 h3 12. f7 h2 13. f8=Q h1=Q 14. Qg8+ {and 15. Qh7, winning the queen.})) 2... Ke3 {! The strongest reply.} (2... Ke5 {%05After} 3. Kg2 {play reduces to the variation just considered.}) 3. Kg2 Kd4 4. Kh3 {!} (4. Kf2 {would be pointless: } Kd3 {!}) 4... Kd3 {! %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/ 302I4/303I01I101D03D/503D02D1/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kh2 {! The decisive move! The corresponding squares are g3/e3, g2/d4, h3 and f2/d3, but there is no square corresponding to h2! %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (8/8/8/8/302I4/303I01I101D03D/503D02D1/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd4 {%15N #B(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/302I4/303I01I101D03D/503D02D1/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Kg2 {! %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (8/8/8/8/302I4/303I01I101D03D/503D02D1/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd3 {%15N #B(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/302I4/303I01I101D03D/503D02D1/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 7. Kf2 {! %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (8/8/8/8/302I4/303I01I101D03D/503D02D1/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd4 {%15N #B(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/302I4/303I01I101D03D/503D02D1/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 8. Ke2 $18 {, and White wins. %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/302I4/303I01I101D03D/503D02D1/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8)}) 1... Kg4 2. f4 Kxh4 3. Kf3 {!} Kh3 4. f5 h4 5. f6 Kh2 6. f7 h3 7. f8=Q $18 {%04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2k5/p7/P1PK4/8/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "2"] 1. c6 {%05The win after} Kc8 {is attained by the triangulation ~3($4117)~. Draw if the position is moved up the board.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/p7/2pk4/8/P1K5/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] 1. Kd2 {%05This example is taken from a practical game (1884). After} c3+ 2. Kc2 Kc4 {White, taking account of the pawn's position at a5, saved the draw by} (2... a4 {, White would have been saved by %05Had Black played} 3. Kd1 (3. Kb1 {%05or})) 3. Kc1 {! Evidently unaware of this game, a few years later Horwitz and Kling suggested the following study.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1889.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Horwitz & Kling"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/1p6/8/P7/2pk4/P7/2K5 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] [EventDate "1889.??.??"] 1. a5 {%05Here is the composers' solution:} (1. Kd1 {%05Neustadtl also showed that White is by no means obliged to begin with 1. a5 (possible is} c2+ 2. Kc1 Kc3 3. a5 {with a draw) and that if the a4 pawn is removed and the b6 pawn replaced at b7, then Black wins, whoever it is to move.}) 1... bxa5 2. Kd1 a4 ( 2... c2+ {, all the same it is a draw: %05If Black plays} 3. Kc1 Kc3 4. a3 {!} Kb3 5. a4 {=}) 3. Kc1 Kd4 4. Kc2 Kc4 5. Kd1 {%05Correct here (Neustadtl, 1899) is} (5. Kc1 {? , then %05if} Kd3 6. Kd1 c2+ 7. Kc1 Kc3 8. a3 Kb3 {, winning}) ( 5. a3 {?? , with a draw(!?-Horwitz & Kling). But 5.a3 in fact loses ~3($40299) ~.}) 5... Kd3 (5... a3 {%05it is also obvious draw after}) 6. Kc1 c2 7. a3 { = Draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1933.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2k5/p1P5/p2K4/8/1P6/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "6"] [EventDate "1933.??.??"] {In the previous position it was of no significance whether the king stood at c1 or d1, since the a2 pawn, depending on circumstances, could move either to a3 or a4. But in Grigoriev's position the pawn stands not at a7, but at a6, and no longer has the right to move two squares. Therefore the black king has only one good retreat square: 1... Kd8!} 1... Kd8 {! comes %05 But the position of the pawn at a6 makes the b6 square available to the white king, and White wins by giving his opponent the move: on} 2. Kc4 (2. Kd6 {%05and if now} Kc8 3. c7 {? , then} a4 4. bxa4 a5 {with a draw.}) 2... Kc8 3. Kd4 {!} Kd8 4. Ke5 $18 {%04etc. The remarks to this position are illustrated in the next example.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1911.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Bauer"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p7/2k5/8/2P5/2K5/P7/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "21"] [EventDate "1911.??.??"] 1. Kd4 Kd6 2. c5+ Kc6 3. Kc4 Kc7 4. Kd5 Kd7 5. c6+ Kc7 6. Kc5 Kc8 7. Kd6 Kd8 8. c7+ (8. a4 {%05as shown by Chekhover,} Kc8 9. a5 {!} Kd8 10. c7+ Kc8 11. Kc6 a6 12. Kb6 $18 {is also possible}) 8... Kc8 9. Kc6 {, and now either} a5 (9... a6 {%05or} 10. a4 {!} a5 11. Kb6 $18 {, winning.}) 10. a3 {!} a4 11. Kb6 $18 { But what happens if the white pawn is at a3 or a4? If the bishop's pawn has already reached the 6th rank, the answer is clear: a win is not possible. This is illustrated by the following study.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1920.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/7p/8/8/8/5p1k/7P/6K1 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "17"] [EventDate "1920.??.??"] 1. Kf2 Kg4 2. Ke3 {! (this king manoeuvre is the idea of the defence - White forces the advance of the h7 pawn)} h6 3. Kf2 Kf4 4. Ke1 {If the pawn were at h5, then 4. Kf1! would be^013^010 necessary ~3($40300)~. The king stand on a square of the^013^010 same colour as the enemy rook's pawn.} Ke3 5. Kf1 h5 ( 5... f2 {, then %05if} 6. h3 {!} Kf3 7. h4 Kg3 8. h5) 6. Ke1 f2+ 7. Kf1 Kf3 8. h3 Kg3 9. h4 {Draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1956.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Maizelis I"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p1k5/8/2K5/P1P5/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "21"] [EventDate "1956.??.??"] {If the passed pawn is on the 4th rank, a win is possible under certain circumstances, and the procedure is extremely instructive.} 1. Kd5 Kd7 2. a5 {! } Kc7 3. Ke6 {! (White begins a lengthy by-passing manoeuvre, the aim of which is to attack the a7 pawn!)} Kc6 4. a6 {!} Kc7 (4... Kb6 {%05In the event of} 5. Kd6 Kxa6 6. c5 Kb7 7. Kd7 {White wins,}) (4... Kc5 {%05and things are not improved by chasing the other pawn:} 5. Kd7 Kxc4 6. Kc6 $18 {%04etc. !} (6. Kc7 {?} Kc5 7. Kb7 Kd6 {with a draw})) 5. Ke7 Kc6 (5... Kc8 6. Kd6 Kd8 7. Kc6 Kc8 8. c5 Kb8 9. Kd7 {%04etc.}) 6. Kd8 Kd6 7. Kc8 Kc6 8. Kb8 Kb6 9. c5+ Kc6 (9... Kxa6 10. c6 {%04etc.}) 10. Kxa7 Kc7 11. c6 $18 {, and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1956.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Maizelis I"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p1k5/8/2K5/P1P5/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] [EventDate "1956.??.??"] 1... Kd7 {%05If Black begins, the by-pass proves unsuccessful:} 2. Kd5 Kc7 3. a5 Kd7 4. a6 Kc7 5. Ke6 Kc6 6. Ke7 Kc7 {!} 7. Ke8 Kc8 {! Draw. This same idea was expressed somewhat earlier in the following study.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1949.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Wallace"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p7/2k5/8/PKP5/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] [EventDate "1949.??.??"] 1. a5 Kd7 2. Kb5 {!} (2. Kc5 {?} Kc7 3. Kd5 Kd7 {with a draw}) 2... Kc7 3. Kc5 {!} (3. Ka6 {?} Kb8 4. c5 Ka8 5. c6 Kb8 {leads only to a draw}) 3... Kd7 4. Kd5 Kc7 5. Ke6 {! , and then as in example ~3 ($40304).~} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1955.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Maizelis I"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p7/2k5/8/2P5/P1K5/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] [EventDate "1955.??.??"] {To demonstrate the conclusion that, with a pawn at a3 and the second pawn on the 4th rank a win is also possible, Maizelis suggested the next position.} 1... Kc5 {%05With Black to move there no difficulties:} 2. Kb3 Kb6 {!} 3. Kb4 Kc6 4. a4 Kb6 5. a5+ Kc6 {Draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p7/2k5/8/2P5/P1K5/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "18"] 1. Kb4 {%05The composer thought that, if it were White to move first, he could hope to win:} Kd7 {!! all White's winning attempts are in vain, e.g.: %05But, as was shown by a number of readers of the magazine Shakhmaty v SSSR, after} ( 1... Kb6 2. a4 Kc6 3. a5 $18 {, and so on as in the study just examined.}) 2. Kc5 (2. Kb5 Kd6 {!} (2... Kc7 3. Kc5 {! , winning}) 3. a4 Kc7 4. Kc5 Kd7 5. Kd5 Kc7 {, leading to a continuation already examined.}) (2. a4 Kd6 {!} 3. Kb5 Kc7 4. Kc5 (4. a5 Kb7 5. Kc5 Kc7) 4... Kd7 5. Kd5 Kc7 {%04etc.}) 2... Kc7 {!} 3. Kd5 Kd7 4. a4 Kc7 5. Ke6 (5. a5 {, then %05there appears to be nothing better; if} Kd7 {with a draw}) 5... Kc6 6. a5 Kc5 7. Kd7 Kxc4 8. Kc6 a6 9. Kb6 Kd5 { = with a draw. We thus conclude that in this position with his pawn at a3 or a4, White is unable to win against correct defence. And now two further interesting drawn endings with similar pawns.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1952.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Cheron Andre (FRA)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/7p/8/8/8/5k2/5P1P/5K2 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "14"] [EventDate "1952.??.??"] 1. Ke1 {%05Black is saved by the active position of his king:} (1. Kg1 {%05or}) 1... h5 2. Kf1 h4 3. Kg1 (3. Ke1 {%05no better is} Kg2) (3. h3 {%05or} Ke4 {!} 4. Ke2 Kf4 5. f3 Kg3 {%04etc.}) 3... Kg4 {!} (3... h3 {? %05not} 4. Kf1 { , when White wins}) 4. Kg2 h3+ 5. Kg1 Kf4 {!} 6. Kf1 Kf3 7. Ke1 Kg2 {Draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1967.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Goldenov Boris"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5p1p/5K1P/8/6k1/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] [EventDate "1967.??.??"] 1... Kf4 {%05The way to draw is as follows:} (1... Kh5 {%05Here, in spite of his extra pawn, it is Black who has to think in terms of saving the position. Bad, for example, is} 2. Kg7 f5 3. Kxh7 f4 4. Kg7 f3 5. h7 f2 6. h8=Q+ $18) 2. Kg7 f5 3. Kxh7 Ke3 {!} (3... Kg3 {? %05but not} 4. Kg6 f4 5. h7 f3 6. h8=Q f2 7. Qh1 $18 {, and White wins.}) 4. Kg6 f4 5. h7 f3 6. h8=Q f2 7. Qh1 Ke2 { = %04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/1k3p2/3P1P2/8/8/2K5/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] 1. Kd3 Kc5 2. Ke4 Kb6 3. d6 {!} Kc6 4. d7 Kxd7 (4... Kc7 {! %05or} 5. Kd4 Kd8 { !} 6. Kc5 Kc7 7. d8=Q+ {!} Kxd8 8. Kd6 $18 {%04etc.}) 5. Kd5 {, and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/3k2K1/4p3/2p5/8/2P5/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "21"] 1. Kf6 Kd6 2. c4 Kd7 3. Ke5 Ke7 4. Kf4 {!} Kf6 5. Ke4 e5 6. Kd5 Kf5 7. Kxc5 e4 8. Kb6 {! (the only move)} e3 9. c5 e2 10. c6 e1=Q 11. c7 {Draw. If the position moved one rank down the board, the pawn would be unable to reach c7.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1887.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Salvioli C"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/3k1p2/5P2/3K4/8/3P4/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "10"] [EventDate "1887.??.??"] {If the position is moved to the right or left, it is still a draw. Only the position obtained by moving it three files to the left is won for White.} 1. d4 {(the advance of the pawn wins in the position moved^013^010 one rank down the board -~3($40317))~} (1. Ke5 {%05Also possible is} Kc6 2. d4 Kd7 3. Kf5 Kd6 4. Kg5 Ke6 5. d5+ Kxd5 6. Kh6 Ke5 (6... Kd6 {%05Salvioli continued} 7. Kh7 {?} Kd7 {with a draw} (7... Ke5 {! %05but on 7. Kh7? Black wins by})) 7. Kg5 {! Draw.} (7. Kg7 {?} Ke6 $19)) 1... Kc7 2. Kc5 Kd7 3. d5 Kc7 4. d6+ Kd7 5. Kd5 Kd8 { Draw.} (5... Kc8 {=}) * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/3k1p2/5P2/3K4/8/8/3P4/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] 1. Ke5 {%05Salvioli showed that with his pawn at d2 White would win by} Kc6 2. Kf5 Kd5 3. Kg5 Ke5 4. d3 {!} Ke6 5. d4 Kd5 6. Kh6 $18 {%04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1936.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/4pk2/8/8/2p5/2P5/1K6 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "22"] [EventDate "1936.??.??"] {A development of this analysis is provided by the following Grigoriev study, which shows, in particular, that in the previous example White cannot win even if it is Black to move.} 1. Kc1 Ke5 2. Kd1 Kd4 3. Ke2 Ke4 (3... Kc4 { %05Nothing is achieved by} 4. Ke3 Kb4 (4... Kb5 {%05or} 5. Kd3 (5. Ke4 {%05or}) (5. Kd4 {? %05but not} Kb4 6. Kd3 e5 {and wins})) 5. Kd4) 4. Kf2 Kf4 5. Ke2 Kg3 {!} 6. Kd3 {!} (6. Ke3 {? %05But not} e5 {!}) 6... e5 {%05while after} (6... Kf3 {there follows %05Now on} 7. Kxc3 {!} e5 8. Kd2 Kf2 9. Kd3 {!}) 7. Ke3 {!} (7. Kxc3 {is not possible because of} e4) 7... Kg2 8. Ke2 {!} e4 9. Ke1 {!} Kf3 10. Kf1 e3 11. Ke1 e2 {Stalemate. Guided by the study just examined, White gained a draw in the following position.} * [Event "Szolnok (Hungary)"] [Site "Szolnok (Hungary)"] [Date "1975.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Westerinen Heikki M J (FIN)"] [Black "Smyslov Vassily (RUS)"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/4pk2/8/6p1/1K4P1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "20"] [EventDate "1975.??.??"] 1. Kc3 Ke4 2. Kd2 Kd4 3. Ke2 Kc4 4. Kd2 {!} (4. Ke3 {%05Of course, not} Kc3 5. Ke4 (5. Ke2 {%05or} Kc2 6. Ke1 Kd3 {, when the black king breaks through to the enemy pawn.}) 5... Kd2 6. Kxe5 Ke3 $19) 4... Kd4 5. Ke2 Kc3 6. Ke3 Kc2 7. Ke2 {!} e4 8. Ke1 {!} (8. Ke3 {%05White loses after} Kd1 9. Kxe4 Ke2 $19 {!}) 8... Kd3 9. Kd1 e3 10. Ke1 e2 {Stalemate.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1890.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Berger Johann N (AUT)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/3k1p2/5P2/3K4/8/3P4/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1890.??.??"] 1. Ke4 {%05In 1890 Berger mentioned only} (1. Kc4 {%05and mentioned two other solutions:} Ke5 2. d4+ Kxf5 3. d5 $18) (1. d3 {%05and (the equally simple)} Kc6 2. Kc4 Kd6 3. d4 {, which, however, no longer work in the following position, where the black pawn is closer to the queening square.}) 1... Kc5 2. d4+ Kd6 { , with the following manoeuvre of Horwitz and Kling:} (2... Kc4 {%05In 1922 he added the variation} 3. Ke3 Kb5 4. Kd3 Kb4 5. d5 {(this wins here because the f-pawn has crossed the middle of the board)} Kc5 6. Ke4 Kb6 7. d6 {%04etc.}) 3. Ke3 Kc6 4. Kd2 Kd6 5. Kc3 Kd5 6. Kd3 $18 * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/2k1p3/4P3/2K5/2P5/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] 1. Kd3 {his continuation %05 In his analysis of this position (in the 8th edition of Bilguer's Handbuch, 1916) Berger committed several instructive mistakes. After} Kb5 {(mechanically playing for the opposition!) is simply not the best defence, since White wins easily by} (1... Kb4 {with the sequel %05More tenacious, of course, is !} 2. c3+ {!} Kb3 3. Kd2 Ka4 {! , and now "a la Grigoriev"} 4. Ke2 {! , winning as in example ~3 ($4018).~}) 2. c3 (2. Ke3 { ? , and again recommends the opposition. And %05But this is not the main point. After 1. Kd3 Kb5 Berger %05considers} Kc5 {? does not lose in Berger's analysis, only because he^013^010 continues} (2... Kc4 {! is the only way to draw %05But in fact}) 3. Ke2 {?} (3. Kf2 {! %05As was shown by Dedrle in 1921, White should answer 2... Kc5? with} Kc4 4. Kg3 {!} Kd4 5. Kf3 Kc3 6. Kg4 $18 { , winning.}) 3... Kc4 4. Kf3 Kd4 {=}) 2... Kc5 3. Kd2 {etc. ~3($40317)~). In this example , where 1. Kd3 followed by the advance of the c-pawn wins, there is of course no necessity for such a by-pass, but it becomes necessary if the black pawn is a bishop's pawn. (Note, incidentally, that if initial position is moved one file to the right, White wins only if it is Black to move).} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/2p1k3/2P5/2K5/4P3/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] 1. Kb2 {! %05Correct is} (1. Kd3 {? %05According to analysis by Dedrle (1921), White fails to win here by} Kf5 {! (the variations are clear from preceding analysis)}) (1. e3 {? %05or} Ke4 {=}) (1. Kb3 {? %05or} Kd4 {in the event of} 2. e3+ {White loses both pawns}) 1... Ke4 2. Ka3 {!} Kd4 3. Kb3 {%15N #B(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/301I02I3/02D01D6/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8)} Ke3 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/301I02I3/ 02D01D6/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Ka4 $18 {, and wins. The corresponding squares are determined here by the decisive position Kb3/Kd4 and Ka3/Ke4. %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/301I02I3/02D01D6/8/8) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/k1p5/2P5/1K6/P7/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "19"] {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/101I6/301D4/8/8) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Ka3 {%15N LD4(b3:a3) #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/101I6/301D4/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) %05The critical position is Kd3/Kb4, and the solution is in^013^010 %05every way analogous to example~3 ($40319)~. But %05before^013^010 %05the winning manoeuvre is begun, the black king must be^013^010 %05forced to retreat to the 6th rank (otherwise it is too^013^010 %05close to the a2 pawn). To give Black the move, use is^013^010 %05made of the triangle a3-b2-b3.} Kb6 {%15N LD4(b3:a3) LD4(a3:b2) #B(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/101I6/301D4/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kb2 {! %15N LD4(b3:a3) LD4(a3:b2) #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/101I6/301D4/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ka5 {%15N LD4(b3:a3) LD4(a3: b2) #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/101I6/301D4/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kb3 {! %15N LD4(b3:a3) LD4(a3:b2) LD4(b2:b3) #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/101I6/301D4/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kb6 { %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(4AS3/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/101I6/301D4/8/8) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kc3 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/ 8/8/101I6/301D4/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ka5 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/101I6/301D4/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kd2 {! pointed out by Kling; %15N LD4(c3:d2) LD4(d2:e3) LD4(e3:d3) #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/101I6/301D4/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (5. a3 { ? %05Walker continued} Ka4 6. Kd3 Kxa3 {- draw}) 5... Ka4 {%15N LD4(c3:d2) LD4 (d2:e3) LD4(e3:d3) #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/101I6/ 301D4/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Ke3 {%15N LD4(c3:d2) LD4(d2:e3) LD4(e3:d3) #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/101I6/301D4/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8)} Kb4 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/101I6/ 301D4/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 7. Kd3 Ka3 8. Ke4 Ka4 9. Kd5 Kb4 10. a3+ $18 { , and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1925.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5p2/1p6/1P2K2k/8/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] [EventDate "1925.??.??"] {We will conclude our examination of cases with pawns on the same file with some examples of more complex manoeuvring.} 1. Kf5 {! is correct, creating a double-edged position, where in the event of inaccurate play Black even risks losing. %05Therefore} (1. Kd5 {? etc.) White is short of one tempo %05For promoting his b-pawn(}) (1. Kf6 {? also loses in view of %05while} Kg4 2. Kxf7 Kf5 $19) 1... Kh4 2. Kf4 Kh3 3. Kf3 Kh2 4. Kf2 {It is readily apparent that at no point can White go for the win of the f-pawn, since by a by-pass to the rear Black would reach the b5 pawn. But now Black attempts to free his king.} f6 {Black reckons as follows: while White is picking up the pawn, he will succeed (in the same 4 moves) in transferring his king to d4, winning.} 5. Kf3 Kg1 6. Ke4 {!!} Kf2 {!} (6... Kg2 {? , then %05With a dual aim: if} 7. Kf5 { winning, while after 6... Kf2 the path of the f-pawn is blocked, which grants White the tempo that he has been lacking from the very start.}) 7. Kd5 {!} f5 8. Kc6 {Draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1936.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "6K1/8/4k3/8/8/2p5/2P2P2/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "17"] [EventDate "1936.??.??"] {Black's saving chances are based on two possibilities: (1) on the capture of the c2 pawn, so as to draw against the queen tanks to the bishop's pawn; (2) on the capture of the f-pawn, so as then to answer K:c3 with ... Kc5.} 1. Kg7 { ! %05From this the solution is clear:} (1. Kf8 {? %05For example:} Kf6 {!} 2. Ke8 Ke6 3. Kd8 Kd6 4. Kc8 Kc5 {! , and if} 5. Kc7 {, then} (5. f4 {, then %05while if} Kd4 6. f5 Ke5 7. Kc7 Kxf5 8. Kd6 Kf6 {!} 9. Kd5 Ke7 10. Kd4 Kd6 11. Kxc3 Kc5 {= (the second possibility).}) 5... Kb4 6. f4 Ka3 7. f5 Kb2 { = (the first possibility)}) (1. f3 {? %05A draw also follows from} Ke5 2. Kf7 Kf4 3. Ke6 Ke3 {!} 4. f4 Kd2 {etc.^013^010 From these variations it is apparent that White should not: (a) prematurely advance his f-pawn (the e3 square becomes accessible to the black king!), or (b) approach with his king along the 8th rank, since in this case the distance to the c3 pawn remains too great.}) 1... Ke5 2. Kf7 {! (it is sufficient to approach the c3 pawn along the 7th, rather than the 8th rank)} Kf5 (2... Kf4 3. Ke6 Kf3 4. Kd5 Ke2 5. Kc4 {and wins}) 3. Ke7 Ke5 4. Kd7 Kd5 5. Kc7 {!} (5. f3 {?} Kd4) (5. f4 {?} Ke4 6. Ke6 (6. f5 {%05or} Kxf5 7. Kd6 Kf6 {! =}) 6... Ke3 {!}) 5... Kc5 {(threatening 6... Kb4)} 6. f4 {!} Kd4 7. f5 {!} (7. Kd6 {?} Ke3) 7... Ke5 8. Kc6 {!} (8. f6 {?} Kxf6 9. Kd6 Kf7 {! =}) 8... Kxf5 9. Kd5 {! , and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1925.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Moravec"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/4K3/8/8/5p1k/5P1P/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] [EventDate "1925.??.??"] {White parries the threat of the capture on h2 by the counter-threat of an attack on f3.} 1. Kd5 {! %05The only way to draw is by} (1. Kf5 {? %05It is clear that, had White played} Kg2 2. h4 Kxf2 3. h5 Kg2 4. h6 f2 5. h7 f1=Q+ $19 {would now have been decisive}) (1. Ke5 {? %05while in the event of} Kg2 2. h4 Kxf2 3. h5 Kg2 4. h6 f2 5. h7 f1=Q {Black would have been able to meet} 6. h8=Q {%04with} Qa1+ $19) 1... Kg2 {!} 2. h4 Kxf2 3. h5 Kg2 4. h6 f2 5. h7 {=} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/6K1/7p/4p3/4P3/8/2k5/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "6"] 1. Kf6 {!} Kd3 (1... Kc3) (1... Kb3) (1... h5 {are also possible %05and}) 2. Kxe5 Kc4 {!} 3. Kf4 (3. Kf5 {%05or} h5 {! =}) 3... Kc5 {! - draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2k5/2p5/2K5/1P1P4/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "2"] {~15.23 No passed pawn~ Here there is only one possible pawn structure: the stronger side's pawns are separated by one file, and it is on this file that the opponent's pawn is situated. A win is normally possible when the king can occupy a blockading position in front of the enemy pawn, and then attack it from the side or else carry out a favourable exchange of pawns. The existence of reserve tempi is often of decisive importance, and therefore much depends both on the distance between the pawns, and on the placing of the kings. We will first analyze several simple final positions, with the kings in vertical, and then in horizontal opposition.} 1... Kd7 {there follows %05On} (1... Kb7 2. b5 {!$18 With White to move the exchange is pointless, and there is no win.}) 2. d5 {! , winning} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1939.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Glazier"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "4k3/8/8/3pKp2/8/8/4P3/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "3"] [EventDate "1939.??.??"] 1. Ke6 {! %05Here there is the same idea:} Kd8 (1... Kf8 2. Kxf5 $18) (1... f4 2. Kxd5 $18) (1... d4 2. Kxf5 $18) 2. Kxd5 $18 {At the side of the board, where one of the pawns is a rook's pawn, the result is different.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1k6/1p6/1K6/P1P5/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "2"] 1... Kc7 {! since White does not achieve anything by %05Black draws by} (1... Ka7 {? %05but, of course, loses to} 2. a5 $18) 2. c5 {=} (2. Ka6 {%05or} Kc6 {= }) * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "2k5/2p5/2K5/1P1P4/8/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "8"] {If positions ~3( 325)~ and ~3 ( 327)~ are moved up or down the board, the result remains the same, but if the black pawn is on its initial square, certain special features come to light.} 1... Kd8 {%05After} 2. Kb7 {! %05but White wins by} (2. d6 {? leads only to a draw in view of %05the immediate} Kc8 {!} 3. d7+ Kd8 {=}) 2... Kd7 3. Kb8 {(following Cheron, 1927, certain textbooks continue^013^010 here with the excessively subtle 3. Ka8!?, starting as^013^010 though to win "for the second time", but such^013^010 manoeuvring is appropriate in a completely different^013^010 group of endings, considered later ~3($40350)~ )} Kd8 (3... Kd6 4. Kc8 $18) 4. d6 {!} cxd6 5. b6 $18 { %04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1617.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Carrera"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "1k6/1p6/1K6/P1P5/8/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "1"] [EventDate "1617.??.??"] {This corner position was known by Carrera as long as 1617.} 1... Kc8 {%05A draw is given by ! =} (1... Ka8 {? %05but not} 2. Kc7 {!} (2. a6 {?} Kb8 {!=}) 2... Ka7 3. Kc8 Ka8 4. a6 {!$18 %04etc.}) * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1pk5/8/P1PK4/8/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "1"] 1... Kd7 {=} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1pk5/8/P1PK4/8/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "8"] 1. Kc4 {%05or with White to move} Kc6 2. Kb4 Kc7 3. Kb5 Kc8 (3... Kb8 4. Kb6 Kc8 {!} 5. Ka7 Kc7 {= is also possible}) 4. Kb6 Kb8 {= Thus the position with the white king at b5 is also drawn, and it should be mentioned that this result holds on all ranks and files.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/1kpK4/8/1P1P4/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] 1. Kd7 {%05After} (1. Ke6 Ka6) 1... Kb7 2. Kd8 (2. Ke8 Ka8 {!} (2... Kc8 { ? since the c6 pawn prevents Black from retaining the opposition: %05but not} 3. Ke7 Kc7 4. Ke6 {and wins; study by Neustadtl, 1890})) 2... Kb8 3. b5 { no longer works as in example ~3($40328)~ (the black pawn is closer to the queening square).} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/1kpK4/8/1P1P4/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "4"] 1... Kb7 {%05But if it is Black to move, he is unable to retain the opposition: } 2. Kd7 Kb6 3. Kc8 {%04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/kpK5/8/P1P5/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "3"] 1. Kd7 {! %05The black king has insufficient space to retain the opposition. White wins by} Ka7 (1... Kb7 2. a5 $18) 2. Kc7 $18 {%04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1kpK4/8/1P1P4/8/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "3"] 1. Kd8 {%05With Black's pawn on its initial square, holding the^013^010 %05opposition no longer saves him. Play reduces to the^013^010 %05finish of example ~3($40328):~} Kb8 2. b6 {etc. An exception will be provided by the position where^013^010 the white king is at the side of the board (cf. the finish to^013^010 example ~3($40330)~ ). Positions where there is a greater distance between the pawns or the kings normally reduce to the concluding positions already examined.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/2pk4/8/1PK5/3P4/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] 1. Kd4 {%05This existence of a reserve tempo (pawn at d3 instead of d4) assures White of a win:} Kd7 (1... Kc7 {%05or} 2. Kc5 Kd7 3. Kb6 {!} Kd6 4. d4 $18 {~3($40331)~.}) 2. Kc5 Kc7 3. d4 $18 * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/2pk4/8/2KP4/1P6/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "4"] 1. Kb4 {%05But here White to move is unable to win:} Kd5 2. Kc3 c5 {= %04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1kp5/8/8/1PKP4/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "3"] 1. Kc5 {! %05The only way to win is by} (1. Kb5 {? proves unsuccessful, since %05The attempt to take the opposition by} c6+ {allows Black to bring the pawns together while not giving the white king any good retreat square:} 2. Kc5 (2. Kc4 {%05or} Kb6 {=}) (2. Ka5 {%05or} Ka7 {=}) 2... Kc7 {= Draw.}) 1... c6 { (otherwise 2. Kc6)} 2. b5 $18 {!} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1kp5/8/8/1PKP4/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "3"] 1... c6 {! %05Therefore with Black to move the simplest continuation is} (1... Kc6 {, which in the event %05With Black to move in an analogous position, Fine (1941) %05suggested} 2. b5+ (2. Kc3 {creates some complications, e.g. %05But} Kb5 3. d5 {, and if Black plays the careless} Kb6 {?} (3... c6 {?} 4. d6 $18) ( 3... Ka6 {%05The way to save the game is by} 4. Kc4 Kb6 {=}) (3... c5 {= %05or} ) 4. Kc4 $18 {wins. %05, then}) 2... Kb6 {= does not indeed lead to a draw without any trouble.}) 2. Kc5 (2. b5 {%05or} Kb6 {! Draw.}) 2... Kc7 {= ~3 ($41325)~} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1843.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2p5/8/1k6/8/8/1PKP4/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "25"] [EventDate "1843.??.??"] {This is an ancient (1843) theoretical position, through the complex labyrinths of which it is easy to find one's way, knowing the preceding analysis. The basis of the play is the struggle for the c4 square.} 1. Kb3 { ! %05If it is White to move, he wins by taking the opposition:} (1. Kc3 { ? %05A draw results from} Kc5 {! , when even the existence of reserve tempi does not allow White to occupy c4, e.g.:} (1... c5 {?} 2. d3 (2. b3 {%05or})) ( 1... c6 {?} 2. d4) 2. b4+ (2. b3 Kb5 {!} (2... c6 {?} 3. b4+ {!} Kb5 (3... Kd5 {%05or} 4. Kd3 $18) 4. Kb3 $18) 3. d4 (3. b4 {%05or} c5) 3... c6 {=}) 2... Kb5 {!} (2... Kd5 {? , then %05the correct defence demands that the black king should %05step onto the file of the more advanced pawn; if} 3. Kd3 {!} c6 4. Kc3 {, and as before} c5 {is hopeless because of} 5. b5 $18) 3. Kb3 c6 { ! and on} 4. Kc3 {there follows} (4. d3 {%05or}) (4. d4 {also leads to a draw ~3($40330)~. %05while}) 4... c5) 1... Kc5 (1... c6 2. d4) (1... c5 {%05or} 2. Kc3 c4 3. b3 {fails to save the game}) 2. Kc3 c6 (2... Kd5 {, then %05From previous analysis it is clear that if} 3. b4 {!}) (2... Kb5 {, then %05while if } 3. d4 {! (symmetric variations will subsequently be omitted).}) 3. b4+ Kb5 4. Kb3 {, and White wins, e.g.} Ka6 5. Kc4 Kb6 6. d3 {!} Kc7 7. Kc5 Kd7 (7... Kb7 8. b5 $18) 8. Kb6 Kd6 9. Kb7 Kd7 10. d4 Kd6 11. Kc8 Ke6 12. Kc7 Kd5 13. Kd7 $18 * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2p5/8/1k6/8/8/1PKP4/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "3"] 1... Kb4 {%05With Black to move the draw is most easily secured by} (1... Kc4 { %05but also possible is} 2. b3+ Kb4 3. d4 {(otherwise 3... c5)} c6 4. Kb2 Ka5 { !} 5. Kc3 Kb5 {=}) 2. d3 (2. b3 {%05or}) 2... c5 {!} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1941.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Fine Reuben (USA)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/3p4/3k4/8/3K4/8/2P1P3/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "14"] [EventDate "1941.??.??"] 1. e4 {%05With his king at d4 White wins simply by 1. e4 and 2. e5. %05Fine gives an interesting example of an incorrect attack:} Kc6 2. Ke5 Kc5 3. Kf6 {?} (3. c3 {%05He does not give a winning move instead of 3. Kf6, but in fact there isn't one} Kc4 {=}) (3. Kf5 Kd4 4. e5 Kd5 {!} 5. c3 (5. Kf6 {%05or} Kd4) 5... Kc4 {=}) 3... Kd4 4. e5 Kd5 {!} 5. c3 Ke4 {!} (5... Kc4 {? %05But not} 6. Ke7 Kd5 7. Kxd7 Kxe5 8. Kc6 $18 {, winning}) 6. c4 Kd4 7. Ke7 Kxe5 {= Hence after 2. Ke5? the game is already a draw, and 3. Kf6 is no better and no worse than other continuations. 4... Kd5! is also inaccurate in the analysis - 4... Ke4! is simpler.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1936.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "3k4/1K3p2/8/4P3/8/6P1/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "19"] [EventDate "1936.??.??"] {When the kings are at some distance from each other, and also from the pawns, the theoretical motifs considered appear in rather more complex form.} 1. Kc6 Ke7 2. Kd5 Kd7 {(in truing to bring his king to the blockading square f6, from the very start White prevents ... f6; now, with the same aim, it remains for him to avoid the position Ke4/Ke6 with him to move)} 3. Kd4 {!} Ke7 4. Ke3 Kd7 5. Kf4 Ke6 6. Ke4 Kd7 (6... f6 {is hopeless:} 7. exf6 Kxf6 8. Kf4 $18) 7. Kf5 Ke7 8. g4 Ke8 {!} 9. Kf6 {!} (9. e6 {?} Ke7 (9... Kf8 {%05or})) 9... Kf8 10. g5 {! and wins ~3($40328)~.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1942.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Ebersz"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/2kp4/8/4P3/2P5/3K4/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] [EventDate "1942.??.??"] 1. Ke3 (1. Kd3 {?} Kc5 2. Kd2 Kc4 3. Kc2 Kb5 {! with a draw - ~3($41339)~}) 1... Kd7 (1... Kc5 2. Kd3) 2. Kd3 {!} (2. Kd4 {?} Ke6 {with a draw -~3($41337)~ }) 2... Ke7 3. Kc4 Ke6 4. Kd4 $18 {, and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Ebersz"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/2k2p2/3p4/8/8/4P3/4K3 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] 1. Kf2 {! %05Correct is} (1. Kd2 {? %05White loses after} d4 {!} 2. e3 (2. e4 { %05or} Kb5 {!} 3. Kd3 Kc5) 2... Kd5 3. Kd3 dxe3 $19) (1. e3 {?} Kc5 2. Kd2 Kc4 3. Ke2 Kc3 4. Kf2 Kd3 5. Kf3 f5 {%04etc.}) 1... Kd6 (1... d4 {%05no better is}) (1... Kc5 {%05or} 2. Kf3 {etc. -~3 ($40341)~}) 2. Ke3 {!} (2. Kf3 {?} Ke5 3. e3 (3. Ke3 {%05or} f5 4. Kf3 d4 $19) 3... Kf5) 2... Ke5 3. Kd3 {!} d4 4. e3 {Draw. } (4. e4 {= %05or}) * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1941.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Moravec"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/1pk1K3/8/8/P1P5/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] [EventDate "1941.??.??"] 1. Ke6 {! %05Correct is} (1. a3 {? is premature:} Kc6 2. Ke6 (2. Kd4 Kd6 3. c3 Kc6 {=}) 2... Kc5 3. Kd7 b4 4. a4 Kb6 {=}) 1... Kc6 2. Ke7 {!} Kc7 3. a3 Kc6 4. Kd8 $18 {, winning.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1922.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Dedrle Frantishek (CZE)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/3p4/5p2/2k5/4PK2/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] [EventDate "1922.??.??"] {Black, with a tempo in reserve, does not himself take the opposition, but waits for White to take it, after which he will seize it by ... d6. Therefore White too avoids taking the opposition.} 1... Kc4 {! %05With Black to move there would follow:} (1... Kd4 {?} 2. Kf5 Ke3 (2... d6 {%05or} 3. Kf4 {- draw}) 3. e5 {=}) 2. Ke3 (2. Kg4 d6 {!}) (2. Kf5 {%05or} Kd4 3. Kf4 d6) 2... d6 {!} 3. Ke2 Kd4 4. Kf3 Kd3 5. Kf4 Ke2 $19 {, and by seizing the critical squares of the e4 pawn, Black wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/3p4/5p2/2k5/4PK2/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/203I201D2/ 202I01I102D03D1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) The play is determined here by the following crucial positions: Kf5/Kd4, Kf4/Kc4 and Kg4/Kc5. In other words, the squares corresponding to f5, f4 and g4 (g5 being inaccessible) are d4, c4 and c5 (d5 being accessible). On these corresponding squares White is saved from taking the opposition, which in this case would be fatal (and Black is unable to manoeuvre on the adjoining squares to the rear - his f6 pawn is under threat!).} 1. Kg4 {! %05From this the solution is clear: %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/203I201D2/202I01I102D03D1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8)} (1. Ke3 {?} Kd6 {!} 2. Kf4 Ke6 {=}) 1... Kc4 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/203I201D2/202I01I102D03D1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8)} (1... Kd6 2. Kf5 {=}) 2. Kf4 {! %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8) #C(8/8/8/203I201D2/202I01I102D03D1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd4 {%15N #B (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/203I201D2/202I01I102D03D1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (2... d6 3. Kg4 {=}) (2... Kd3 3. e5 {=}) 3. Kf5 {! %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/203I201D2/202I01I102D03D1/8/8/ 8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} d6 {(after this White now defends by the method of opposition)} 4. Kf4 Kd3 5. Kf3 Kc4 6. Kg4 {Draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1941.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Ebersz"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/k2p4/8/2P4K/4P3/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "19"] [EventDate "1941.??.??"] {%15N #B(8/8/8/1I1I11D1D12/2I12D12/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) Here there is the same idea, but with interesting manoeuvring on the rear squares adjoining the critical zone: b5, c5, c4 for Black, and f4, f5, e5 for White.} 1. Kg4 {! White attacks two squares of the main zone, forcing Black into the corresponding defence;} (1. Kg3 {? %05insufficient is} Ka4 2. Kf4 Kb5 {! - draw}) 1... Kb6 {! %15N #B(8/8/8/ 1I1I11D1D12/2I12D12/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8)} (1... Ka4 {%05weaker is} 2. Kf5 Kb3 3. Ke6 {!} Kc4 4. Ke5 {, winning} ) 2. Kg5 {! %15N #B(8/8/8/1I1I11D1D12/2I12D12/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (2. Kf5 {?} Kc5) 2... Kc6 {%15N #B(8/8/8/ 1I1I11D1D12/2I12D12/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8)} 3. Kf6 {! (threatening 4. Ke5, and Black is a long way from c4; he is forced to step into the main zone, and White soon seizes the decisive correspondence in it) %15N #B(8/8/8/1I1I11D1D12/2I12D12/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kb5 {%15N #B(8/8/8/1I1I11D1D12/ 2I12D12/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Ke6 {! %15N #B(8/8/8/1I1I11D1D12/2I12D12/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc5 {%15N #B(8/8/8/1I1I11D1D12/2I12D12/8/8/8) #S (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kf5 {! (the end result is already clear, but the continuation is instructive) %15N #B(8/8/8/ 1I1I11D1D12/2I12D12/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8)} Kb5 6. e3 Kb6 7. Kf6 {(taking the opposition on the main file)} Kb5 8. Ke7 {(a by-pass!)} Kc6 9. Ke6 {(distant opposition has been transformed into close opposition)} Kc5 10. Kd7 {, and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1921.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Dedrle Frantishek (CZE)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "7K/8/k7/8/3p4/8/2P1P3/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "19"] [EventDate "1921.??.??"] {Certain features of manoeuvring on the ranks are demonstrated by the following examples. The basic solution expounded by Dedrle in 1925 was inaccurate. The white king cannot step immediately onto the 7th rank, since Black will take the distant opposition and it will be a draw. White's approach to the critical squares of the d4 pawn must be along the 8th rank, observing rectangular correspondence, which will soon be transformed into a decisive opposition.} 1. Kg8 {(the corners of the a6-a8-g8-g6 rectangle are all of the same colour!)} Kb6 2. Kf8 Kc6 3. Ke8 Kd6 4. Kf7 {Since the black king has stepped onto an unfavourable file, where the retention of the opposition is prevented by its own pawn, White can set about seizing the critical squares.} ( 4. Kd8 {does not win due to %05Dedrle made the incorrect assertion that} Kc6 5. Ke7 (5. Kc8 {! %05but instead of 5. Ke7?, correct is} Kd6 6. Kb7 {, when White wins as in the main variation.}) 5... Kc7) 4... Kd7 5. Kf6 Kd6 6. Kf5 Kd5 7. Kf4 Kd6 8. Ke4 Kc5 9. Ke5 Kc4 10. Kd6 {, and wins. The main rank in this example is the 5th, but no approach with his king White first had to win control of the 7th rank - by the same by-passing method. The decisive factor in this was the possession of rectangular correspondence, since it determined who would have the opposition with the white king at d8.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "7K/8/k7/8/3p4/8/2P1P3/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] 1... Kb6 {%05The same position with Black to move may help to explain this:} 2. Kg8 Kc6 3. Kf8 Kb6 {!} (3... Kd6 {?} 4. Kf7) 4. Ke8 Kc6 5. Kd8 {Draw.} (5. Ke7 {%05or} Kc7 {=}) 5... Kd6 {(keeping the white king on the 8th rank)} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "6K1/8/k7/8/3p4/8/2P1P3/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "10"] {If in the initial position the white king were at g8, the result would again be decided by the turn to move: White wins only if it is the opponent's move.} 1... Ka5 {%05Let us now consider another defence after 1. Kg8, namely} 2. Kg7 { ! (in similar fashion White has to gain control of the 6th rank)} Ka4 {Black immediately gives up the hopeless task of trying to defend the 6th rank. In the first instance this "confused" the composer of the position, who asserted that only 3 Kf6 was correct now, whereas the mechanical taking of rectangular correspondence by 3. Kg6 would be an irreparable mistake.^013^010 But in fact both moves win: here the rectangular correspondence loses its significance, since the black king is on an unfavourable rank, where its own pawn is a hindrance} 3. Kg6 {a possible continuation is %05After} (3. Kf6 {%05e.g.} Kb4 4. Ke6 Kc4 5. Kd6 {, winning}) 3... Ka5 (3... Kb4 4. Kf6 {!} Kc3 5. Ke5) 4. Kg5 {! (on the main file it is essential to take the opposition), and now either} Ka6 (4... Ka4 5. Kf6 {! etc. From this it is clear that 3. Kf6 is simply stronger than 3. Kg6, since it takes the king more quickly to its goal - that of winning the critical squares.}) 5. Kf4 Kb5 6. Kf5 $18 {!} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2k3K1/8/8/2p5/8/1P1P4/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] 1... Kc6 {! %05The black king is unfavourably placed, but White's too is a long way off:} (1... Kd6 {? , then %05If instead} 2. Kf6 Kd5 3. Kf5 Kd4 4. Ke6 {! , and wins.}) (1... Kb6 {?} 2. Kf6 Kb5 3. Kf5 Kb4 4. Ke6 $18 {!}) 2. Kg6 (2. Kf6 Kd6 (2... Kb6 {%05or})) 2... Kc5 3. Kg5 Kd4 {Draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1929.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Mandler Artur"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/k7/3p4/7K/2P1P3/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] [EventDate "1929.??.??"] 1. Kg6 Ka6 2. Kg7 {!} Ka7 3. Kg8 {!} Ka8 {(the king has been fatally lured onto the 8th rank, and at the same time further away from its own pawn)} 4. c5 {! (a combination which is possible only when the opponent's pawn is not far advanced)} dxc5 {(4... Kc7 is not possible)} 5. e5 $18 {%04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1936.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Herberg"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/3p1p2/7k/1K2P3/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] [EventDate "1936.??.??"] 1. Kc2 {! %05This is another form of the previous position:} (1. Kb4 {?} Kg4 $19) (1. Kb2 {?} Kh3 2. Kb3 Kh2 3. Kb2 Kh1 4. Kb1 (4. Kb3 {%05or} Kg1 5. Kc3 Kf1 {, winning}) 4... d4 $19) 1... Kg4 2. Kd2 {!} Kh3 3. Kd3 Kg2 (3... Kg3 4. Kc3) 4. Kc2 {!} Kh1 5. Kd1 {!} Kg1 6. Kc1 d4 7. Kd2 {Draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1935.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "4K3/8/2p5/8/P2k4/8/P7/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] [EventDate "1935.??.??"] {~15.3 DOUBLED PAWNS~ It stands to reason that doubled pawns are much weaker than connected or isolated pawns, but it would be wrong to exaggerate this, since their weakness often proves to be imaginary. Grigoriev wrote in 1935: "Doubled pawns, even when isolated, often constitute a great strength. At any rate, greater than is customarily thought. They can deprive the opponent of important squares, and they can also harbour reserve tempi... Even though they appear powerless, they provide many winning chances". For a long time this type of ending remained an unexplored area of theory, and it was only a number of analyses by Grigoriev (1931, 1932 and 1935) that laid a basis for the study of this ending. The character of the play changes, of course, depending on distinctions in the pawn structure: the pawns may be passed, and if this is not so the doubled pawns may be on the same file as the enemy pawn, or on an adjacent one. All these instances will be considered separately. ~15.31 All pawns passed~ These cases lend themselves well to a general evaluation, especially since here an ending with queen and pawn against queen can arise. But if play is decided in the pure pawn ending, the most typical features of doubled pawns are almost always revealed - reserve tempi and the fact that squares are inaccessible to the enemy king from the side.} 1. a5 {%05This example illustrates how doubled pawns are able to defend themselves:} Kc5 2. a4 Kd6 3. Kd8 c5 4. a6 {!} Kc6 5. a5 c4 6. Kc8 c3 7. a7 c2 8. a8=Q+ $18 {, and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1935.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/1k6/8/4p1P1/6P1/6K1 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] [EventDate "1935.??.??"] 1. Kf1 {! %05Correct is} (1. g4 {? %05But not} Kc4 2. Kf1 Kd3 {!} 3. Ke1 Ke4 4. g3 Ke5 5. Ke2 Ke4 {!} 6. Kf1 Ke5 (6... Kd3 {? %05hoping for} 7. Ke1 {, winning} ) 7. Ke1 Kf6 {, with a draw.}) 1... Kc4 2. Ke2 Kd4 3. g4 Ke4 4. g3 $18 { etc. ~3($4048)~} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1935.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2p5/1k6/2p1P3/8/8/8/2K5 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "23"] [EventDate "1935.??.??"] 1. Kd2 {! %05The idea of the defence is to force the black pawns to^013^010 %05advance to c3 and c4 ~3($4048)~:} Kc6 {!} 2. Ke3 Kd5 3. Kf4 Ke6 (3... c4 { %05Here or on the 7th move Black does better to go into a queen ending by} 4. Kf5 c3 5. e6 Kd6 6. Kf6 c2 7. e7 c1=Q 8. e8=Q Qf4+ 9. Kg6 Qe5 $19 {%16 ~5 (Nalimov tablebases)~., since the pawn ending does^013^010 not give him any winning chances.}) 4. Ke4 c6 5. Kf4 c4 6. Ke4 c5 7. Kf4 c3 {?} (7... Kd5 {!} 8. Kf5 c3 9. e6 c2 10. e7 c1=Q 11. e8=Q Qc2+ $19 {~5 (Nalimov tablebases)~}) 8. Ke3 c4 9. Ke2 Kxe5 10. Kd1 {!} (10. Ke3 {?} Kd5 (10... Kf5 {%05or} 11. Ke2 Ke4 {, winning})) 10... Ke4 11. Kc2 Kd4 12. Kc1 {!= %04Draw} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1935.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "1k6/3p4/1P6/1K6/8/8/1P6/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1935.??.??"] 1. Ka6 {! %05 He must provoke the advance of the d-pawn, so as to give up his b6 pawn for it. But in doing so he must not advance his second pawn, since with the pawn at b3 it will not be possible to gain control of its key squares. } (1. Kc5 {%05White fails to win by} Kb7 2. b3 Ka6 (2... d5 {%05or}) 3. b4 Kb7 4. Kb5 d5 5. Kc5 d4 {=}) 1... d6 {! %05But after} (1... d5 {? %05Black loses without a struggle after} 2. Kb5 Kb7 3. Kc5) (1... Ka8 {? %05or} 2. b7+ Kb8 3. Kb6 d5 4. Kc5 $18) 2. Ka5 {! The start of a "triangulation".} (2. b7 {? %05the following continuations are insufficient:} d5 3. Kb5 Kxb7 4. Kc5 Ka6 {! =}) (2. b3 {?} d5 3. Kb5 Kb7 4. Kc5 d4 5. Kxd4 Kxb6 6. Kc4 Kc6 {=}) (2. Kb5 {?} Kb7 { (White is in zugzwang)} 3. Ka5 (3. b3 d5) 3... d5 4. Kb5 d4 {=}) 2... Ka8 (2... Kb7 {%05In the event of} 3. Kb5 {Black ends up in zugzwang. The rest is simple: }) 3. Kb4 Kb8 4. Ka4 Ka8 5. Ka5 Kb8 6. Ka6 {, and White wins as in the note to Black's 1st move.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1922.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Kramer"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "7k/5K2/7P/6pP/8/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "8"] [EventDate "1922.??.??"] {In conclusion - an example of self-stalemating, which has served as the basis for a number of studies.} 1. Kf6 {!} g4 2. Kg6 g3 3. h7 g2 4. Kh6 g1=Q { - stalemate (c f~3($41421)~ and ~3 ($41422)~ ).} (4... g1=R {= %05or}) * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1935.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "1k6/1p6/8/2P5/8/2P5/8/3K4 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "8"] [EventDate "1935.??.??"] {~15.32 Pawns on adjacent files~ With the doubled pawn structure it is of course more favourable if the pawns are on a file adjacent to the enemy pawn, rather than the same file, since the stronger side and win with the remaining one. Therefore the king is best placed on the file of the enemy pawn, with the aim of occupying the blockading square. The main hindrance is usually the extreme vulnerability of doubled pawns to attack from the rear.} 1. Kc2 { ! (the shortest path to the b-file) %05Grigoriev thought that White wins by} ( 1. Kd2 {%05White fails to win by} Kc7 2. Kd3 Kd7 {!} (2... Kc6 {?} 3. Kc4) 3. Kd4 Kc7 4. Kc4 (4. Kd5 Kd7) 4... Kc6 5. Kb4 b6 (5... Kd5 {%05Grigoriev makes the interesting comment that, instead of 5... b6, there is also a draw by} 6. Kb5 Ke4 {!! (an important theoretical drawn position!).})) 1... Kc7 2. Kb3 Kd7 3. Kb4 {!} Ke6 {! %05Nevertheless, here too, Black saves the game:} (3... Kc6 { (the b5 square!) %05Grigoriev considered only} 4. Kc4 Kd7 5. Kb5 Kc7 {, and now the reserve tempo} 6. c4 {is decisive (7. Kb6 and 6. c6).}) 4. Kc4 (4. c4 Kd7 {=}) 4... Ke5 {=} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1935.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "k7/8/1p6/8/2P5/2P5/3K4/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] [EventDate "1935.??.??"] 1. Kc2 {!} Kb7 2. Kb3 Kc7 3. Ka4 {!} Kc6 4. Kb4 $18 {%04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2Kp4/8/8/2k1P3/8/4P3/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "8"] 1. e3 Kd3 2. e5 Ke4 3. Kd6 Kf5 4. Kd5 Kg4 {! (Grigoriev's theoretical position ~3-($41361)~ ). Draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1913.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Crum"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "5k2/5p2/8/4P3/2K1P3/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "3"] [EventDate "1913.??.??"] 1. e6 {!} fxe6 (1... f6 2. Kc5 $18) 2. e5 {!$18 , winning ~3($4069)~} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1935.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5p2/8/6P1/8/8/6PK/3k4 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] [EventDate "1935.??.??"] 1. Kg3 Ke2 2. Kf4 Kf2 3. Ke5 {!} (3. g4 {%05Now only a draw results from either } Kg2 4. g6 fxg6 5. g5 Kh3 {! =}) (3. Kf5 {%05or} Kg3 4. Kf6 Kf4 {!} 5. g3+ Kg4 {=}) 3... Kg3 {Forced in view of the threat of 4. Kf6, but now White puts his opponent in zugzwang, with unexpected results.} 4. Kf5 {!} Kh4 5. Kf4 {! In the rear the black king is causing too much trouble, so it is driven into a more acceptable position.} Kh5 6. g3 Kg6 7. Kg4 $40 {, and White wins as in example ~3($40361)~ (cf. also ~3($40554)~). This play for zugzwang is additionally explained by the comparatively simple examples ~3( 366)~ and ~3( 370)~ , which can be regarded as subsidiary to the more complicated positions ~3( 371)~ and ~3( 372)~.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1935.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/6p1/8/4K3/7P/4k2P/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] [EventDate "1935.??.??"] 1. Ke6 {! %05But were it now Black to move, he would lose. To attain this, White must reach g6 not in two moves, but in three:} (1. Kf5 {? %05White fails to win by} Kf3 2. Kg6 Kg3 3. h5 Kh4 {=}) (1. h5 {? %05or (which leads to the same finish)} Kf3 2. Kf5 (2. Ke6 Kf4 {!}) 2... Kg3 3. Kg6 Kh4 {= , since he is in zugzwang.}) 1... Kf4 2. Kf7 Kg3 3. h5 Kh4 4. Kg6 $18 {, and it is Black who is now in zugzwang.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1913.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Selezniev Alexei"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/6p1/8/4K2P/7P/5k2/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] [EventDate "1913.??.??"] 1. Kf5 (1. h6 {?} gxh6 2. Kf5 h5 {!} 3. Kg5 Ke4 4. Kxh5 Kf5 {- draw}) 1... Kg3 2. h6 {!} gxh6 3. h5 $18 {%04etc.} * [Event "Prague (Czech Republic)"] [Site "Prague (Czech Republic)"] [Date "1928.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Jandera"] [Black "Prokes Ladislav (CZE)"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/p6p/P1k2K1p/8/6P1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "8"] [EventDate "1928.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ337 %212045826630=4HLJ359 %212045826630=4HLJ363} 1. Ke4 {%05White lost after} (1. Kg5 {%05A more interesting variation is} h3 {! (the only move)} 2. gxh3 Kb4 3. Kxh5 Kxa4 $19 {, winning.}) 1... Kb4 2. Kd4 Kxa4 3. Kc4 h3 (3... Ka3 4. Kc3 a4 $19 {also have won}) 4. gxh3 h4 $19 {%04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1938.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Moravec"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/6p1/4K3/7P/2p4P/1k6/1P6/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "21"] [EventDate "1938.??.??"] 1. Kd5 Kb4 {!} 2. Kc6 Ka4 3. Kc5 Kb3 4. Kb5 c3 {!} 5. bxc3 Kxc3 6. Kc5 Kd3 7. Kd5 Ke3 8. Ke5 Kf3 9. Kf5 Kg3 10. h6 {!} gxh6 11. h5 $18 {%04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1932.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/6p1/6K1/8/7P/5k2/7P/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] [EventDate "1932.??.??"] {The win is achieved differently in the following position.} 1. Kf5 {! %05After } Kg2 2. h5 Kh3 3. Kg5 {!$18 , forcing the black king to make a fatal retreat. %05but first} (3. Kg6 {? because of %05White does not play} Kg4 {!}) * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1932.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/6p1/8/8/7K/7P/4k2P/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1932.??.??"] 1. Kg3 {!} (1. Kg5 {? %05Hopeless is} Kf3 2. h4 Kg2 3. h5 Kh3 4. Kg6 Kg4 {!} 5. h3+ Kh4 {=}) (1. Kg4 {? %05or} Kf2 2. h4 Kg2 3. h3 g6 {=}) 1... Ke3 {the win is also not difficult: %05After} (1... Kf1 {, an attempt to attack from the rear, was refuted by Grigoriev with the following combination:} 2. h4 g6 { (otherwise 3. h5 and 4. h4)} 3. Kf4 (3. h3 {, and if %05But White can also win without a combination - by} Kg1 {, then} (3... Ke2 {, then %05while if} 4. Kf4 Kf2 5. h5 gxh5 6. h4 $18) 4. h5 gxh5 5. h4 $18) 3... Kg2 4. h5 {!} gxh5 5. h4 $18 {etc. He also showed that, if the position was moved one file to the left, the combination would not even not work, but would even lose after 5... Kg3 6. Kf5 Kh4, and he concluded that the position of the study would not allow being moved.}) 2. h4 Ke4 3. Kg4 Ke5 4. Kg5 Ke4 5. h5 {!} Kf3 6. Kf5 $18 {!} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1932.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p7/p7/8/3K4/1k6/1P6/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] [EventDate "1932.??.??"] 1. Kd5 {! gives a draw, e.g. %05Only} (1. Kc5 {? %05White is unsuccessful with} a5 2. Kb5 (2. Kc6 {%05or} Kc4 $19 {~3($41370).~}) 2... a4 3. Ka5 a6 $19) 1... Kb4 (1... Kxb2 2. Kc4 Ka3 3. Kc3 {=}) (1... a5 2. Kc5 {=}) 2. Kc6 a5 3. Kb7 a4 4. Ka6 {=} * [Event "Moscow (Russia)"] [Site "Moscow (Russia)"] [Date "1936.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Flohr Salomon M (CZE)"] [Black "Ragozin Viacheslav V (RUS)"] [Result "1/2-1/2"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/7p/5K2/3k4/6P1/8/6P1/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "23"] [EventDate "1936.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ337 %212045826630=4HLJ359 %212045826630=4HLJ363} 1... Ke4 {%05Black defended impeccably:} 2. Kg5 Ke3 3. Kh6 Kf4 4. g5 Kf5 5. Kh5 Kf4 6. Kh4 Ke3 7. Kg3 Ke4 8. Kg4 Ke3 9. Kf5 Kf2 10. Kf6 Kg3 11. Kg7 Kg4 12. Kh6 Kh4 {= Drawn.} 1/2-1/2 [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1942.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Ebersz"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2p5/8/K3k3/8/1P6/1P6/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] [EventDate "1942.??.??"] 1. Kb5 {! %05Correct is} (1. Ka6 {?} Kd4 {!} 2. Kb5 Kd3 {is insufficient}) (1. Kb4 {? %05or}) (1. b4 {? %05as is} Kd4 2. Kb5 Kd3) 1... Kd5 (1... Kd4 2. Kc6) 2. b4 c6+ (2... Kd4 3. Kc6 Kd3 {is now too late due to} 4. Kd5 {~3- ($40370)~}) 3. Ka5 {! , winning} (3. Ka4 {? would have led to a draw: %05but} Kc4 4. Ka3 Kd3 {!} (4... Kd5 {?} 5. Kb3 Kd4 6. b5 $18) 5. Kb3 Kd2 {!= %04etc.}) 3... Kc4 4. Ka4 {and 5. b5$18} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1942.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Ebersz"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/6p1/8/5P2/5P2/K7/8/1k6 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] [EventDate "1942.??.??"] 1. Kb3 (1. f6 {? %05The immediate} gxf6 2. Kb3 {does not work in view of} Kc1 3. Kc3 Kd1 4. Kd3 Ke1 5. Ke3 Kf1 6. Kf3 f5 {! with a draw.}) 1... Kc1 2. Kc3 Kd1 3. Kd3 Ke1 4. Ke3 Kf1 5. Kf3 Kg1 6. f6 gxf6 7. f5 Kh2 8. Kg4 $18 {%04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/5p2/3k1P2/5K2/8/5P2/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "4"] {~15.33 Pawns on the same file~ Here the play is more varied. Berger, who gave on this theme only one example, and that an untypical one, assumed that the stronger side wins only in the form of an exception. But analyses by Grigoriev showed that, if these are indeed exceptions there are a considerable number of them, and as a result it is even unclear whether a win in these endings should be regarded as an exception or the rule. The possibility of a win depends entirely on whether or not the enemy pawn can be won. Therefore the degree to which the pawns are converged is important (reserve tempi!), as is the placing of the kings. In endings with blocked pawns the idea of a by-pass from the side predominates; the struggle for control of the critical squares strongly resembles the ending of pawn against pawn. But if the pawns are not blocked, one of the most effective defensive measures (as in the ending with pawns on adjacent files) is an attack from the rear, creating numerous zugzwang positions. These endings are considerably more complicated, since with the advance of either pawn the system of critical squares changes; endings of the first type (with blocked pawns) enter into them as a potential possibility. White's chances are on the K-side (the invasion at h6). To the left of the f6 pawn White cannot achieve anything, if the black king is on the same rank as its pawn (e.g. in the position Kd4/Kd6 Black has the move... Kc6, neutralizing White's reserve tempi; but in the position Kd5/Kd7 the advance of the f2 pawn is decisive). White is two squares away from h5, whereas Black is four away from g7; therefore Black can only hope to save the game by a counter-attack on the f5 pawn.} 1. Kg4 {%05White to move is unable to win, e.g.:} (1. Kg3 Ke5 {!} 2. Kg4 Ke4 {=}) (1. f3 Kd6 {! , and nothing is achieved either by} 2. Kg4 (2. Kg3 {%05or by} Ke7 {! (the tempi lost by White have allowed the black king to approach g7)} 3. Kh4 Kf7 4. Kg4 Kf8 {(with a reserve square available, Black can successfully^013^010 defend both wings -~3 ($41377)~ ).} 5. Kh5 Kg7 {=}) 2... Ke5 {!}) 1... Ke4 {!} 2. f3+ (2. f4 {%05or} Ke3 {! =}) 2... Ke5 {! =} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/5p2/3k1P2/5K2/8/5P2/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "8"] 1... Kd4 {%05But if it is Black to move, he is unable to save the game:} (1... Kd6 {White has the immediately decisive %05on}) 2. f3 {!} Kd5 3. Kg3 {!} Kd6 4. Kh4 {!} Ke5 5. Kg4 {and 6. Kh5$18} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1924.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Bianchetti"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1k6/5p2/5P2/8/8/5P2/3K4 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] [EventDate "1924.??.??"] 1. Ke2 {%05By coincidence, position ~3($40376)~ served as the^013^010 %05basis^013^010 %05for studies by both Bianchetti (1924) and Grigoriev^013^010 %05(1932). In Bianchetti's position the kings were at^013^010 %05Kd1/Kb7, and the introductory play consisted of a^013^010 %05simple approach of the kings:} Kc6 2. Kf3 Kd5 3. Kf4 $18 (3. Kg4 {? %05not} Ke4) * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1932.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/2k2p2/5P2/4K3/8/5P2/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "3"] [EventDate "1932.??.??"] 1. Kf3 {! %05 Grigoriev's king placing Ke4/Kc6 creates a more intricate position, since it emphasizes the question of gaining the decisive correspondence:} Kd5 2. Kf4 $18 {(Grigoriev pointed out that with the black king at d6 or c5 a win would not be possible). !} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1933.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5p2/5P2/3k4/5K2/5P2/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1933.??.??"] 1. Kf5 {!} Kd6 (1... Kd4 2. f4 Kd5 3. Kg4 {!}) 2. f4 Kd7 3. Kg4 Ke8 4. Kh5 {!} Kf8 5. Kg5 {Having no reserve square, Black loses:} Ke8 (5... Kg8 6. Kf5 Kf8 ( 6... Kh7 {%05or} 7. Ke4 Kh6 8. Kd5 Kg6 9. Ke5 {and 10. Kd6$18}) 7. Ke5 Ke8 8. Kd6 Kd8 9. f5 $18) 6. Kh6 $18 {If the position is moved to the left the win is easier, but if it is moved down or to the right there is no win.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1851.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Horwitz & Kling"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "3k4/3p4/8/3P4/3P4/3K4/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "1"] [EventDate "1851.??.??"] 1... d6 {!= followed by maintaining the opposition on the main files. %05If he begins, Black draws by} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "3k4/3p4/8/3P4/3P4/3K4/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "3"] {The result does not change if the position is moved down the board, but a win with White to move is possible only on the central files, otherwise the by-pass is unsuccessful. It is the same in the following position.} 1. d6 { ! %05White wins by} Ke8 2. Kc4 $18 {(the shortest path to a6)} (2. Ke4 { %05but he also succeeds with} Kf8 3. Kd5 Kf7 4. Kc4 {!}) * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1925.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Prokop Frantisek Josef (CZE)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "4k3/4p3/4P3/4P3/8/8/2K5/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] [EventDate "1925.??.??"] 1. Kd3 Kd8 2. Ke4 {!} (2. Kd4 {?} Kc7 {!}) (2. Ke3 {? %05or} Kc7 {!}) 2... Ke8 3. Ke3 {!} Kd8 (3... Kf8 {%05or} 4. Kd4 $18) 4. Kf4 $18 {, winning.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1935.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5Kp1/8/4k3/8/6P1/6P1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] [EventDate "1935.??.??"] {This is a position by Grigoriev, in which an artificial lengthening of the solution has been removed (Ke8-f7 and Kd6-e5).} 1. Kg6 {the position takes on a natural appearance. %05After} (1. Kxg7 {?} Kf5 {=}) 1... Ke4 (1... Ke6 2. g4 Ke5 3. g3 {and 4. Kg7 is hopeless for Black, and so:}) 2. g4 Kf4 (2... Ke5 3. g3) (2... Ke3 3. Kf5 {! followed by the advance of the pawn to g6}) 3. g5 {!} Kg4 4. g3 $18 {%04etc. The position after 3. g5 is one of mutual zugzwang. Were it White to move, the result would be a draw: 1. g3 Kg4 or 1. Kh5 Kg3 (1.. . Kf5? 2. g3) 2. g6 Kf4 3. g4 Ke5. But if the position with knight's pawns is moved onto the bishop's file, White no longer gets into zugzwang.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1935.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5p2/5K2/5P2/4k3/8/5P2/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] [EventDate "1935.??.??"] 1. Kg5 {! %05The premature advance of the king to f6 is easily corrected:} Kd5 (1... Kf3 2. f6 {and 3. Kh6$18}) 2. f6 {!} Ke5 3. f3 Ke6 4. f4 $18 {, and wins. } * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1935.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1p6/1p6/k7/8/8/1P6/6K1 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1935.??.??"] 1. Kf2 {%05Here the white king is unable to break through to the a1 corner, which would ensure a draw. The only chance is an attack on the doubled pawns from the rear:} Kb4 {A plausible move, but 1... Ka4 is stronger, and is considered later.} (1... Ka4 {(so that the king does not stand in the way of the pawn) %05As mentioned above, after 1. Kf2 a stronger try is} 2. Ke3 b5 3. Ke4 {!!} (3. Kd2 {? %05Now care is required of White. The following are equally %05bad:} Kb3 {!} 4. Kc1 Ka2 5. Kc2 b4 $19 {!}) (3. Kd3 {?} Kb3 {!} 4. Kd4 b6 $19) (3. Kd4 {?} Kb4 {!} 4. Kd5 Kb3 {!} 5. Kd6 (5. Kc5 b4) 5... Kc4 {!} 6. Kc7 b4 $19 {%04etc.}) 3... Kb4 (3... b4 {can be met by} 4. Kd5 (4. Kd4 { %05or})) (3... b6 {, then %05while if} 4. Kd5 {!}) (3... Kb3 {%05or} 4. Kd5 {!} ) 4. Kd4 {! , and} b6 {is met by} (4... Kb3 {%05or} 5. Kd5 {=}) 5. Kd5 { with a quick draw.}) 2. Ke3 Kb3 (2... Kc4 {, then %05if} 3. Kd2 {!} Kb3 4. Kc1 {!} (4. Kd3 {?} b5 {!} 5. Kd4 b6) 4... Ka2 5. Kc2 b5 {(to win Black would have needed ... b4)} 6. Kc3 {= , with a draw.}) (2... Ka4 {is a trappy move, when White can draw by either} 3. Kd2 (3. Kd3 {%05or}) (3. Kd4 {? %05but he loses after} Kb3 {~3($41384)~})) 3. Kd4 {, and in comparison with example ~3($40384) ~ all the^013^010 zugzwang positions are as though turned inside out. It is^013^010 now the turn of the stronger side to move, which^013^010 ensures a draw. The position after White's 3rd move is a^013^010 curious parallel to example ~3($40372)~, where the doubled^013^010 pawns were not on the knight's file, but the rook's file.} b5 (3... Kb4 {can be met by} 4. Kd5 (4. Kd3 { -the a1 corner! %05or})) 4. Kd5 {! E.g.:} b4 (4... b6 5. Kc6 {! =}) (4... Kb4 5. Kd4 {!} b6 6. Kd5 {= %04etc.}) 5. Kc5 {!} b6+ 6. Kb5 {=} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1935.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/1k4p1/8/8/6P1/6P1/7K w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] [EventDate "1935.??.??"] 1. Kg1 {! %05 With his pawn at g7 (instead of g6), Black would not advance it, but would sit it out with his king at h8. But here White wins. However, the straightforward advance up the h-file would be met by a rapid advance by Black along the b6-f2 diagonal. Although it loses time, White must approach with his king, such that it simultaneously prevents the advance of the enemy king.} Kc5 2. Kf2 Kd4 3. Kf3 Ke5 (3... Kd3 4. Kf4 {! and 5. g4}) 4. Kg4 Kf6 5. Kf4 g5+ { (otherwise 6. Kg5)} 6. Ke4 Ke6 7. g4 $18 {, and wins. This example suggests the necessity for a detailed analysis of those cases where the kings are in front of the pawns or alongside them.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/4k3/5p2/5P2/8/5PK1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "8"] {The following two positions, which illustrate certain variations from the Grigoriev studies given below, are at the same time of independent theoretical significance. With his pawns on one of the central files White wins.} 1. Kf3 { %05Here (the king can also stand at e7) Black must be able to answer Kh4 with . .. Kg6.^013^010 The black king must keep to the left of White's otherwise if it is at h6 the white king will seize control of d4 (Black will be unable to answer Ke3 with ... Kd5). The defence is simple, since on Kg3 either ... Kf6 or ... Kf7 is possible, and when the white king is at h3, Black's can be has "an excess of correspondence".^013^010 It is the same in the centre, e.g.} Kd5 2. Ke3 {This looks like zugzwang for Black, but in fact either} Kc4 {is possible, since on} (2... Kc5 {%05or}) 3. Kf3 Kd5 {!} 4. Kg3 {there follows} ( 4. Kg2 Ke6) 4... Ke4 {= It is clear that Black would be unable to defend the critical squares, if the position were moved onto one of the central files.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/4kp2/8/4KP2/8/5P2/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "10"] {The reason for White being unable to win when it is him to move is again that his pawns are on the bishop's file, and not one of the central ones.} 1. f5+ { %05The attempt} (1. Kd4 {%05White also achieved nothing by} Kd6 (1... Kf5 {?} 2. Ke3 Ke6 3. Ke4 {, and it is Black to move}) 2. Ke3 (2. Kd3 Kd5 3. Ke3 f5 {!} ) 2... Kd5 (2... Ke7 {? %05not} 3. Kf3 {!} Kf7 4. f5 Ke7 5. Kf4 {! , winning - ~3($40390)~}) 3. Kf3 f5 {! , with a draw as in example ~3 ($41388)~.}) 1... Kd6 {quickly leads to position ~3($41376)~, e.g.} 2. Kd4 (2. Kf4 Kd5) 2... Kc6 3. Ke3 Kc5 (3... Kd6 4. Ke4 Kc5) 4. Kf3 Kd4 {!} 5. Kf4 Kd5 $40 {Draw. If the kings are moved to g4 and g6, White wins ~3( 390).~} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1936.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5p2/5k2/8/5K2/5P2/5P2/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1936.??.??"] 1. Kg4 {%05Correct is} (1. Ke4 {would lead only to a draw: %05 If the position were moved onto the g-file, there would be no win. On one of the central files White would win by moving his king to either right or left. But in the given case} Ke6 2. f4 f6 {! ~3($41389)~.}) (1. Kg3 {%05a win is also possible after}) 1... Kg6 2. f4 f6 (2... f5+ 3. Kf3) (2... Kf6 3. f5 Ke5 4. Kg5 Ke4 (4... Kd5 { %05or} 5. f6 {! ~3- ($40385)~}) 5. Kf6 $18) 3. f5+ Kf7 (3... Kh6 4. f3 { and 5. Kf4}) 4. Kh5 {%05and now White has two ways to win:} (4. Kf4 {%05or} Ke7 5. Kf3 {!} Kf7 (5... Kd6 6. Kg4) 6. Ke4 $18) 4... Kg7 5. f3 {!} Kh7 6. Kg4 $18 * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5p2/5k2/8/5K2/5P2/5P2/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "6"] 1... Ke6 {%05With Black to move:} 2. Kg5 Ke5 (2... f6+ 3. Kf4) 3. f4+ Ke4 (3... Ke6 4. f3 (4. f5+ {%05or})) 4. f5 {, winning as shown above.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1936.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5p2/6k1/8/8/5P2/4KP2/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] [EventDate "1936.??.??"] 1. f4 {!} (1. Ke3 {?} Kf5 2. f4 Ke6 3. Kf3 (3. Ke4 f6 {~3- ($41389)~}) 3... f5 {%02~3-($41288)~}) 1... Kf6 2. Kf3 {!} Kf5 3. Kg3 {!} Kg6 4. Kg4 $18 {%04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1936.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/4kp2/8/8/8/5P2/5P2/5K2 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] [EventDate "1936.??.??"] 1. Kg2 {!} Ke6 (1... f5 {%05or} 2. Kg3 Kf7 3. Kh4 {!} Kg6 4. f4 $18 {, and wins.}) 2. Kg3 (2. f4 {?} f5 {!}) (2. Kh2 {?} Ke5 {!} 3. Kg3 f5 {! - draw}) 2... Kf5 3. f4 $18 * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1936.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2p1k3/2p5/8/8/8/K1P5/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] [EventDate "1936.??.??"] {This complicated position, which contains all the variations examined above, is now not difficult to analyze. With the white king at a3 a simple draw would be given by 1. Kb4 (1... Kd6 2. c4), while with the black king at d7 White would lose in view of ... c5 and ... Kc6 ~3 ( 392)~.} 1. Kb3 {%05White's main task is not to allow the opponent to place his king in front of his pawns. This is easily achieved:} Kd6 2. Kc4 {!} c5 {(forced)} 3. Kd3 {! with a draw, e.g.} Ke5 (3... Kc6 4. c4 {~3($40388)~.}) (3... Kd5 4. c3 {~3($40389)~.}) 4. Kc4 Kd6 5. Kd3 {=} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1941.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Fine Reuben (USA)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/pp2k3/8/3PPK2/8/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "1"] [EventDate "1941.??.??"] {~16. TWO PAWNS AGAINST TWO~ In endings with a minimal number of pawns the material has been as exhaustive as possible, but beginning with this chapter this will no longer be the aim. However, in view of the intermediate position of these endings between the simplest and those with many pawns, they will nevertheless be covered more fully than those in subsequent chapters. Increasing the number of pawns does not of course change the basic principles of play. Many of the ideas already considered will be met in these endings too - in a wider orchestration, so to speak. But at the same time, an increase in the material gives rise to a broadening of the range of strategic and tactical ideas, and certain ideas appear which simply could not occur with a smaller number of pawns. Endings with a certain material have their own specific features, and this means that they must be considered separately. An attempt to make a detailed classification of the material, depending on the pawn structure, in the given endings (to say nothing of those later in the book) runs into significant difficulties in view of the diversity of these structures. Therefore up till now the authors of endgame books have not made such a classification, but at best have limited themselves to picking out endings with passed pawns. The presence or absence of passed pawns undoubtedly gives the endings a fundamentally different nature, and this has led to a division of the material into two basic groups: 6.1 Endings with passed pawns. 6.2 Endings without passed pawns. But to restrict the division to this would be insufficient, and each of the basic groups has additional subdivisions, which are necessary for a more clear-cut separation of the types of endings possessing characteristic features. These internal divisions are: connected pawns against isolated pawns against isolated (including doubled pawns). ~16.1 ENDINGS WITH PASSED PAWNS~ It is expedient to divide these endings into two groups: ~ 6.11 Endings with two passed pawns.~ ~ 6.12 Endings with one passed pawn.~ ~16.11 Two passed pawns~ If in the given ending one side has two passed pawns, it stands to reason that the other side also has two passed pawns. These pawns can be connected or isolated, central or wing pawns - in various combinations and with differing of advancement. From this it is clear that any generalizing conclusions are possible only in endings reduced to even narrower groups. Practice has shown, for example, that in the majority of cases isolated wing pawns have the advantage over central connected pawns. The diversity of features forces us to turn to specific examples.} 1. Z0 $40 { Here the white king is lending powerful support to its pawns. The black a-pawn requires 5 moves to promote, but it can manage only 3-4 moves before White, gaining time thanks to checks, either obtains a queen or gives mate (~3 ( 141) - ( 142)~ ). From the 4th rank White would have required not less than 6 moves to obtain a queen (and as many as 9 from the 3rd rank). It follows that one can think in terms of a win in such positions, if the pawns are at least on the 4th rank and the relative placing of the kings is favourable, or else there is the possibility of halting the advance of the enemy pawns.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1879.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Horwitz Bernhard (GER)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/6p1/4Ppk1/3P4/5K2/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "8"] [EventDate "1879.??.??"] 1... Kh6 (1... f4 2. d5 Kf5 3. d6 {%04etc.}) 2. Kf4 (2. d5 {%05or first}) 2... Kg7 3. d5 {!} (3. Kg5 {?} Kf8 {!} (3... Kf7 4. d5 Ke7 5. e6 Kd6 6. Kf6 $18 { , winning.}) 4. d5 (4. e6 Ke8 {!} 5. d5 Ke7 {=}) 4... Kf7 5. e6+ Ke7 {=}) 3... Kf7 4. Kg5 Ke7 (4... Ke8 5. d6 Kd7 6. Kf6 $18) 5. e6 $18 * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1894.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Behting Carl"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2p1Pk2/5P2/8/3p1K2/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] [EventDate "1894.??.??"] {In this classic study the difficulty of the solution is caused by the position of the black king at f7. Were it at e8, White would win by 1. Ke5 with the threat of Ke6. This threat constitutes the basic motif of the position: with the black king at e8, White gains the possibility of moving onto the 5th rank, ignoring the advance of the d-pawn.} 1. Kf3 {! %05Correct is } (1. Ke4 {? leads to a draw: %05The straightforward} c5 2. Kd3 Ke8 3. Kc4 Kf7 {, and White is unable to gain a tempo.}) 1... c6 2. Kf4 {!} c5 {, and now White transfers his king to c4 in an odd number of moves:} 3. Ke4 Ke8 4. Kd5 ( 4. Kd3 {is also possible}) 4... Kd7 5. Kc4 Ke8 6. Kxc5 {!} d3 7. Kd6 Kf7 8. Kd7 $18 {, and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2Pk1p2/3P4/8/4p3/8/3K4/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] 1. Ke3 {%05One textbook gives:} f5 2. Kd4 Kc8 3. Kc5 Kd7 (3... Kb7 {! , after which White has to continue %05But instead of 3... Kd7?, correct is} 4. Kd5 {!} e3 5. Ke6 e2 6. Kd7 e1=Q 7. c8=Q+ Kb6 8. Qc6+ Ka5 9. Qc5+ Ka4 10. Kc8 Qe6+ 11. Kc7 f4 12. d7 Qf7 13. Qd4+ Ka3 14. Kb8 Qb3+ 15. Ka8 Qf3+ 16. Ka7 $18 {, and wins.}) 4. Kb6 {, and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1935.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Herberg"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "4k3/2p1P3/5P2/8/1p3K2/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] [EventDate "1935.??.??"] 1. Ke5 Kf7 2. Kd4 c6 {!} 3. Kd3 {!} c5 4. Kc4 Ke8 5. Kxc5 $18 {%04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/3p1kP1/5P2/8/4p1K1/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] {This position arose in one of the games from a tournament in Barcelona (1932). Here White agreed to a draw.} 1. Kg3 {! %05Dedrle (1950) demonstrated a win:} d6 2. Kg4 {!} d5 3. Kf4 Kg8 4. Kg5 {!} Kh7 (4... Kf7 5. Kh6) 5. Kf5 {!} e3 6. Ke6 Kg8 (6... e2 7. Kf7) 7. Ke7 $18 {, and wins.} (7. f7+ $18 {%05or}) * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1921.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Karstedt"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5kP1/7P/4pp2/8/4K3/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1921.??.??"] 1. Kf3 {%05Here the manoeuvring is rather more complicated:} Kg8 (1... e4+ 2. Kf4) (1... f4 2. Ke4) 2. Kf2 {!} Kf7 (2... e4 3. Ke3) (2... f4 3. Kf3 {%04etc.} ) 3. Kg3 Kg8 4. Kh4 Kf7 (4... f4 5. Kg5 {!} Kf7 6. Kg4) (4... e4 5. Kg5 Kf7 6. Kf4) 5. Kg5 f4 6. Kg4 $18 {, and White wins by transferring his king to e4.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/7k/3p4/1Kp5/5PP1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] {This complicated position clearly illustrates the boundary of the enemy king's approach that White can permit.} 1. f3 {! The only move: the black king is deprived of the e4 square.} (1. Kc2 {? %05White cannot get by without the advance of his pawns, %05since they do not present a barrier (the e4 square!), and %05are not threatening to promote. E. g.} Kg4 2. Kd3 Kf4 {(Grigoriev shows that this position is also won with Black to move)} 3. Kc2 Ke4 4. Kb3 (4. Kd1 { %05or} d3 5. Kc1 c2 (5... d2+ {is also possible}) 6. Kb2 (6. Kd2 {, then not now %05if} Kd4 {?} (6... Kf4 {! %05but} 7. Kc1 Kf5 {!} 8. Kd2 Ke4 $19 {%04etc.} )) 6... Kd4 7. g4 Ke4 8. g5 Kf3 9. g6 d2 $19 {, and wins.}) 4... Kd3 $19) (1. f4 {%05If} Kg4 2. g3) (1. g3 {%05or} Kg4 2. f4 {, then} Kf5 {and 3... Ke4.}) 1... Kh4 (1... Kg5 {? is bad in view of} 2. g3 {! with a draw} (2. Kc2 { ? %05but not} Kf4 3. Kd3 Kg3 4. Kc2 Kf2 {!} 5. Kd3 c2 $19 (5... Ke1 {%04etc. %05or}))) 2. g4 {!} Kg5 3. Kc2 Kf4 4. Kd3 {= , with a draw in view of zugzwang (Black cannot gain a tempo).} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/7k/3p4/1Kp5/5PP1/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] 1... Kg4 {! Indeed, if this is regarded as the starting position, Black wins:} 2. Kc2 (2. f3+ Kg3) 2... Kf5 {!} 3. Kd3 (3. f3 Kf4) (3. g3 Ke4) 3... Kf4 $19 { , and it is White to move.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1851.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Horwitz & Kling"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2k5/2Pp3p/1P6/8/5K2/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] [EventDate "1851.??.??"] {For isolated pawns on the same rank, the rule of the "wandering square" applies ~3( 57)~.} 1. Kf4 {! the advance of either of Black's pawns leads to its loss. Therefore he is forced to stick to waiting tactics, manoeuvring with his king between c7 and b6. %05Here after} Kb6 2. Ke4 {! %05But as Abloukov has correctly shown, there is a quicker and prettier win by} (2. Kf5 {%05The composers' idea was that White wins by penetrating his king to e6:} Kc7 3. Kf6 Kb6 4. Ke6 Kc7 5. Kd5 h5 6. b6+ Kxb6 7. Kxd6 $18 {%04etc.}) 2... h5 (2... Kc7 3. Kd5 h5 4. b6+ $18 {%04etc.}) 3. Kd5 h4 (3... Kc7 4. b6+ {, and then as in the composers' variation}) 4. Kxd6 h3 5. c7 h2 6. c8=Q h1=Q 7. Qa6# {mate.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/2k3p1/P3P1Kp/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "3"] 1. a5 (1. e5 {%05or} Kd5 2. a5 $18) 1... Kb5 2. e5 $18 * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/2k3p1/6Kp/P3P3/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "3"] 1. Kh3 {! %05The same position, but with the pawns at a3 and e3, is a draw:} Kc4 2. Kg4 {= etc. (if the pawns are not forced to advance, they indirectly defend each other).} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Rauch Ferenc (HUN)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/8/3k3p/1P3PpP/4K3/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] {The following study is instructive.} 1. Kf1 {%05If Black can be given the move, then after 1... Kd5 2. Ke3 the pawns will promote of their own accord. Therefore} Kd3 2. Kg1 Kd4 3. Kg2 Kd3 4. Kf1 Kd4 5. Ke2 $18 {, and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/6kP/6P1/2p5/p7/2K5/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "4"] 1. Kc4 Kh8 2. Kc3 Kg7 {= %04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "7k/7P/2p3P1/p7/2K5/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] 1. Kc5 Kg7 2. Kd6 a4 3. Ke7 a3 4. h8=Q+ $18 {%04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5p2/5k1P/7P/8/p1p5/8/1K6 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "0"] {Both sides are in zugzwang, and therefore the turn to move is a disadvantage. But if the black c-pawn is moved to c4, and the white king to c3, then 1. Kc2 wins.} * [Event "Berlin (Germany)"] [Site "Berlin (Germany)"] [Date "1927.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Stoltz Gosta (SWE)"] [Black "Nimzowitsch Aaron"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/1P2kp2/P2p2p1/6P1/3K4/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "3"] [EventDate "1927.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ367 %212045826630=4HLJ369 %212045826630=4HLJ371} 1... f4 {!} 2. gxf4+ Kd6 { %02!!$19 , and the passed pawns ensure Black a win.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1841.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Walker George (ENG)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5p1p/8/K6k/8/8/PP6/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] [EventDate "1841.??.??"] {A different idea illustrated by the following study.} 1. b4 {%05After the queening of the pawns and the exchange of queens by Qb8-b5+, White wins by a2-a4.} f5 2. b5 f4 3. b6 f3 4. b7 f2 5. b8=Q f1=Q 6. Qb5+ Qxb5+ 7. Kxb5 Kg4 8. a4 $18 * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1930.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p2p4/8/8/8/k7/5P1P/7K w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "19"] [EventDate "1930.??.??"] 1. f4 {! %05The win is achieved by advancing the pawns in turn:} (1. Kg2 {?} Kb3 {%04draw} (1... d5 {%05or})) 1... Kb4 2. h4 {!} (2. Kg2 {?} a5 {! , winning }) 2... d5 3. f5 Kc5 4. h5 (4. Kg2 {?} Kd6 {! leads to a draw}) 4... d4 5. f6 ( 5. Kg2 {%05here there is an alternative win by} Kc4 6. f6 d3 7. f7 d2 8. f8=Q d1=Q 9. Qf1+ $18 {%04etc.}) 5... Kd6 6. h6 d3 7. f7 Ke7 8. h7 d2 9. f8=Q+ Kxf8 10. h8=Q+ $18 {, and wins. The second solution is not removed by the addition of a white pawn at g2, since on the 5th move the king can also go to g1.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1930.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p7/8/2k2P1P/3p4/8/6P1/7K w - - 0 5"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1930.??.??"] 5. Kg1 {%05 e.g.} Kc4 6. Kf2 Kb3 7. f6 d3 8. f7 d2 9. f8=Q d1=Q 10. Qf3+ $18 * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1951.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Halberstadt Vitaly (FRA)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p2p4/8/8/8/k4P2/5P1P/7K w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1951.??.??"] {The addition of a white pawn at f3, suggested by Halberstadt (1951), also does not help, since} 1. f4 Kb4 2. h4 d5 3. f5 Kc5 4. h5 d4 5. Kg2 {! is still possible, with a won queen ending after} Kc4 6. h6 $18 {Cheron managed to correct the study, but his position has a slightly different balance of forces. } * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1955.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Cheron Andre (FRA)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2pp4/8/8/8/k4P1P/7p/7K w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "19"] [EventDate "1955.??.??"] 1. f4 {!} (1. h4 d5 {is unsuccessful}) 1... Kb4 2. h4 {The only way!} (2. f5 { , then %05If} Kc5 3. h4 Kd6 4. h5 Ke5 5. h6 Kf6 6. Kxh2 c5 7. Kg3 c4 8. Kf4 c3 9. Ke3 d5 10. Kd3 d4 {, with a draw.}) 2... d5 3. f5 {!} Kc5 4. h5 d4 5. f6 {!} Kd6 6. h6 d3 7. f7 Ke7 8. h7 d2 9. f8=Q+ Kxf8 10. h8=Q+ {, and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1947.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Khachaturov Andrey Andreevich"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/3p4/1k3PpP/8/3K4/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "21"] [EventDate "1947.??.??"] {And now yet another attempt to correct Grigoriev's study.} 1. f5 Kc5 2. h5 g3 3. Ke1 {!} d4 4. f6 Kd6 5. h6 g2 6. Kf2 d3 7. f7 Ke7 8. h7 g1=Q+ 9. Kxg1 d2 10. f8=Q+ Kxf8 11. h8=Q+ {, and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1937.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2p5/8/8/5P1k/p7/7P/2K5 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "19"] [EventDate "1937.??.??"] {The black pawns do not have time to occupy the saving position on the same rank, and are bound to fall. But the play is complicated by Black's unexpected use of a curious defensive resource.} 1. h3 c5 2. Kb1 c4 3. Ka2 {Under normal circumstances this attack on the vulnerable leading pawn would immediately decide matters, but here Black's latent defensive resource comes into play.} c3 {!} 4. Kb3 {!} (4. Kxa3 {? %05if, then} Kg3 {!} 5. f5 Kf4 6. f6 Ke3 7. f7 c2 8. f8=Q c1=Q+ {, with a draw}) 4... a2 5. Kxa2 {(what White has achieved is that the c-pawn will queen without check)} Kg3 6. f5 Kf4 7. f6 Ke3 8. f7 c2 9. f8=Q c1=Q 10. Qh6+ $18 {, and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1944.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Jelinek"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p7/5p2/1K6/5k2/8/3P3P/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] [EventDate "1944.??.??"] 1. d4 Ke4 (1... f5 {%05or} 2. d5 Ke5 3. Kc5 f4 4. d6 {etc., winning the queen by a "skewer"}) 2. Kc5 a5 (2... f5 {%05after} 3. d5 {etc., Qe8+ is again decisive}) 3. h4 f5 (3... a4 4. Kb4 f5 5. h5 f4 6. h6 f3 7. h7 f2 8. h8=Q f1=Q 9. Qe5+ $18 {%04etc.}) 4. h5 f4 5. h6 f3 6. h7 f2 7. h8=Q f1=Q 8. Qe8+ $18 { , winning.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1918.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Selezniev Alexei"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/3Pk1p1/8/1K3Pp1/8/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "12"] [EventDate "1918.??.??"] 1. Kc6 Kd8 2. Kd5 Kxd7 3. Ke4 {!} (3. Ke5 {?} Ke7 4. Kd4 Kf6 5. Ke4 g4 6. Kf4 g3 7. Kxg3 Kxf5 $19 {, winning}) 3... Kd6 (3... Ke7 4. Kf3 Kf7 5. Kg3 Kf6 6. Kg4 {- draw}) 4. Kf3 Ke5 5. Kg4 Kf6 6. Kh5 Kxf5 {- stalemate. An instructive finish!} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1922.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Kubbel"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "2k5/3p4/P7/Pp6/8/4K3/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "16"] [EventDate "1922.??.??"] 1. Kd4 d6 {!} 2. Kc3 {! (forcing Black's reply and obtaining the c5 square)} d5 3. Kd4 {!} b4 4. Kxd5 b3 5. Kc6 Kb8 {(otherwise 6. a7)} 6. Kb6 b2 7. a7+ Ka8 8. Ka6 b1=Q {- stalemate.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1950.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Gorgiev Tigran B (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/4k3/5p2/7P/4K1pP/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "17"] [EventDate "1950.??.??"] 1. h6 Kf8 2. h5 Kf7 {!} 3. Ke3 {!!} (3. Kf4 {?} f5 4. Kg3 Kg8 $19 {%04etc.}) 3... Kf8 {!} 4. Kf4 {!} f5 5. Kxf5 g3 6. Kf6 {!} Kg8 7. Kg6 g2 8. h7+ Kh8 9. Kh6 {Draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1k6/2p4p/P1K5/8/6P1/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "1"] {~16.12 One passed pawn~ Here we must distinguish between the cases where both sides have a passed pawn, and where only one of them has. In the first case what is significant is which of the pawns is stronger (proximity to the queening square, whether it is an outside or a protected passed pawn, and so on). In the second case the possession of a passed pawn is normally a decisive advantage, but sometimes difficulties are involved in realizing it, and even drawn exceptions are possible.} 1. g4 {! , winning. %05Exploiting the fact that the black king is tied down, White can advance his pawn on the opposite wing -} (1. a6+ {? is premature: %05 In the textbook example White has an outside passed a-pawn, the advance of which will divert Black's king from the defence of his c-pawn. The blockade of the c-pawn with his king is also a favourable factor for White.^013^010 But the immediate} Kxa6 2. Kxc6 Ka5 { with a draw (cf. position ~3 ($41108)~; the pawn is at g3^013^010 rather than g2).}) * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1k5p/2p5/P1K5/8/6P1/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "2"] 1. g4 {%05With the black pawn at h7, after} Ka6 {! it is a draw (Petersman, 1957)} * [Event "San Sebastian (Spain)"] [Site "San Sebastian (Spain)"] [Date "1911.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Nimzowitsch Aaron"] [Black "Tarrasch Siegbert (GER)"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5k2/p4p2/5K2/7P/8/6P1/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] [EventDate "1911.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ367 %212045826630=4HLJ369 %212045826630=4HLJ373} 1... a5 2. Ke4 f5+ {!! , and White resigned in view of} 3. Kd4 f4 {!$19 , after which both white pawns fall. } * [Event "Saratov (Russia)"] [Site "Saratov (Russia)"] [Date "1955.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Shchelochilin"] [Black "Magergut"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5p2/8/p4k2/8/P1PpK3/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "12"] [EventDate "1955.??.??"] {An essential condition for realizing the outside passed f-pawn is not to allow c3-c4.} 1... Ke5 (1... d2 {! , suggested by Manteyfel, allowed Black to win. Even in this case, however, White saves the game. %05In the previous edition of this book it was written that} 2. Kxd2 Ke4 3. a4 (3. Ke2 {?} a4 4. Kd2 f5 5. Ke2 f4 $19 {%04etc.}) 3... f6 (3... f5 4. Ke2 f4 {^013^010} 5. c4 { = with a draw}) 4. Ke2 f5 5. Kd2 Kf3 {!} 6. c4 {!} (6. Kd3 f4 $19 {, and the game is decided by the pawn queening with check.}) 6... Ke4 7. Kc3 f4 8. c5 Kd5 9. c6 {!} Kxc6 10. Kd4 {=}) 2. a4 Kd5 3. Kxd3 Kc5 4. c4 f5 5. Kc3 f4 {(in the absence of other moves, the pawn has had to leave the winning zone - ~3($41279) ~} 6. Kd3 Kb4 7. Ke4 {= Drawn, since the white king reaches c1 in time. ^013^010 ^013^010} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1923.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Reti Richard (CZE)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "4k3/8/3p4/p6K/P5P1/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "0"] [EventDate "1923.??.??"] {The key to the solution is given by the existence of two zugzwang positions. The first is Kg6/Ke7; if it is Black to move} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/4k3/3p2K1/p7/P5P1/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "2"] 1... Ke6 {loses to} (1... d5 2. Kf5 Kd6 3. g5 $18) 2. g5 {(queening with check) , The second zugzwang position is Kf5/Kf7; if it is Black to move} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5k2/3p4/p4K2/P5P1/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "2"] 1... Ke7 {is met by} 2. Kg6 {when White wins as examined earlier.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1923.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Reti Richard (CZE)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "4k3/8/3p4/p6K/P5P1/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "3"] [EventDate "1923.??.??"] 1. Kg5 {! , in order to occupy f5 or g6, depending on the opponent's move. Black does not have the waiting %04move %05 Thus the corresponding squares here are f5/f7 and %05g6/e7. Therefore the only correct move is} (1. Kh6 { ? %05The apparent simplicity of the position can easily lead to %05a mistake. ^013^010 %05 It is clear that a draw results from} Kf7 2. g5 (2. Kh7 Kf6) 2... Kg8 3. Kg6 d5 4. Kf5 Kg7 {=}) (1. Kg6 {? %05But it is less obvious that a draw also follows from} Ke7 2. Kf5 (2. g5 {%05or} d5 3. Kh7 d4 {, when the queens are obtained simultaneously (but if the black king were at e6, White would win by queening with check).}) 2... Kf7 3. Ke4 Kg6 {, when the pawns falls simultaneously (White would win if, in reply to Kd6, Black were to capture on g4 not immediately, but with a delay of one move, since then his king would not reach c8 in time)}) 1... Kf8 {because of} (1... Kf7 {there follows %05while on} 2. Kf5 Ke7 3. Kg6 {%04etc.}) 2. Kf6 $18 * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1952.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Ostropolsky"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/7p/2pk4/6K1/1P6/5P2/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] [EventDate "1952.??.??"] 1. Kf6 {! puts him in zugzwang: after %05Black's king is on the ill-fated a3-f8 diagonal.} c5 (1... h5 {, then %05while if} 2. Kg5 Ke5 (2... Ke6 3. f4) 3. f4+ Ke4 4. b5 {! (to clear the diagonal), winning. %05but} (4. f5 {? %05and now not} h4 {!})) 2. bxc5+ Kxc5 3. f4 {in certain variations the f-pawn queens with check} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1925.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/4p3/4P3/pk1K4/8/8/7P/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "21"] [EventDate "1925.??.??"] 1. Kd4 {! %05The white king has to work enormously hard, so as in the end to gain a draw thanks to the outside passed h-pawn.} Kb4 2. Kd3 Kb3 3. Kd2 Kc4 {!} (3... Kb2 {?} 4. h4) 4. Kc2 Kd5 5. Kb3 Kxe6 6. Ka4 Kf5 (6... Kd5 {, then %05if} 7. h4 e5 8. h5 Ke6 9. Kxa5 Kf5 10. Kb5 {- draw}) 7. Kxa5 e5 8. Kb4 {!} Kf4 ( 8... e4 9. Kc3 {%04etc.}) 9. Kc3 {!} (9. h4 {?} e4 {!} 10. h5 e3 11. Kc3 Kf3 { ! , winning}) 9... Kf3 10. Kd2 Kf2 11. Kd3 {Draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1933.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "1K6/8/p4p2/k4P2/8/2P5/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] [EventDate "1933.??.??"] {In the following examples the outside passed pawn is easily neutralized.} 1. Kc7 Kb5 2. Kd6 a5 3. c4+ {! (getting rid of this pawn, which would cause a loss in the ending of queen against pawn)} Kxc4 {(otherwise 4. c5)} 4. Ke6 a4 5. Kxf6 a3 6. Ke7 {!} a2 7. f6 a1=Q 8. f7 {Draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1931.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/4K3/p4p2/5P2/3P4/8/4k3 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "21"] [EventDate "1931.??.??"] 1. Kd5 Kd2 2. Kc4 Ke3 3. d4 Kxf4 4. d5 Ke5 5. Kc5 a4 6. d6 Ke6 7. Kc6 a3 8. d7 a2 9. d8=Q a1=Q 10. Qe8+ Kf6 11. Qh8+ {, winning.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/1p4p1/4K1P1/4P3/4k3/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "8"] {According to analysis by Grigoriev, an analogous position could have been reached in a game Capablanca - Dake (1931), but moved one file to the right, in which there would no longer have been a win.} 1. Kd4 Kf3 2. e4 Kxg4 3. e5 Kf5 4. Kd5 b4 {, and Black does not lose his queen.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1954.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Maizelis I"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/4k2p/8/4KPPp/8/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1954.??.??"] 1. Kf4 Kd6 2. Kg3 Ke5 3. f6 Ke6 4. Kh4 h6 5. Kxh5 {!} hxg5 6. Kg6 $18 {%04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/4k2p/8/4KPPp/8/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "12"] 1... h4 {%05With Black to move:} 2. Kf4 Kd6 3. Kg4 Ke5 4. f6 h3 5. Kxh3 Ke6 6. Kh4 h6 7. Kh5 $18 {, and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1879.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Horwitz Bernhard (GER)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "5k2/8/5pPp/5P2/6K1/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "29"] [EventDate "1879.??.??"] 1. Kf4 {%05The presence of the protected passed pawn ensures a win. By a by-pass to the left White either forces the advance of the h-pawn, after which it is lost, or else gives mate.} Ke7 2. Ke4 Ke8 3. Kd5 Ke7 4. Kc5 (4. Kc6 { %05The solution can be shortened by one move by} Ke8 5. Kd6 Kf8 6. Kd7 {!} Kg8 (6... h5 7. Ke6) 7. Ke7 Kg7 8. Ke6 {%04etc.}) 4... Ke8 5. Kc6 Ke7 (5... Kf8 6. Kd6) 6. Kd5 Kf8 7. Kd6 Kg8 8. Ke7 Kg7 (8... h5 9. Kxf6 h4 10. g7 h3 11. Kg6 h2 12. f6 h1=N 13. f7# {%04mate}) 9. Ke6 h5 10. Kd5 Kh6 11. Ke4 Kg7 12. Kf4 Kh6 13. Kg3 Kg7 14. Kh3 Kh6 15. Kh4 $18 {, and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "5k2/6p1/2pPp1P1/2P5/8/8/3K4/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "27"] {Zinar suggested the following modification of Horwitz's study, to exclude the dual solutions.} 1. Kc3 {(White has to hurry: if the black king reaches b7 it will be a draw} Ke8 2. Kb4 Kd7 3. Ka5 Kd8 4. Ka6 Kc8 5. Ka7 {!} e5 (5... Kd8 6. Kb7 Kd7 7. Kb6 e5 8. Ka5) 6. Kb6 Kd7 7. Ka5 Ke6 8. Kb4 Kf6 9. Kc4 Ke6 10. Kd3 Kf6 11. Ke4 Ke6 12. Kf3 Kf6 13. Kg4 Ke6 14. Kg5 $18 {, and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1777.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Philidor Francois A D (FRA)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/1pPk2p1/1P6/3K4/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "8"] [EventDate "1777.??.??"] {The position illustrates a case where, in spite of the possession of a protected passed pawn, the stronger side is unable to win the isolated enemy pawn.} 1. Ke3 {%05The black king defends the g-pawn without stepping outside the "square" of the c5 pawn, e.g.} Ke5 2. Kf3 Kf5 3. Kg3 Ke5 {!} (3... Kf6 {?} 4. Kg4) 4. Kg4 Kf6 {Draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/1pPk2p1/1P6/3K4/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "3"] {The situation under consideration (with the isolated pawn on the bishop's file rather than the knight's, which does not essentially change matters) is encountered in the main variation of the following study.} 1... Ke5 {%05With Black to move, later analyses showed that a draw is given by} 2. Ke3 Kd5 {! =} (2... Kf5 {? %05but not} 3. Kd4 g4 4. Kd5 {!} (4. Ke3 {also wins (by the method shown in example~3($40442)~. From this it follows that in the position (Ke3,^013^010 pawns b4, c5/Ke5, pawns b5, g4) White wins^013^010 irrespective of who it is to move. %054. Kd5! succeeds most quickly, but it is of fundamental^013^010 %05importance that}) 4... g3 5. c6 {, when White wins the queen or exchanges it.}) * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1930.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "5k2/8/8/p7/P4p2/8/1P1K4/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "27"] [EventDate "1930.??.??"] 1. b4 {!} Ke7 2. b5 {!} Kd6 3. Ke2 Ke6 4. Kf3 Ke5 5. Kg4 {!} Ke4 6. b6 f3 7. Kg3 {!} Ke3 8. b7 f2 9. b8=Q f1=Q 10. Qe5+ {!} Kd2 11. Qxa5+ Kd1 {(the exchange of queens is forced in all variations)} 12. Qd5+ Kc1 13. Qc5+ Kd1 14. Qd4+ $40 {%04etc. If in example ~3( 441)~ the g-pawn is moved to h5, or the position is moved one rank up the board, White wins without difficulty.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/1pPk4/1P1p1K2/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "10"] 1. Kg3 Ke5 2. Kf3 Kf5 3. Kg3 Ke5 4. Kg4 Ke6 (4... Ke4 {! is even better}) 5. Kf4 Kd5 {, with a draw. An analogous position, but with an extra pawn for White, is reached in the following interesting and complicated ending.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1954.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Halberstadt Vitaly (FRA)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/4k3/6p1/4p3/6P1/6PK/5P2/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "21"] [EventDate "1954.??.??"] 1. f4 {! %051... g5 cannot be allowed, but 1. g5 does not win. Therefore:} g5 { !} 2. f5 e4 {This move is necessary either now or on the following move, since it is obvious that the defence of the e5 pawn from d6 is hopeless. The composer's solution gives 2... Kd7, but the transportation of moves is methodologically more convent for the final determination of the pawn configurations and for showing more clearly the manoeuvring of the kings.} 3. Kg2 {!} Kd7 {From zugzwang position Ke3/Ke5 the correspondence of the squares f2/d6 an e2/d5 is clear, and this explains the following play: White's aim is to reach the position Kc4/Ke5 with the opponent to move. %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/302I4/303I01I3/8/401D3/403D02D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8)} 4. Kf1 {! %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/302I4/ 303I01I3/8/401D3/403D02D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc6 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/302I4/303I01I3/8/401D3/403D02D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8)} 5. Ke1 {! %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/302I4/ 303I01I3/8/401D3/403D02D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc5 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/302I4/303I01I3/8/401D3/403D02D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8)} 6. Kd1 {! This manoeuvre takes account of the additional correspondence of the squares d2/d6 and c2/c6, and in addition c3/d5 and b3/c5, resulting from the zugzwang position Kc4/Ke5. %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (8/8/204I02I4/205I03I01I3/201D5/105D03D101D3/204D02D03D02D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8)} Kc6 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/204I02I4/ 205I03I01I3/201D5/105D03D101D3/204D02D03D02D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 7. Kc2 { ! %15 N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/204I02I4/205I03I01I3/ 201D5/105D03D101D3/204D02D03D02D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc5 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/204I02I4/205I03I01I3/201D5/105D03D101D3/ 204D02D03D02D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 8. Kb3 {! %15 N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/204I02I4/205I03I01I3/201D5/105D03D101D3/ 204D02D03D02D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd6 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/204I02I4/205I03I01I3/102D01D5/105D03D101D3/204D02D03D02D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 9. Kb4 {! (the decisive approach) %15 N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/204I02I4/205I03I01I3/102D01D5/105D03D101D3/ 204D02D03D02D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd5 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/204I02I4/205I03I01I3/102D01D5/105D03D101D3/204D02D03D02D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 10. Kc3 {! %15 N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/204I02I4/205I03I01I3/102D01D5/105D03D101D3/204D02D03D02D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8)} Ke5 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/204I02I4/ 205I03I01I3/102D01D5/105D03D101D3/204D02D03D02D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) (in example ~3 ($41443)~ ... Kc5 was possible, but here^013^010 White has an extra pawn, and therefore f5-f6 wins)} 11. Kc4 {! , and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1948.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Marishko"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/6p1/4k2p/8/2KP4/5P2/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] [EventDate "1948.??.??"] 1. d5+ Kd6 2. Kd4 g6 (2... g5 3. Ke4 h5 4. Kf5 h4 5. Kg4 {and 6. f4=}) (2... h5 3. Ke4 h4 4. Kf4 Kxd5 5. Kg4 Ke5 6. Kxh4 Kf4 7. Kh5 {=}) 3. Ke4 h5 4. Kf4 Kxd5 5. Kg5 Ke5 6. f4+ Ke4 (6... Ke6 {%05or}) 7. Kxg6 {Draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1923.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/1k1p4/8/P1P5/p7/8/3K4 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1923.??.??"] 1. Kc2 {%05The basic content here is the struggle for the critical squares of the passed pawn:} Ka5 2. Kb3 a2 3. Kb2 {!} Kb4 4. Ka1 {!} Kxa4 (4... Kxc4 5. Kxa2 {- draw}) 5. c5 {!} dxc5 6. Kxa2 {= Draw ~3 ($4097)~. No less instructive is the next, more complicated position.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1923.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/4k1P1/4p1p1/4K3/3P4/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1923.??.??"] 1. g7 Kf7 2. Kf5 {!} (2. Kxe5 {?} Kxg7 3. Kf5 Kf7 {- draw}) 2... Kg8 {!} (2... Kxg7 3. Kxg5 {, and wins}) 3. Kg4 {!} (3. Kxg5 {? there follows %05on} e4 {!} 4. dxe4 Kxg7 {- draw}) 3... Kf7 (3... e4 4. dxe4 Kf7 5. Kf5 Kg8 6. Kf6 g4 7. e5 {%04etc.}) 4. Kxg5 {! with the king at f7 the capture is now possible:} e4 ( 4... Kxg7 {, then %05if} 5. Kf5 e4 6. Kxe4 {!}) 5. Kh6 {!!} Kg8 6. dxe4 $18 { , and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "6k1/8/7p/3pP2P/8/1K6/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] {The following examples reflect the struggle for a zugzwang position.} 1. Kb4 { ! %05But he can reach d4 not in two moves, but in three:} (1. Kc3 {%05If} Kf7 { White cannot play} 2. Kd4 {?} (2. Kd3 {%05while after} Ke7 {the result is a draw.}) 2... Ke6 {!}) 1... Kf7 2. Kc5 Ke6 3. Kd4 {, and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/3k4/4pP2/1p6/1P6/6K1/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] {Against correct defence by the opponent, White is unable to attain a zugzwang position in the following example.} 1... Kd8 {! is correct, switching to play with "untouchable" pawns. White has two possible plans: he can go to the support of his f-pawn, or he can attack the b5 pawn.} (1... e5 {loses to} 2. Kg4 Ke6 3. Kg5 e4 (3... Kf7 4. Kf5 e4 5. Kxe4 Kxf6 6. Kd5 $18) 4. Kg6 {, when after the queening of the pawns White wins by a check at e8.}) 2. Kg4 (2. Kf4 Ke8 3. Ke4 Kf8 4. Kd4 Ke8 5. Kc5 Kf7 6. Kxb5 Kxf6 7. Kc5 e5 8. b5 e4 9. Kd4 Ke6 {= , with the same result.}) 2... Ke8 3. Kh5 Kf7 4. Kg5 Ke8 5. Kg6 Kf8 6. f7 e5 7. Kf5 Kxf7 8. Kxe5 Ke7 {= with a draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1925.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/7p/5Ppk/4KP2/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1925.??.??"] 1. Kf2 {%05Here White has to overcome certain difficulties by accurate play. The analysis is by Shusterovich (Saratov).} Kh3 (1... g3+ {%05or} 2. Kg1 { , as in the main variation}) 2. Kg1 (2. f5 {?} Kh2) 2... Kh4 3. Kg2 (3. Kh2 {?} gxf3) 3... g3 4. Kg1 {!} (4. Kh1 {??} Kh3 {! , and Black gives mate with his h-pawn}) 4... g2 5. Kh2 {!} g1=Q+ 6. Kxg1 $18 {, and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1934.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "7k/8/7p/5Pp1/6P1/8/8/7K w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "27"] [EventDate "1934.??.??"] {We will now consider positions where only one of the sides has a passed pawn. As a rule, the stronger side wins by elementary means. Disregarding these cases, we will dwell on more complicated examples. %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/501I2/8/401D3/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kg2 { %05Black's only chance is to transfer his king to f6 and play ... h5, undermining his opponent's pawn chain. White must therefore defend his f-pawn from e4. Hence the zugzwang position Ke4/Kf6, which determines the immediate manoeuvres of the two sides.} Kg7 2. Kf3 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8) #C(8/502I2/501I2/8/401D3/402D3/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf7 {! %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/502I2/501I2/8/401D3/402D3/8/8) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Ke3 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/ 502I2/501I2/8/401D3/402D3/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/502I2/501I2/8/401D3/402D3/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kd4 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/502I2/501I2/8/401D3/ 402D3/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf6 {(otherwise 5. Ke5) %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/502I2/501I2/8/401D3/402D3/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Ke4 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/502I2/501I2/8/401D3/ 402D3/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 6. Ke5 Kf7 7. f6 h5 {(there is nothing else)} 8. gxh5 g4 9. h6 g3 (9... Kg6 10. Ke6 g3 11. f7 {%04etc.}) 10. h7 g2 11. h8=Q g1=Q 12. Qh7+ Kf8 13. Qe7+ Kg8 14. f7+ {, and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1946.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Prokes Ladislav (CZE)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5p1k/6pP/6P1/8/8/3K4/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1946.??.??"] 1. Ke3 {%05In this position too White is threatened with the undermining of his pawns, but in compensation he obtains a dangerous passed pawn:} f6 2. gxf6 Kxh6 {, and in the resulting ending of pawn against pawn White decides matters by} 3. Kf4 {!} Kh7 (3... g5+ 4. Kf5 g4 5. Ke6 g3 6. f7 $18) 4. Kg5 Kh8 5. Kh6 { !} Kg8 6. Kxg6 $18 {, and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1952.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Pospisil Dusan (CZE)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/5kp1/3P3p/7P/4K3/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "17"] [EventDate "1952.??.??"] 1. Ke4 {! %05And so:} (1. Kf4 {%05 The win appears straightforward, but in reality White encounters serious difficulties, associated with the fact that the distance between his pawns is insufficiently large, and also that one of them is a rook's pawn. He fails to win, for example, by} Kf7 2. Kg5 Kg7 3. d6 { , since after} (3. Kf4 {%05instead of 3. d6?, White must play 3. Kf4}) 3... Kf7 {the black king has time to take the passed pawn and then occupy f8}) (1. Kd4 { %05Another unpleasantness awaiting White is seen in the following variation:} Kf7 {!} (1... Ke7 {?} 2. Ke5 Kf7 (2... Kd7 {%05or} 3. Kf6 {with an easy win, which reveals the zugzwang position Ke5/Ke7, but Kd4/Kf7 is also a zugzwang position, as will now become clear}) 3. d6) 2. d6 {? this leads by force to a draw} (2. Kc5 {? %05as however does} g5 {; it was not yet too late to return to the initial position}) 2... Ke6 3. Kc5 Kd7 4. Kd5 g5 5. hxg5 h4 {, and the pawn queens with check. This means that the white king must avoid d5.^013^010 This variation gives the key to the solution: we now know the basic zugzwang positions, i.e., the correspondence of the squares e5/e7 and d4/f7. The third pair of squares comprising the "main zone" is, of course, e4/f6.}) 1... Kf7 { %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/401I02I2/503D2/401D3/ 302D03D3/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (1... g5 {does not work due to} 2. hxg5+ Kxg5 3. Ke5) 2. Kd4 {! %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/ 401I02I2/503D2/401D3/302D03D3/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke8 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/401I02I2/503D2/401D3/302D03D3/8/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} (2... Ke7 {%05weaker is} 3. Ke5) (2... Kf6 {%05or} 3. Kc5 g5 4. hxg5+) 3. d6 {(Black cannot reply 3... Ke6)} Kd7 {White faces his last test: 4. Kd5 is of course bad, but to^013^010 which move should he give preference - 4. Kc5 or 4.^013^010 Ke5? Concrete calculation is required. After 4... g5 etc. a queen ending results, in which White, as in^013^010 example ~3 ($41451)~, will play Qf7. It follows that the^013^010 black king must be deprived of c6.} 4. Kc5 {!} g5 5. hxg5 h4 6. g6 h3 7. g7 h2 8. g8=Q h1=Q 9. Qf7+ {, and mate in 2 moves.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1954.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Pospisil Dusan (CZE)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/4k3/7p/3p3P/6P1/8/7K w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1954.??.??"] {%15N #B(8/8/8/3I1I13/4I13/5D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) This is the position ~3( 453)~ with colours reversed and the defender's king placed outside the critical zone (f3, f2, e2 for White, and e5, d5, e4 for Black). In the previous example the stronger side's king immediately seized the correspondence, but here it is altogether unable to do this.} 1. Kg2 {! %15N #B(8/8/8/3I1I13/4I13/5D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd6 {%15N #B(8/8/8/3I1I13/4I13/5D12/ 4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (1... Ke5 {%04with %05so as to answer} 2. Kf3) (1... Kd5 {%05or} 2. Kf2 {respectively }) 2. Kf1 {! %15N #B(8/8/8/3I1I13/4I13/5D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} d3 (2... Kd5 3. Kf2) (2... Ke5 3. Ke1 {!}) 3. Kf2 Kd5 4. Ke3 Kc4 5. Kd2 Kd4 6. g4 {Draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1926.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Prokop Frantisek Josef (CZE)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2k5/p7/8/2p2P2/8/1P6/4K3 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] [EventDate "1926.??.??"] 1. Kd2 {! %05Following the general rule, the c-pawn should be blockaded:} (1. Ke2 {? %05It is clear that the c- and f-pawns will be exchanged, and^013^010 %05 that an ending of pawn against pawn will arise (similar to^013^010 %05example ~3($40106)~. White does not win if Kc4 is^013^010 %05answered by ... Kf4. Therefore he is unsuccessful with} Kd6 2. Kf3 Kd5 3. Ke3 Ke6 {!} 4. Kd4 ( 4. Ke4 {%05or} Kf6 5. f5 c3 {!}) 4... Kf5) 1... Kd6 2. Kc3 Kd5 3. f5 (3. Kb4 {? } Ke4 {!}) 3... Ke5 4. Kxc4 (4. f6 {?} Kxf6 {- draw}) 4... Kxf5 5. Kd4 { ! etc.~3 ($40106)~.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1934.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1p6/1p6/2k5/8/2PP4/4K3/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "47"] [EventDate "1934.??.??"] 1. Ke3 Kd5 (1... b5 2. Ke4 b4 {is weaker in view of} 3. d4+ {!} Kc4 4. cxb4 Kxb4 5. d5) 2. Kd2 {!} b5 3. Kc2 Kc5 (3... b4 {%05In the event of} 4. cxb4 Kd4 5. Kd2 b6 6. Kc2 Ke3 7. Kc3 b5 8. Kc2 Kf4 {White wins by} 9. Kb2 {~3($4018)~} ( 9. Kb3 {%05or})) 4. Kb3 b6 5. d4+ Kd5 6. Kb4 Kc6 7. Ka3 {! Having immobilized the enemy pawns, White transfers his king to the centre, manoeuvring such that he can meet ... Kd5 with Kb3, and later - Kd3.} (7. d5+ {?} Kxd5 8. Kxb5 Ke4 { ! would have led to a draw.}) 7... Kd6 8. Kb2 Kd5 9. Kb3 Kd6 {!} 10. Kc2 Ke6 11. Kd2 {!} Kd6 12. Ke3 Kd5 13. Kd3 Kd6 14. Ke4 Ke6 15. d5+ Kd6 16. Kd4 Kd7 17. Ke5 Ke7 18. d6+ Ke8 {!} 19. Kd4 (19. Ke6 {there would now follow %05On} Kd8 20. d7 b4 21. cxb4 b5 {with a draw. White has to give his opponent the move.}) 19... Kd8 20. Kd5 Ke8 21. Ke5 Kd8 22. Ke6 Ke8 23. d7+ Kd8 24. Kd6 $18 {, and wins. Grigoriev regarded the following position as a more complete expression of this study.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1p6/kp6/8/8/2P5/3P4/6K1 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] {%21 %212099681186=ZE5Y5 %212099681186=ZE5Y53 %212099681186=ZE5Y55 %212099681186=ZE5Y59 %212099681186=ZE5Y7} 1. Kf2 Kb5 {~5 (RR) This move is also sufficient for a draw.~} (1... b5 {! , when both %05But, as was shown by Kopayev (1953), 1. Kf2 is more strongly met by} 2. Ke3 (2. d4 {%05and} Kb6 {!} 3. Ke3 Kc6 4. Ke4 Kd6 5. d5 Kd7 6. Ke5 Ke7 7. d6+ Ke8 {lead to a draw. in contrast to the similar play in example ~3($41456)~, the c6 square remains inaccessible to White, since Black has refrained from playing ... b6.} (7... Kf7 {= %05or})) 2... b4 3. cxb4 Kb5 4. d4 Kxb4 5. Ke4 Kb5 {!} 6. Kd5 Ka4 {!} 7. Kc5 b5 {=}) 2. d3 Kc5 {~5 ? (RR) A decisive mistake.~} (2... Ka5 {! %05~5 (RR) Correct is~} 3. Ke3 (3. d4 b5 4. d5 Kb6 5. Ke3 Kc7 6. Kd4 Kd6 7. Ke4 Ke7 8. Ke5 Kd7 9. d6 Ke8 10. Ke6 Kd8 11. d7 b4 12. cxb4 b5 {=}) 3... b5 4. Ke4 b4 5. cxb4+ Kxb4 {=}) 3. Ke3 $18 {~3($40456)~.^013^010 ^013^010 ^013^010} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1930.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Halberstadt Vitaly (FRA)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/3k4/2p5/8/P1p5/2P5/5K2 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] [EventDate "1930.??.??"] {In the following examples the black pawns are also deprived of their mobility. } 1. Ke2 (1. Kf2 {? does not work:} Kc6 {!} 2. Ke3 Kb5 3. Kd3 Ka4 4. Kxc3 Kxa3 5. Kc4 Kb2 {with a draw. White has to provoke ... c4.}) 1... c4 2. Kf3 {!} (2. Ke3 {? the a-pawn has to be prematurely advanced, e.g. %05In the event of} Ke5 3. a4 Kd5 4. a5 Kc5 5. a6 Kb6 6. Kd4 Kxa6 {Draw.}) 2... Kd5 3. Kf4 {!} Kd4 4. a4 Kd5 (4... Kc5 5. Ke4 Kb4 6. Kd4 Kxa4 7. Kxc4 $18 {%04etc.}) 5. Ke3 Ke5 6. a5 Kd5 7. a6 Kc6 8. Kd4 {, and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1938.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Moravec"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "7k/1p6/7P/8/8/1p2K3/1P6/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "23"] [EventDate "1938.??.??"] 1. Kf4 {!} Kh7 2. Kg5 Kh8 3. Kg6 Kg8 4. h7+ Kh8 5. Kh6 b6 6. Kg6 b5 7. Kh6 b4 8. Kg5 Kxh7 9. Kf6 {!} Kg8 10. Ke7 {!} Kg7 11. Kd6 Kf6 12. Kc5 {, winning.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/5k1p/6pP/4K1P1/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "4"] {~16.2 ENDINGS WITHOUT PASSED PAWNS~ If in the ending of two pawns against two there are no passed pawns, it follows that the white and black pawns must stand in pairs opposite one another on the same or on adjacent files. In the event of the exchange of one pair of pawns, the familiar ending of pawn against pawn arises, while if one of the pawns is won, play reduces to the ending of two pawns against one. But although these simpler endings form the basis of the endings with two pawns against two, they have their own specific features, giving rise at times to complicated king manoeuvring. The examples given below are grouped according to the nature of the pawn structure: ~ 6.21 Connected pawns against connected.~ ~ 6.22 Connected pawns against isolated.~ ~ 6.23 Isolated pawns against isolated (where "isolated" can also mean doubled pawns).~ ~16.21 Connected pawns against connected~ If the pawns are completely or partially blocking one another, the decisive role is normally played by how deeply the king can penetrate into the enemy position, or more precisely - the possibility of seizing control of the critical squares of the more backward pawn by the methods of opposition or correspondence. In the majority of cases these endings are drawn, especially if only one pair of pawns is blocked and there is the possibility of an exchange. But exceptions occur, most often in cases where the pawns are not completely blocked.} 1. Kd5 {%04with %05In this text book example Black meets} Kf7 {!} 2. Kd6 (2. Ke5 {%05or} Ke7 {=}) 2... Kf6 {= Here the defence of the critical e6 square is simple, but Black loses, of course if in the position Ke5/Ke7 it is him to move.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/4k3/7p/4K1p1/6P1/7P/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "1"] {This last method is the only one, if the position is moved one file to the left.} 1... h5 {immediately with a draw %05 With this pawn structure (the set-up g3, h4/g6, h5 is even favourable for White) Black does not lose even if it is him to move. He can play} (1... Kf7 {%05but the preliminary} 2. Kf5 { is also possible, and now either} h5 (2... Kg7 {%05or simply} 3. Ke6 Kg6 {=}) 3. Kxg5 hxg4 4. hxg4 Kg7 {=}) * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1885.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Teed"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/4K2k/7p/6p1/6P1/7P/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] [EventDate "1885.??.??"] 1. Kf7 {! %05White, to play, wins by} h5 {(otherwise 2. Kg6)} 2. h4 {!} gxh4 ( 2... hxg4 3. hxg5) 3. g5 {, since Black loses a tempo after} h3 4. g6+ $18 * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1929.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Mattison Herman (LAT)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "7k/8/4K1pp/8/8/6PP/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] [EventDate "1929.??.??"] 1. Kf6 {! %05Correct is} (1. Kf7 {? %05This is the conclusion of study ~3 ($40663)~. Mattison %05has^013^010 %05the king at e5. It was moved to e6 by Prokes (1944),^013^010 %05and it transpires that it is bad to play} Kh7 2. g4 g5 3. Kf6 h5) (1. g4 {? %05or} g5 2. Kf7 (2. Kf6 h5) 2... Kh7 {!} (2... h5 {?} 3. h4) 3. Kf6 h5) 1... Kh7 2. g4 g5 3. Kf7 {, and wins ~3($40462)~.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1887.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Salvioli C"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/6p1/6Pp/7P/8/5K1k/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "18"] [EventDate "1887.??.??"] {This position is a double exception: White would be unable to save the game, if the pawns were moved down the board, or if they were moved to the left. Nevertheless the example is of interest, as it illustrates a tactical device by which White approaches the g7 pawn with gain of tempo.} 1. Kf4 Kh4 2. Ke5 {! } Kxh5 3. Kf5 Kh4 4. Ke6 Kg3 5. Kf7 h5 6. Kxg7 h4 7. Kf6 h3 8. g7 h2 9. g8=Q+ Kf2 {Draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1852.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Horwitz & Kling"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/4K1pp/7k/8/8/6PP/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "12"] [EventDate "1852.??.??"] 1. Kf7 {White can win a pawn, but not the game: %05After} g5 {!} 2. Kf6 g4 ( 2... Kh5 {also does not lose %05the simplest, but}) 3. h4 Kh5 4. Kf5 h6 { ~3($41474)~, and if} 5. Kf4 {, then} (5. Ke4 {%05while if} Kg6 6. Ke5 {, then} Kh5 {! with a draw.} (6... h5 {?} 7. Ke6)) 5... Kg6 6. Kxg4 h5+ {=} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1937.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/4K2p/6p1/6P1/4k3/7P/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] [EventDate "1937.??.??"] {In the initial position of the study the kings stands at a6 and a2, and the pawn at g2. After 1. g4! the kings approach the pawns, with White all the time maintaining the opposition. The example illustrates the advantage of White's pawn formation (his pawns are less vulnerable).} 1. Ke5 {!} Kf2 2. Kf6 {!} Kf3 3. Kf5 Kg2 4. Kg6 Kh3 5. Kh5 $18 {, and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1929.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Halberstadt Vitaly (FRA)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "2K5/7p/8/8/6pP/8/2k3P1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "10"] [EventDate "1929.??.??"] {There is an unexpected conclusion to the play in the following example.} 1. Kd7 {%05Correct is} (1. h5 {?} Kd2 2. h6 Ke2 3. Kd7 Kf2 4. Ke7 Kxg2 5. Kf7 Kf3 6. Kg7 g3 7. Kxh7 g2 8. Kh8 g1=Q 9. h7 {loses to} Kg4 $19 {!}) 1... Kd2 (1... Kd3 {%05or} 2. Ke6 Ke4 3. Kf6 Kf4 4. h5 {with a draw, since Black has lost a tempo}) 2. Ke6 {!} Ke2 3. Kf5 g3 4. Kg4 Kf2 5. Kh3 h5 {- stalemate.} * [Event "Prague (Czech Republic)"] [Site "Prague (Czech Republic)"] [Date "1955.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Pachman Ludek (GER)"] [Black "Ilivitzki Georgi A (RUS)"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/pp6/8/8/8/8/PP2K1k1/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] [EventDate "1955.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ367 %212045826630=4HLJ375 %212045826630=4HLJ377} 1... Kg3 {%05Black looks to be in danger: his king is a long way from his pawns. But he turns out to have quite adequate defensive resources:} 2. Ke3 Kg2 {! A precise move! Black is not able to take his king to the support of his pawns, so he sets himself a different task: to attack the enemy pawns from the rear.} 3. a4 (3. Kd4 {, then %05If now, for example,} Kf3 4. Kd5 Ke3 5. Kd6 Kd3 6. Kc7 Kc2 7. Kxb7 (7. a4 b6 {!} ( 7... Kxb2 {? %05but not} 8. Kxb7 a5 9. Kb6 $18 {, winning})) 7... a5 8. a4 (8. Kb6 a4) 8... Kb3 {! , and the draw is obvious.}) (3. b4 {%05Equally little is promised by} Kf1 4. Kd2 Kf2 5. a4 b6 {!} 6. Kd3 Ke1 7. a5 bxa5 8. bxa5 Kf2 { ! %04etc.}) 3... b6 4. b4 (4. Kd4 Kf3 5. Kc4 Ke3 6. Kb5 Kd3 7. Ka6 Kc4 8. Kxa7 Kb4 {with a draw}) 4... Kf1 5. Ke4 Ke2 6. a5 bxa5 7. bxa5 Kf2 {!= Drawn.} * [Event "Triberg (Germany)"] [Site "Triberg (Germany)"] [Date "1917.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Bogoljubow Efim D (UKR)"] [Black "Selezniev Alexei"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/3k1p2/6p1/6K1/7P/8/6P1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] [EventDate "1917.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ367 %212045826630=4HLJ375 %212045826630=4HLJ377} 1. Kf6 {! %05Here a by-pass from the rear is decisive:} Ke8 2. Kg7 Ke7 3. g3 {!} (3. g4 {?} f5 {=}) 3... Ke6 ( 3... Ke8 4. g4 {!$18}) 4. Kf8 Kf6 (4... f6 {%05if, then} 5. Kg7 Kf5 6. Kf7) 5. g4 Ke6 6. g5 {! and White wins, e.g.} f5 7. h5 f4 8. hxg6 $18 {%04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1953.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Fontana"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "3K4/1k6/1pp5/8/3P4/2P5/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] [EventDate "1953.??.??"] {The following position has a natural appearance.} 1. Ke7 {!} (1. Kd7 {?} c5 2. d5 b5) 1... Ka7 (1... Kc7 2. c4) 2. Kd7 {!} c5 (2... Kb7 3. Kd6 b5 4. Kd7 Kb6 5. Kc8) 3. d5 b5 4. d6 b4 5. Kc8 {!} b3 6. d7 b2 7. d8=Q b1=Q 8. Qa5# {mate.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1952.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Botvinnik Mikhail M (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5pk1/6p1/8/2K2PP1/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "19"] [EventDate "1952.??.??"] 1. Kd5 {%05This position is a valuable contribution to theory.} Kf8 {! The best defence.} (1... Kh6 {loses quickly to} 2. Ke5 Kg7 3. Kd6 Kf8 (3... Kh8 { , then %05If instead of 3... Kf8 Black plays} 4. Kd7 Kh7 5. Kd8 {! winning, e. g.} Kh8 (5... Kg7 6. Ke8) (5... Kg8 6. Ke7) 6. f5) 4. Kd7 Kg7 5. Ke8 Kg8 6. Ke7 Kg7 7. f5 g5 8. Ke8 $18) 2. Kd6 Ke8 3. f5 g5 4. Kc7 {!} (4. f6 {?} Kd8 5. Ke5 Kd7 6. Kf5 Kd6 7. Kxg5 Ke5 {- draw}) 4... Ke7 5. Kc8 {!} Kd6 (5... Ke8 6. f6 $18) 6. Kd8 Ke5 7. Ke7 f6 8. Kf7 Kf4 9. Kxf6 Kxg4 10. Kg6 $18 {%04etc. It should be noted that position of this example becomes drawn if it is moved to the right or down the board, but remains won if it is moved one or two files to the left.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1927.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Duras Oldrich (CZE)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/K3p3/5p2/5P2/8/8/2k1P3/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1927.??.??"] {The decisive zugzwang position here is Ke6/Kf4. If it is White to move in this case, he cannot win: 1. e3 Ke4 2. Ke7 Kf5, whereas if it is Black to move he loses: 1... Ke4 2. e3 Ke3 3. Ke7. The second decisive position is Kd5/Ke3 (in the event of 1... Ke2 or 1... Kf4 White wins by 2. Ke6, but if it is his move the position is a draw.} 1. Kb6 {%05Now the manoeuvring of the kings will be readily understandable:} Kc3 {with the aim of penetrating via d4 to e5;} ( 1... Kd2 {? , then %05if} 2. Kc6 Kxe2 3. Kd7 Ke3 4. Kxe7 $18) 2. Kc5 Kd2 3. Kc6 {!} (3. Kd5 {?} Ke3 {=}) 3... Ke3 4. Kd5 {!} Kf4 5. Ke6 Ke4 6. e3 $18 {%16 , and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1933.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "6k1/2p5/3p4/1P6/8/8/2P5/6K1 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "23"] [EventDate "1933.??.??"] {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(203I5/302I4/203D101I3/302D4/ 301D4/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) Here White has to transfer his king to c6 and make the b5-b6 break. The struggle initial revolves around the d5 square (the zugzwang position is Kd4/Ke6). On achieving the position Kd5/Kd7, White will have to use a pawn tempo, in order to occupy c6. Then in the position Kc6/Kc8 he will have to use up his second and last pawn tempo, since the immediate b5-b6 does not work (in analogy with example ~3( 328~) ).} 1. Kf2 Kf7 2. Ke3 { %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(203I5/302I4/203D101I3/302D4/ 301D4/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(203I5/302I4/203D101I3/302D4/301D4/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (2... Kf6 3. Ke4) 3. Ke4 {! %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(203I5/302I4/ 203D101I3/302D4/301D4/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke6 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(203I5/302I4/203D101I3/302D4/301D4/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8)} 4. Kd4 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(203I5/302I4/ 203D101I3/302D4/301D4/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(203I5/302I4/203D101I3/302D4/301D4/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8)} (4... d5 5. Kc5 $18) 5. Kd5 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(203I5/302I4/203D101I3/302D4/301D4/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd7 6. c3 { %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(203I5/302I4/203D101I3/302D4/ 301D4/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd8 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(8/8/2XD5/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 7. Kc6 Kc8 8. c4 {!} (8. b6 {? } cxb6 9. Kxb6 (9. c4 {%05or} b5 10. cxb5 Kb8 {=}) 9... Kd7 {- draw}) 8... Kd8 9. b6 Kc8 (9... cxb6 {%05if} 10. Kxd6) 10. bxc7 d5 11. Kxd5 Kxc7 12. Kc5 { , and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1938.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Herberg"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5p2/8/3K1k2/4pP2/4P3/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] [EventDate "1938.??.??"] {An analogous position occurred in one of the variations of example ~3( 465)~, where Black was saved by his king being at the side of the board (the possibility of stalemate). Here he does not have this resource} 1. Kd4 { ! (other moves are answered by 1... Kg4)} Ke6 {!} 2. Kc5 {!} (2. Kxe4 {%05but as before a draw result from} f5+ {To win, White has to give his opponent the move.}) 2... Kf6 3. Kd6 Kf5 4. Kd5 f6 5. Kd4 Ke6 6. Kc5 Kd7 7. Kd5 (7. f5 {?} Kc7 8. Kd5 Kd7 9. Kxe4 Kd6 10. Kd4 Kc6 11. Kc4 Kd6 {- draw}) 7... Ke7 8. Kxe4 $18 {, and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1925.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Bianchetti"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2p4K/1k6/8/8/2Pp4/3P4/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] [EventDate "1925.??.??"] {Position ~3( 474)~ is the finish to the following study.} 1. Kg6 Kc5 2. Kf5 Kd5 3. Kf4 c6 4. Ke3 Kc4 5. Ke4 c5 6. Ke3 Kd5 7. Kf4 {! %04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1941.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Ebersz"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/4k3/K5p1/7p/7P/8/6P1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] [EventDate "1941.??.??"] 1. Kb7 {! %05White is saved by a by-passing advance from the rear:} (1. Kb5 { ? loses to} Kd6 {!} 2. Kc4 Ke5 3. Kd3 Kf4 4. Ke2 Kg3 5. Kf1 Kxh4 6. Kf2 Kg4 { and 7... Kg3$19}) 1... Kd7 (1... Kf6 2. Kc6 g5 3. hxg5+ Kxg5 {does not achieve anything due to} 4. Kd6 {%04etc.}) 2. Kb8 {!} (2. Kb6 {?} Kd6 3. Kb7 Ke5 { , and Black first picks up the g-pawn}) 2... Ke6 (2... Kd6 {is no better:} 3. Kc8 Ke5 4. Kd7 Kf4 5. Ke6 Kg3 6. Kf6) 3. Kc7 Kf5 4. Kd6 Kg4 5. Ke5 Kxh4 6. Kf6 g5 7. Kf5 g4 8. Kf4 {Draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1pp5/5k2/P1P5/5K2/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "1"] {~16.22 Connected pawns against isolated~ Other things being equal, connected pawns are stronger than isolated or doubled pawns, but the decisive factor is nevertheless the existence of a positional advantage - the placing of the kings (their proximity to the invasion points), the possession of the opposition, and so on.} 1. c6 {breakthrough is decisive (the a-pawn becomes passed). %05If it is White to play, the} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1pp5/5k2/P1P5/5K2/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "3"] 1... c6 {%05If Black begins, after} 2. Ke4 Ke6 {he controls the critical squares of the c5 pawn. In the position Kf5/Kf7 the move 1... c6 would give only a draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1853.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Mayet Carl (GER)"] [Black "Von Der Lasa Thassilo (GER)"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "6K1/8/6k1/1p1p4/8/1P6/2P5/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "20"] [EventDate "1853.??.??"] 1. Kf8 {%05The players agreed a draw, although Black has an easy win thanks to the poor position of the white king:} Kf6 2. Ke8 Ke6 3. Kd8 Kd6 4. Kc8 Kc5 5. Kd7 Kb4 6. Kc6 d4 7. Kd5 Kc3 8. b4 Kxc2 9. Kxd4 Kb3 10. Kc5 Ka4 $19 * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "6K1/8/6k1/1p1p4/8/1P6/2P5/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "1"] 1... Kf6 {%05If it is Black to play, he wins by} (1... d4 {! is even simpler %05but}) (1... b4 {? - draw %05but not}) * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1904.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Duclos Samuel (FRA)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2p5/kp6/3P4/PK6/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] [EventDate "1904.??.??"] 1. Kb3 {!} Ka5 (1... b5 2. Kb4) 2. Ka3 b5 3. axb5 Kxb5 4. d6 {! Draw ~3 ($4097) ~.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1942.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Ebersz"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/2kpp3/8/5P2/2P5/5K2 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] [EventDate "1942.??.??"] 1. Ke2 {!} Kc4 (1... Kd4 {%05or} 2. Kd2 Kc4 3. c3) 2. f4 {!} exf4 3. Kf3 Kc3 4. Kxf4 Kxc2 5. Ke5 {Draw.} * [Event "Budapest (Hungary)"] [Site "Budapest (Hungary)"] [Date "1937.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Szabo Laszlo (HUN)"] [Black "Fuster Geza (CAN)"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "4k3/5p2/8/5K1p/8/6P1/7P/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] [EventDate "1937.??.??"] 1... h4 {! %05Black should have played} (1... Kf8 {? White won by %05After} 2. Kg5 {%04etc.}) 2. g4 h3 {! with a draw:} 3. Kf4 f6 4. Kg3 Kf7 5. Kxh3 Kg6 6. Kh4 f5 7. g5 f4 8. Kg4 f3 {=} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1942.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Ebersz"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/1k2p3/2p4K/2P5/3P4/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "25"] [EventDate "1942.??.??"] 1. Kh6 {! %05White must seize the opposition on the 6th and 7th ranks, so as to carry out a by-pass along the 8th rank.} (1. Kg5 {? %05Nothing is achieved by} Kc7 {!} 2. Kf4 Kd6 3. Ke4 Kd7 4. Ke5 Ke7 {=}) (1. Kg6 {? %05or} Kc6) 1... Kb7 2. Kh7 {!} Kc6 (2... Kb8 3. Kg6 Kc7 4. Kg7) (2... Kb6 3. Kg8 Kc6 4. Kf8 Kd6 5. Ke8 {, and then as in the main variation}) 3. Kg6 {!} (3. Kg8 {?} Kd6 4. Kf8 {leads to a draw after} e5 5. Ke8 Ke6) 3... Kc7 4. Kg7 Kd6 5. Kf6 {!} Kd7 6. Kf7 Kd6 7. Ke8 {!} e5 8. Kd8 (8. Kf7 {?} e4) 8... e4 9. dxe4 Ke5 10. Kd7 Kd4 11. e5 Kxe5 12. Kc6 Kd4 13. Kb5 {, and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1932.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Halberstadt Vitaly (FRA)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/7K/1k1p4/3p4/3P4/4P3/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] [EventDate "1932.??.??"] {While in the previous example success demanded holding the opposition on two ranks, here it is necessary to do this on three (5th, 6th and 7th).} 1. Kg7 { ! , since Black cannot reply 1... Kc7 or 1... Ka7. The continuation might be %05White has to approach the d5 pawn, and he wins by} Kc6 2. Kg6 {(taking the opposition on one of the main ranks)} Kc7 3. Kf5 Kb6 4. Kf6 Kb5 5. Ke7 Kc6 6. Ke6 Kc5 7. Kd7 {, and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1851.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Horwitz & Kling"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/6p1/6k1/4K1p1/6P1/8/7P/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1851.??.??"] {Some valuable analyses of endings with connected pawns against doubled pawns were put forward in 1932 by Grigoriev. Up till then only the following two elementary positions were known in literature.} 1. Ke6 {%05The kings were initially at c3 and h7, and the diagram position was reached after 1. Kd4 Kh6 2. Ke5 Kg6. The black king could not move onto the f-file, due to the loss of the g5 pawn. Since his king remains imprisoned, Black loses in view of White's reserve tempo.} Kh7 2. Kf5 Kh6 3. h3 g6+ 4. Kf6 Kh7 5. Kxg5 Kg7 6. h4 $18 { %04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1928.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Hasek Vaclav (CZE)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "7k/4K2p/8/6Pp/7P/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "3"] [EventDate "1928.??.??"] 1. Kf8 {! %05White wins by} (1. Kf7 {? would have led to a draw. %05It is easy to see what}) 1... h6 2. Kf7 $18 {By the examples given below, Grigoriev shoed that the presence of doubled pawns does not definitely lead to a loss. To win, the stronger side must also have an advantage in the position of his king, sometimes reserve pawn tempi, and most important - the possibility of placing the opponent in zugzwang. Thus the defensive resources remain considerable.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1932.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/6pk/4K3/6p1/6P1/5P2/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "3"] [EventDate "1932.??.??"] {It will be expedient first to examine several subsidiary positions, which are in fact the main theoretical positions.} 1... Kg5 {! %05If it is Black to move} (1... g5 {?} 2. Kf6 $18) (1... Kh5 {?} 2. Kf4 $18) 2. Ke4 Kh6 {!= with a draw} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/6pk/4K3/6p1/6P1/5P2/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "8"] 1. Ke4 {%05If it is White to move, Black's position is impregnable:} Kg5 {!} 2. Ke5 Kh6 {!} 3. Kf6 (3. Ke6 {%05or} Kg5 {=}) 3... Kh5 4. Kg7 Kg5 {= Draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1952.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Bondarevsky Igor Z (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5Kp1/6pk/8/6P1/8/5P2/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "18"] [EventDate "1952.??.??"] 1... Kg5 {! %05Therefore:} (1... Kh7 {loses to %05Here Black is not in zugzwang (even with the move White is not able to win), but the defence requires accuracy. For example,} 2. g5) (1... g5 {, since White has a reserve tempo ~3 ($41486)~. Depriving^013^010 White of this tempo - that is Black's immediate task! %05as does}) 2. f3 Kh6 {!} 3. f4 g5 4. f5 Kh7 5. Ke7 Kg8 6. Ke8 Kh8 7. Kf8 Kh7 8. Kf7 Kh6 {!} 9. Kg8 g6 10. f6 {- stalemate.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1932.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "5K2/6pk/6p1/8/8/8/5PP1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "10"] [EventDate "1932.??.??"] 1. Kf7 {%05White has a big advantage, but even so he cannot win.} Kh6 2. Kg8 ( 2. g3 {, then %05if} Kh7 {!}) (2. g4 {, cf. position ~3($40490)~ %05while regarding}) 2... g5 3. g4 {(otherwise Black plays ... g4)} Kg6 4. Kf8 Kf6 {!} 5. f3 (5. Ke8 {%05or} Ke5 {Draw.}) 5... Kg6 {= ~3($41488)~} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1932.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "7k/8/6p1/2K3p1/8/6P1/5P2/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1932.??.??"] 1. g4 {! , retaining the possibility of choosing a move, depending on where the black king goes to. If, for example, %05The correct move is} (1. Kd6 { does not succeed here. Black replies %05The straightforward} Kg7 {, and then plans his defence in accordance with White's moves. For example:} 2. g4 (2. Ke6 g4) (2. Ke5 Kf7) 2... Kf7 {! (with the king at d5 - 2... Kf6!)} 3. Kd7 Kf6 4. f3 Kf7) (1. Kc6 {, there follows %05Finally, if White begins with} g4 {! , creating the drawn position ~3($41488)~}) 1... Kg8 {, then} (1... Kg7 {is more tenacious, when the only way to win is by %05However,} 2. Kc6 {!} Kf6 3. Kd5 {! } Ke7 4. Ke5 Kf7 5. Kd6 Kf6 6. f3 $18 {, when White wins as already examined.}) 2. Kd5 {!} Kf7 3. Kd6 Kf6 4. f3 Kf7 5. Kd7 Kf6 6. Ke8 {! , winning.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1932.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "4k3/8/6p1/6p1/2K5/6P1/5P2/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] [EventDate "1932.??.??"] 1. Kd4 {! (not allowing ... g4, and keeping g3-g4 in reserve) %05Correct is} ( 1. g4 {? would be an irreparable mistake, since the black king cannot be put in zugzwang. For example: %05Here} Ke7 {(the simplest: after g3-g4 Black must try to take the vertical opposition)} 2. Kd5 (2. Kd4 Kd6 {=}) (2. Kc5 Ke6 {=}) 2... Kd7 {=}) 1... Ke7 2. Kd5 {!} Kf7 (2... Kf6 {%05or} 3. g4 $18 {!}) 3. Ke5 { ! , winning.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "7k/8/6p1/2K3p1/8/8/5PP1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] 1. Kd5 {%05Regarding position ~3 ($40492)~, Grigoriev also showed^013^010 %05that, if the g3 pawn is replaced at g2, any move onto %05the d-file wins for White, thanks to his extra pawn %05tempo. E.g.} Kg7 2. Ke5 {!} Kf7 (2... Kh6 3. g4) 3. g3 {!} Ke7 (3... Kg7 {%05or}) 4. g4 $18 {%04etc. !} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1932.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/6pk/8/6p1/K5P1/8/5P2/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1932.??.??"] {The following example unites a number of motifs from the preceding positions, and its solution is now much easier for us.} 1. Kb5 {! %05Here, in comparison with example ~3($40486)~, the %05black^013^010 %05king has greater freedom of movement, but White^013^010 %05paralyzes it using the horizontal opposition.} Kg6 (1... g6 {, then %05if} 2. Kc6 Kg7 3. f3 $18 (3. Kc5 $18 {%05or})) 2. Kc6 { !} Kf7 3. Kd7 Kf6 4. Kd6 Kf7 5. Ke5 {!} g6 (5... Kg6 {%05or} 6. Ke6 {~3($40486) ~.}) 6. Kd6 $40 {The reader's attention is also drawn to examples ~3( 300)~ and ~3( 301)~ in section 5.22.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1932.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p7/P2p4/P2k4/8/2K5/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] [EventDate "1932.??.??"] {This position is the finish to a study (Ka4, pawns a5, a6, d5/Ka1, pawns a7, c5, d6).} 1. Kb4 {!} Ke4 (1... Kc6 2. Kc4 d5+ {is hopeless due to} 3. Kd4) 2. Kb5 {!} Kd5 (2... d5 {is met by %05Black has to go back, since} 3. Kc6 { , when after} Ke5 (3... d4 {etc. leads to queen ending which is drawn due to the remoteness of the black king. %05while}) 4. Kb7 Kd6 {play concludes in stalemate at a8}) 3. Kb4 Ke5 4. Kc4 {!} (4. Kb5 {? loses to %05now} d5 5. Kc6 d4 6. Kb7 Kd6 7. Kxa7 Kc7 8. Ka8 d3 9. a7 d2 10. a6 Kb6 $19 {!}) 4... Ke4 (4... d5+ 5. Kd3) 5. Kb5 {! Draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1938.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/3k4/8/2p1p3/2P5/8/4P3/2K5 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] [EventDate "1938.??.??"] {~16.23 Isolated pawns against isolated~ At the basis of the internal systemization of this group of endings is the concept of "closely" and "widely" separated pawns. Certain features, characterizing the closer and the wider pawn formations, become quite clearly apparent, and the more so, the greater the distance between the pawns (in those cases, for example, where positions with an interval of one file between the pawns are compared with positions where the interval reaches 5-6 files). But when the distance between the pawns is 2-4 files, the strategic and tactical content of the positions is so rich and diverse, that they no longer lend themselves to generalization. Therefore the examples are grouped, as far as possible, on the basis of the ideas connecting them, rather than in order of increasing number of files between the pawns - in the given case such a basis would be formal and untypical.} 1. Kd2 {%05The result in endings of this type is determined, as usual, by the superior king position, the existence of reserve pawn tempi, and, as a result, the possibility of seizing the critical squares (the invasion points).^013^010 At first both sides bring their kings into play:} Ke6 2. Ke3 Kf5 3. Kf3 e4+ {Forced, otherwise comes 4. Ke4, and White's reserve tempo (e2-e3) decides the game in his favour.} 4. Kg3 e3 {! the most tenacious} (4... Kg5 {loses to} 5. e3 Kf5 6. Kh4 {%04etc.}) 5. Kf3 Kf6 {! The charming point of the study!} 6. Kf4 {!} (6. Kxe3 {%05It transpires that after} Ke5 {!} 7. Kd3 Kf5 {!} 8. e3 (8. Kc3 Ke4 9. Kb2 (9. Kb3 {%05or} Kd4 {with a draw}) 9... Ke3 {= }) 8... Ke5 9. Kd2 Ke4 10. Ke2 Kf5 {!} 11. Kf3 Ke5 12. e4 Kd4 13. Kf4 Kxc4 14. e5 Kb3 15. e6 c4 16. e7 c3 17. e8=Q c2 {Black attains a draw.}) 6... Ke6 7. Ke4 Kd6 8. Kf5 $18 {, winning the c-pawn.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1851.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Horwitz & Kling"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/3pkp2/8/8/3PK3/5P2/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1851.??.??"] 1. Ke4 d5+ (1... f5+ {%05or} 2. Kd4 d5 3. f3 Kd6 4. f4 Ke6 5. Kc5 {, and wins.} ) 2. Kf4 {!} (2. Kd4 {?} Kd6 3. f3 Kc6 {- draw}) 2... Kd6 3. Kf5 Kc5 (3... Ke7 4. d4 Kf7 5. f4 $18) 4. Kxf6 Kd4 5. Ke6 Kxd3 6. Kxd5 {and 7. f4$18} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/3pkp2/8/8/3PKP2/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "8"] 1. Ke4 {%05With the pawn at f3 it is a draw:} d5+ 2. Kf4 f5 3. Kg5 Ke5 4. f4+ Kd4 {=} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1887.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Salvioli C"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/4pk2/8/6p1/6P1/8/4PK2/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1887.??.??"] 1. Ke3 {! This gives White better chances of seizing the critical squares of the g5 pawn than does 1. Kf3. It is not a question here of the opposition.} Kf6 2. Kd4 Ke6 3. Ke4 Kf6 4. Kd5 e6+ 5. Kd6 Kf7 6. e4 $18 {, and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1983.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Averbakh Yuri L (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2p1k3/2P2p2/3K1P2/8/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "17"] [EventDate "1983.??.??"] {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(101I02I03I4/1xA204I3/01D3xA3/ ?A02D03D04D4/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kc5 {%05A classic example of two invasion squares (e6 and b7). The basic correspondence squares are clear: a6/ b8, b5/c8, c5/d8 and d5/e7. But due to lack of space, Black has no square corresponding to a5. Therefore: %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(101I02I03I4/1xA204I3/01D3xA3/?A02D03D04D4/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd8 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(101I02I03I4/1xA204I3/01D3xA3/ ?A02D03D04D4/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kb5 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(101I02I03I4/1xA204I3/01D3xA3/?A02D03D04D4/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc8 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(101I02I03I4/ 1xA204I3/01D3xA3/?A02D03D04D4/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Ka5 {! %15N #B (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(101I02I03I4/1xA204I3/01D3xA3/ ?A02D03D04D4/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kb8 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(101I02I03I4/1xA204I3/01D3xA3/102D03D04D4/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8)} (3... Kd8 4. Ka6 Kc8 (4... Ke7 {%05or} 5. Ka7) 5. Ka7 $18) 4. Ka6 { %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(101I02I03I4/1xA204I3/01D3xA3/ 102D03D04D4/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ka8 {(now the opponent's king is a long way from e6, and White heads for there) %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8) #C(101I02I03I4/1xA204I3/01D3xA3/102D03D04D4/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8)} 5. Kb5 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(101I02I03I4/ 1xA204I3/01D3xA3/102D03D04D4/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ka7 {%15N #B(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(101I02I03I4/1xA204I3/01D3xA3/102D03D04D4/8/8/ 8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Kc5 Ka6 7. Kd5 Kb6 8. Ke6 Kxc6 9. Kxf6 {, and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1942.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Leick"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "3k4/3p4/3P4/3K1p2/5P2/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1942.??.??"] 1. Kd4 {! , putting Black in zugzwang. %05Correct is} (1. Ke5 {%05White fails to win by the straightforward} Ke8 2. Kxf5 Kf7 {!} 3. Kg5 Kg7 {!} 4. f5 Kf7 { ~3($41315)~}) 1... Ke8 {, then %05 If now} (1... Kc8 {White has %05while on} 2. Ke5 Kd8 3. Kxf5 $18) 2. Kc5 Kf7 3. Kb6 Kf6 4. Kb7 {!} Kf7 5. Kc8 Ke6 6. Kc7 $18 * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1982.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Zinar M"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "7k/8/6Kp/8/7P/p7/P7/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "19"] [EventDate "1982.??.??"] 1. h5 {! %05Correct is} (1. Kxh6 {[%eval 522,0] is pointless, since the pawn is inside the drawing zone. %05As we know from section}) 1... Kg8 2. Kf6 {!} Kf8 3. Ke6 {!} Kg7 4. Ke7 {!} Kg8 5. Kd6 Kf7 6. Kc5 Kf6 7. Kb4 Kg5 8. Kxa3 Kxh5 9. Kb4 Kg5 10. a4 {, and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1936.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Bahr Peter (GER)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/4k3/p7/P6p/7P/5K2/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "12"] [EventDate "1936.??.??"] {Relying on Bahr's rule ~3( 279)~, Black easily gains a draw in the following position.} 1. Ke3 {After this move, winning the battle for the critical squares, Black loses a pawn, and he has to decide which one to give up.} Kf7 {! } 2. Kd4 Kf6 {!} 3. Kc5 Ke6 4. Kb6 Kd6 5. Kxa6 Kc7 (5... Kc6 6. Ka7 Kc7 7. a6 Kc8 8. Kb6 Kb8 {= is also possible}) 6. Kb5 Kb7 {, and Black gains a draw: after capturing the a-pawn, his king reaches f8 in time.} * [Event "Reykjavik (Iceland)"] [Site "Reykjavik (Iceland)"] [Date "1957.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Drimer Dolfi (ROM)"] [Black "Sodeborg"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p1p2k2/8/P7/2PK4/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] [EventDate "1957.??.??"] {In the following examples, with bishop's and rook's pawns, one of the sides inevitably loses material. His task is to obtain a theoretical ending ~3( 299) ~, in which the extra pawn on the bishop's file does not bring success. %212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ367 %212045826630=4HLJ375 %212045826630=4HLJ381} 1... Ke6 {%05Here White's superior king position proves insufficient for a win:} 2. Kc5 Kd7 3. Kb5 Kc8 4. Kc6 Kb8 5. Kd7 (5. a6 {!?} Kc8 6. c5 Kd8 {!} (6... Kb8 {?} 7. Kd7 Ka8 (7... c6 8. Kd6 $18) 8. Kc8 c6 9. Kd7 Kb8 10. Kd6 $18) 7. Kb5 (7. Kb7 c6 {!} 8. Kxc6 Kc8 9. Kd6 Kd8 {=}) 7... c6+ 8. Kxc6 Kc8 {=}) 5... c5 {!} 6. Kc6 Kc8 7. Kxc5 Kc7 8. Kd5 Kd7 {= , and White cannot win, since his pawn is already at a5,^013^010 and not a4 ~3($41306).~ It is the opposite picture in Hooper's study. Here, by subtle king manoeuvres, White succeeds in obtaining a favourable situation.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1961.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Hooper"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "7k/7p/8/5p2/2K2P1P/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "21"] [EventDate "1961.??.??"] {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(503I02I1/501I04I1/402D03D02I1/ 304D01D3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) It is the opposite picture in Hooper's study. Here, by subtle king manoeuvres, White succeeds in obtaining a favourable situation.} 1. Kc5 {! %05It will be readily apparent that here there is a system of corresponding squares: e5/f7, e6/g6(e8), f6/f8 and d5/g7. With his greater freedom of manoeuvre, White wins the battle for the correspondence. %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(503I02I1/ 501I04I1/402D03D02I1/304D01D3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (1. Kd5 {%05The immediate attack on the pawn is unsuccessful: %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(503I02I1/501I04I1/402D03D02I1/304D01D3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8)} Kg7 {! %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(503I02I1/501I04I1/ 402D03D02I1/304D01D3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Ke5 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(503I02I1/501I04I1/402D03D02I1/304D01D3/8/8/8/8) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf7 {! %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (503I02I1/501I04I1/402D03D02I1/304D01D3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kxf5 { %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(503I02I1/501I04I1/402D03D02I1/ 304D01D3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 {! %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(503I02I1/501I04I1/402D03D02I1/304D01D3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8)} 4. Ke5 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(503I02I1/ 501I04I1/402D03D02I1/304D01D3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf7 {%15N #B(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(503I02I1/501I04I1/402D03D02I1/304D01D3/8/8/8/ 8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. h5 Ke7 {, with a draw.}) (1. Kd4 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(503I02I1/501I04I1/402D03D02I1/304D01D3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kg8 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (503I02I1/501I04I1/402D03D02I1/304D01D3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)}) 1... Kg8 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(503I02I1/501I04I1/402D03D02I1/ 304D01D3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kc6 {! %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(503I02I1/301D101I04I1/303D02D03D02I1/304D01D3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (2. Kd6 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (503I02I1/301D101I04I1/303D02D03D02I1/304D01D3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf8 {! %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(503I02I1/301D101I04I1/ 303D02D03D02I1/304D01D3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kd7 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(503I02I1/301D101I04I1/303D02D03D02I1/304D01D3/ 8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf7 {would be pointless %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(503I02I1/301D101I04I1/303D02D03D02I1/304D01D3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)}) 2... Kg7 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(503I02I1/301D101I04I1/303D02D03D02I1/304D01D3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (2... Kf7 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(503I02I1/ 301D101I04I1/303D02D03D02I1/304D01D3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kd7 { %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(503I02I1/301D101I04I1/ 303D02D03D02I1/304D01D3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)}) 3. Kd5 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(503I02I1/301D101I04I1/303D02D03D02I1/304D01D3/ 8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf8 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(503I02I1/301D101I04I1/303D02D03D02I1/304D01D3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (3... Kh6 4. Ke5 Kg6 5. Ke6 {, winning}) 4. Kd6 {! %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(503I02I1/301D101I04I1/303D02D03D02I1/304D01D3/8/8/8/8) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (4. Ke6 Ke8 {!} 5. Kxf5 Ke7 {!}) 4... Kg7 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(503I02I1/301D101I04I1/303D02D03D02I1/304D01D3/ 8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (4... Ke8 5. Ke6 Kf8 6. Kf6 Kg8 7. Kxf5 {, and then as in the main variation}) 5. Ke7 {! The decisive move. %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(503I02I1/301D04D01I04I1/303D02D03D02I1/304D01D3/ 8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (5. Ke5 {%05Nothing is achieved by} Kf7 6. Kxf5 Ke7 {!}) 5... Kg8 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(503I02I1/ 301D101I04I1/303D02D03D02I1/304D01D3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (5... Kg6 6. Ke6 Kh5 7. Kxf5 Kxh4 8. Ke6 h6 9. f5 {, winning}) 6. Ke6 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(503I02I1/301D101I04I1/303D02D03D02I1/304D01D3/8/8/ 8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf8 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (503I02I1/301D101I04I1/303D02D03D02I1/304D01D3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} ( 6... Kg7 7. Kxf5 Kf7 8. h5 Ke7 9. Ke5 Kf7 10. Kd6 $18) 7. Kf6 {! %15N #B(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(503I02I1/301D101I04I1/303D02D03D02I1/ 304D01D3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kg8 8. Kxf5 Kf7 9. h5 Ke7 10. Ke5 Kf7 11. Kd6 {! , and White wins ~3($40306).~} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1967.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Antipov Vladimir (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2p5/8/8/2K5/p1P5/P2k4/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "21"] [EventDate "1967.??.??"] 1. Kb4 {%05The way to draw is by} (1. Kb3 {? %05After} c5 2. c4 Kd3 3. Kxa3 Kc3 {!} 4. Ka4 Kxc4 {White loses due to the poor position of his king.}) 1... c5+ ( 1... Kc2 {%05or} 2. Kxa3 Kxc3 3. Ka4 c5 4. Kb5 c4 5. a4 {with a draw}) 2. Kb3 Kd3 3. c4 Kd2 (3... Kd4 4. Kc2 Kxc4 5. Kd2 Kd4 6. Kc2 Ke3 7. Kc3 Ke2 8. Kc2 Ke1 9. Kc1 {= leads to a well-known draw. But now White finds an unexpected resource.}) 4. Ka4 {!} Kc2 (4... Kc3 5. Kxa3 {!}) 5. Kb5 Kb2 6. Kxc5 Kxa2 7. Kd6 {!} Kb3 8. c5 a2 9. c6 a1=Q 10. c7 Qa8 11. Kd7 {Draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1929.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/3k3p/4p2P/4P3/8/8/8/4K3 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1929.??.??"] {White must inevitably lose one of his pawns, and can draw only by capturing a black in return. If Black heads for the h6 pawn, White has time to take on e6; if instead he makes for the e5 pawn, White has to be able to meet ... Ke5 with Kg5, obtaining access to the h7 pawn. Thus the basic zugzwang position is Kg5/ Ke5. As the kings manoeuvre, particular importance is acquired by the squares adjacent to e5 and g5, namely d5, d4 and e4 for Black, and h5, h4 and g4 for White. With the black king at d5 or d4, White's can occupy either h5 or h4, but on ... Ke4 he must reply Kg4 (in other words, only the squares e5/g5 and e4/g4 strictly correspond). Why this is so, is shown by the following incorrect defensive try 1.Ke2? %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (8/8/204I5/302I01I101D02D/302I03I103D02D/604D1/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kf2 {! %05It will now be clear that White's task is to reach the h-file by the shortest path (along the diagonal!): %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8) #C(8/8/204I5/302I01I101D02D/302I03I103D02D/604D1/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} ( 1. Ke2 {? %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/204I5/ 302I01I101D02D/302I03I103D02D/604D1/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc6 {! %15N #B(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/204I5/302I01I101D02D/302I03I103D02D/ 604D1/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kf3 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8) #C(8/8/204I5/302I01I101D02D/302I03I103D02D/604D1/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8)} Kd5 {(White has not managed to reach h4, and ends up in zugzwang) %15N #B (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/204I5/302I01I101D02D/ 302I03I103D02D/604D1/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kf4 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/204I5/302I01I101D02D/302I03I103D02D/604D1/8/8) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd4 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/204I5/ 302I01I101D02D/302I03I103D02D/604D1/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kg4 {%15N #B (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/204I5/302I01I101D02D/ 302I03I103D02D/604D1/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke4 {! %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/204I5/302I01I101D02D/302I03I103D02D/604D1/8/8) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kh4 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/ 204I5/302I01I101D02D/302I03I103D02D/604D1/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf4 { %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/204I5/302I01I101D02D/ 302I03I103D02D/604D1/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Kh5 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/204I5/302I01I101D02D/302I03I103D02D/604D1/8/8) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf5 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/204I5/ 302I01I101D02D/302I03I103D02D/604D1/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 7. Kh4 {%15N #B (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/302I01I101D02D/302I03I103D02D/8/ 8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kg6 {! By means of a by-pass Black won the "other" pawn.} (7... Kxe5 {?} 8. Kg5 {- draw})) 1... Kc6 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/204I5/302I01I101D02D/302I03I103D02D/604D1/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} (1... Ke7 {White uses the other diagonal: %05after} 2. Ke3 Kf7 3. Kd4 Kg6 4. Kc5 {, and if} Kxh6 (4... Kg5 {%05and if} 5. Kd6 Kf5 6. Ke7 {=}) 5. Kd6 {=}) 2. Kg3 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/204I5/ 302I01I101D02D/302I03I103D02D/604D1/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd5 {%15N #B(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/204I5/302I01I101D02D/302I03I103D02D/ 604D1/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kh4 {! (at just the right time) %15N #B(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/204I5/302I01I101D02D/302I03I103D02D/ 604D1/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd4 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8) #C(8/8/204I5/302I01I101D02D/302I03I103D02D/604D1/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kh5 {! %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/204I5/ 302I01I101D02D/302I03I103D02D/604D1/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke4 {%15N #B(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/204I5/302I01I101D02D/302I03I103D02D/ 604D1/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kg4 {! %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/302I01I101D02D/302I03I103D02D/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kxe5 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/302I01I101D02D/ 302I03I103D02D/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Kg5 {Draw. %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/204I5/302I01I101D02D/302I03I103D02D/604D1/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) As often happens, this splendid study stimulated some imitations.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1940.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Isenegger"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/4k3/8/8/4p3/1p2P3/1P6/5K2 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "2"] [EventDate "1940.??.??"] 1. Kg2 {%05The idea here (following Grigoriev) was to win the b3 pawn by a by-pass via the K-side (the direct attack on it does not work due to the counter-attack on the e3 pawn). After} Kd6 {! and 2... Kc5!= etc. (Grigoriev's manoeuvre) Black could attain a draw. %05but in the same year Leick showed that by} (1... Kf6 {?} 2. Kh3 {!$18 etc. White does succeeds in winning by seizing and maintaining the opposition}) * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1929.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Zhigis"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/3k4/3p4/1p6/1p2P3/1P2P3/5K2 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "21"] [EventDate "1929.??.??"] {A creative development of Grigoriev's idea has also been seen.} 1. Kg2 {!} Ke6 (1... Ke5 2. Kf3 Kf5 3. e4+ dxe4+ 4. Kg3 {~3- ($40689)~}) 2. e4 {!} dxe4 3. Kh3 {!} Kf5 4. Kg3 Kg5 5. e3 Kf5 6. Kh4 Ke5 7. Kg4 Kd5 8. Kf5 Kc5 {!} 9. Ke5 {!} ( 9. Kxe4 {?} Kc4) 9... Kb5 10. Kd4 Kb6 11. Kxe4 $18 {, and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1941.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Moravec"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "3k3K/8/8/8/7p/3p3P/3P4/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "25"] [EventDate "1941.??.??"] 1. Kh7 {!} Kd7 (1... Ke7 {%05nothing is changed by} 2. Kg7 Ke6 3. Kg6 {%04etc.} ) 2. Kh6 Kd6 3. Kh5 Ke5 {(4. Kh4 was threatened)} 4. Kg5 {!} Ke4 5. Kg4 Ke5 6. Kf3 Kf5 7. Ke3 Ke5 8. Kxd3 {(White has carried out the idea of capturing the "other" pawn)} Kf4 9. Ke2 Kg3 10. d4 Kxh3 11. d5 Kg4 12. d6 h3 13. Kf2 $18 { %04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1933.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Pallas"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1p2pk2/1P6/8/4P3/8/6K1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1933.??.??"] {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/403I01I2/402I3/501D2/ 402D03D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) A rather complex position. It is clearly unfavourable for Black to advance his pawn, since this quickly leads to Grigoriev's position~3 ( 508)~. That only leaves manoeuvring with the kings. It is not difficult to establish the correspondence of the squares f4/f6, e3/ e5 and hence also f3/e6. The establishment of this main zone provides the necessary guide.} 1. Kg3 {! (waiting for the black king to step into the main zone) %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/403I01I2/402I3/501D2/ 402D03D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (1. Kf3 {? loses after %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/403I01I2/402I3/501D2/402D03D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8)} Ke6 {! %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/403I01I2/ 402I3/501D2/402D03D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kf4 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/403I01I2/402I3/501D2/402D03D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8)} Kf6 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/403I01I2/402I3/ 501D2/402D03D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. e5+ (3. Kf3 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/403I01I2/402I3/501D2/402D03D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8)} Kg5 {! %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/403I01I2/ 402I3/501D2/402D03D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)}) 3... Kg6 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/403I01I2/402I3/501D2/402D03D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8)} 4. Kg4 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/403I01I2/ 402I3/501D2/402D03D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} e6 5. Kf4 Kh5 6. Kf3 Kg5 7. Ke4 Kg4 8. Ke3 Kf5 9. Kd4 Kf4 10. Kc4 Ke4 11. Kb4 Kd4 12. Kb5 Kd5 13. Kb4 Kc6 14. Ka5 Kc5 {and 15... Kb6$19}) 1... Ke6 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(8/8/403I01I2/402I3/501D2/402D03D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kf3 { ! %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/403I01I2/402I3/501D2/ 402D03D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke5 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8) #C(8/8/403I01I2/402I3/501D2/402D03D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Ke3 { %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/403I01I2/402I3/501D2/ 402D03D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd6 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8) #C(8/8/403I01I2/402I3/501D2/402D03D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (3... Kf6 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/403I01I2/402I3/501D2/ 402D03D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kf4 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/403I01I2/402I3/501D2/402D03D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (4. Kd4 {%05or})) 4. Kf4 {!} (4. Kd4 {?} e5+ 5. Kd3 Kc5 6. Kc3 Kxb6 $19) 4... e6 5. Kg4 {!} (5. Kf3 {?} Kc5 6. Kf4 Kd4) 5... Kc5 (5... Ke5 6. Kf3 Kd4 7. Kf4) 6. Kg5 { ! Draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1950.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Moravec"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "5k1K/8/8/p7/8/4p3/P3P3/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "21"] [EventDate "1950.??.??"] 1. Kh7 {, with two possibilities:} Kf7 (1... Ke7 2. Kg6 Kd6 3. Kf5 Kc5 4. Ke4 Kb4 5. Kxe3 Ka3 6. Kd2 {!} Kxa2 7. e4 {, and wins.}) 2. Kh6 Kf6 3. a4 {!} Kf5 4. Kh5 Kf4 5. Kh4 Ke4 6. Kg4 Kd4 7. Kf4 Kc4 8. Kxe3 Kb4 9. Kd4 Kxa4 10. Kc4 Ka3 11. e4 {, and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1932.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/1p6/k4p2/2K2P2/1P6/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] [EventDate "1932.??.??"] 1. Kc2 {! %05White should avoid the hasty advance of his b-pawn:} Kb4 2. Kc1 {! } (2. Kd2 {? %05But not} Kb3 3. Kc1 Ka2 4. Kc2 b4 {%04etc.}) 2... Kc5 (2... Kb3 {there follows %05But now on} 3. Kb1 b4 4. Kc1 {, when} Ka2 {? is bad for Black in view of} 5. Kc2 Ka1 6. Kb3 {, winning.}) 3. Kd1 {(retaining the possibility of taking the opposition to defend the critical squares d3 and e3)} Kd5 4. Kc1 {! (the e4 square is inaccessible to Black)} Kd4 5. Kd2 Kc4 6. Kc2 Kb4 7. Kc1 {Draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2p5/2P1kpK1/8/6P1/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "14"] {In spite of certain squares being inaccessible to Black's king, which should lead to him losing the oppositions, he is saved by tactical threats.} 1. Kg7 ( 1. Kh7 {, then %05if} Kd6 (1... Kf7 {%05or})) (1. Kh6 {, then only %05while if} Kd6 {, when} 2. Kh7 {can be met by} Kxc6) 1... Ke7 2. Kg8 Ke8 3. Kh7 (3. Kh8 Kf8 {!}) 3... Kf7 {! (a position of mutual zugzwang)} 4. Kh6 f5 {! with a draw: } 5. g5 {!} Kg8 {!} 6. Kh5 Kg7 7. g6 f4 {=} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2p5/2P1kpK1/8/6P1/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "4"] 1... Ke7 {%05If it is Black to move, he loses:} 2. Kg7 Ke6 3. Kf8 $18 {%04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Bahr Peter (GER)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/2p1kpK1/2P5/6P1/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] 1. Kh6 {would win, since the reply 1... Kd6 is not possible. For example: %05The composer erroneously thought that} Kd7 (1... Ke5 {= %05while 1. Kh6 can also be met by}) 2. Kh7 Ke8 {?} (2... Ke6 {!= %05but instead of 2... Ke8?, Black can draw by}) 3. Kg6 $18 {%04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/2p1kpK1/2P5/6P1/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "3"] 1... Ke5 {%05Black to move draws by} 2. Kf7 f5 {= Such instances, where a conspicuous main idea hides other motifs, are typical cause of many mistakes.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1843.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p4kp1/P7/3K4/5P2/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "0"] [EventDate "1843.??.??"] {The idea of this position is simple: the a7 pawn is doomed, on Ka7 there follows ... Kc7, and then comes f4-f5, after which the white king escapes to freedom.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1928.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Hasek Vaclav (CZE)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p7/P4p2/3K1P2/5k2/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] [EventDate "1928.??.??"] 1. Kc6 {%05Of interest here is the winning of a tempo, with the aim of hindering the approach of the black king:} (1. Ke6 {? %05of course, not} Kg5) 1... Ke5 {Since 1... Kf5, fails to save the game, Black aims to stalemate the enemy king in the corner. A position of zugzwang has been reached: 2. Kb7 does not win, but Black to move would lose. Therefore, to give his opponent the move, White carries out a triangulation manoeuvre.} 2. Kc7 {!} (2. Kd7 {?} Kxf5 ) 2... Kd5 3. Kd7 {!} Ke5 4. Kc6 {! , and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1941.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Moravec"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "7k/6p1/6P1/8/8/p5K1/P7/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "17"] [EventDate "1941.??.??"] {Other ideas are contained in the following position.} 1. Kf4 Kg8 2. Ke5 Kf8 3. Kd6 {!} Ke8 4. Ke6 Kf8 5. Kd7 Kg8 6. Ke7 Kh8 {(only after this can the a3 pawn be picked up)} 7. Kd6 Kg8 8. Kc5 Kf8 9. Kb4 $18 {%04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1925.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Adamson"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2pKp3/8/8/8/1k6/1P5P/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] [EventDate "1925.??.??"] 1. Ke6 {! %05Correct is} (1. Kxe7 {%05The natural} Kxb2 2. Ke6 Kc3 3. Kd5 c5 { ! does not succeed.}) 1... c5 2. Kd5 c4 3. h4 e6+ 4. Kc5 {!} e5 5. h5 e4 6. Kd4 e3 7. Kxe3 Kxb2 8. h6 $18 {, and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1924.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Weenink Henri G (NED)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/1p4k1/1P3p2/5K2/6P1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "17"] [EventDate "1924.??.??"] {The manoeuvring of the kings, which at first sight here is complicated, has been insufficiently well explained in literature, sometimes even by the methods of corresponding squares, whereas the solution becomes extremely simple if the method of opposition is correctly applied.} 1. Ke4 Kg4 2. Kd5 { %05It is clear that the key squares here are f4, f5 and f6, and that the 5th rank is the main one.} (2. Ke5 {there now follows %05On} Kg5 (2... Kg3 { ? but not} 3. Kf5 {%04etc.})) (2. Kd4 {is also pointless in view of} Kh4 {!} ( 2... Kg3 {? %05but again not} 3. Ke5 Kg4 4. Kf6 {, winning.})) 2... Kh5 {!} ( 2... Kf5 {? , since after %05But not} 3. Kd4 {Black is prevented from retaining the opposition by his own pawn.}) 3. Kc6 {! %05As we have already seen, White also achieves nothing by having his king on the 4th rank.} (3. Kc5 {is insufficient to do this, in view of %05Now White's problem is to gain the opposition on the main rank.} Kg5 {, when on} 4. Kxb5 {Black replies with the capture on g2} Kg4 5. Kc5 Kg3 6. b5 Kxg2 {- draw.}) 3... Kg5 (3... Kg6 { , because of %05It transpires that Black cannot make the necessary reply} 4. Kxb5 {!} Kg5 5. Kc5 Kg4 6. Kd4 {!} Kg3 7. Ke4 {etc. Black's king is forced to remain on the 5th rank, and hence he loses the opposition.}) 4. Kc5 {! The rest is a matter of technique: %05If 3... Kg4 or 3... Kh4, White immediately begins the by-pass: 4. Kd6 etc.} Kg4 5. Kd6 Kh5 6. Kd5 Kh4 7. Ke6 {!} (7. Kd4 Kh5 8. Kd5 {would be a loss of time}) 7... Kg5 8. Ke5 Kg4 9. Kf6 {, and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1926.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Dedrle Frantishek (CZE)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2K5/1p6/1P4k1/5p2/8/6P1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "3"] [EventDate "1926.??.??"] 1. Kc6 {!} (1. Kxb6 {?} Kg4) (1. Kd6 {?} Kh6 {!}) (1. Kd7 {?} Kh5 {! - rectangular correspondence -} 2. Kc6 Kg5 {! , with a draw since the c5 square is inaccessible}) 1... Kg4 (1... Kh5 2. Kd5 {!}) 2. Kd6 {! %04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1933.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "k7/2p5/8/KP3p2/8/8/6P1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] [EventDate "1933.??.??"] {We will now consider endings with pawns on adjacent files.} 1. Ka6 (1. b6 Kb7 {is premature}) 1... Kb8 (1... f4 {, then %05If} 2. b6 c6 3. b7+ Kb8 4. Kb6 $18 {%04etc.}) 2. g3 {!} (2. b6 {? is again impossible due to %05But now} Kc8 { ! with a draw.}) 2... Ka8 (2... Kc8 {there would have followed %05On} 3. Ka7 Kd8 4. Kb8 {!} Kd7 5. Kb7 Kd8 (5... Kd6 {?} 6. Kc8) 6. Kc6 Kc8 7. Kd5 Kb7 8. Ke5 Kb6 9. Kxf5 Kxb5 10. g4 c5 {(had the pawn not been fixed in its time at f5, and the white king stood now at f4, Black would have achieved a draw by 10... Kc6)} 11. g5 c4 12. Ke4 {! and wins (the black king is lured into check at b3). }) 3. b6 Kb8 {!} 4. Kb5 {!} (4. b7 {?} c5 {!} 5. Kb5 Kxb7 6. Kxc5 f4 7. gxf4 Kc7 {- draw}) 4... Kb7 5. bxc7 Kxc7 6. Kc5 $18 {, and White wins. The trappy} Kd8 {is correctly met, of course by} 7. Kd6 {!} (7. Kd5 {? or 7. Kd4? because of %05but not} f4 {! -~3($4198)~.}) * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1931.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/2p5/6p1/8/3P3P/7K/4k3 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "31"] [EventDate "1931.??.??"] 1. Kg3 (1. d4 {?} Kf2) 1... c5 (1... Ke2 {leads to a drawn queen ending after} 2. d4 {!!} Ke3 3. Kg4 {%04etc.}) 2. Kf3 Kf1 {! (retaining the possibility of attacking either of the pawns, but White has a reply ready)} 3. Ke4 {!} Kf2 { ! (a last attempt)} (3... Kg2 {, then %05if now} 4. Kf5) (3... Ke2 {%05or} 4. Kd5) 4. Ke5 {!} Kf3 5. Ke6 Kf4 6. Ke7 {!} (6. Kf6 {?} Ke3) 6... Ke5 (6... Kf5 7. Kd6) 7. Kd7 {!} Kf4 (7... Kd5 8. Kc7) 8. Ke6 {!} Kf3 9. Ke5 Kf2 10. Ke4 Kf1 11. Kf3 Ke1 (11... Kg1 12. Kg3 Kh1 13. Kg4) 12. Ke3 Kd1 13. Ke4 Ke2 14. Kd5 Kxd3 15. Kxc5 Ke4 16. Kd6 {Draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1938.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2p4k/8/5p2/1P6/8/3K2P1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "21"] [EventDate "1938.??.??"] {White must aim to exchange the K-side pawns, but only by a by-pass to the f5 pawn from the rear (allowing the black king to take the g-pawn).} 1. Ke3 Kg6 2. Kf4 Kf6 3. b5 {!} Kg6 (3... Ke6 {%05After} 4. Kg5 Ke5 5. g3 {! (... f4 must not be allowed, as is evident from the note^013^010 to Black's 2nd move in example ~3($40525)~ the black^013^010 pawn has to be fixed at f5)} Ke6 6. Kg6 Ke5 7. Kf7 {White wins.}) 4. Ke5 Kg5 5. g3 Kg6 6. Ke6 Kg5 7. Kf7 Kh5 {!} 8. Kf6 Kg4 {!} 9. Ke5 {!} (9. Kg6 {leads to a draw after %05A zugzwang position has been reached:} f4 {Black has to be given the move.}) 9... Kg5 10. Ke6 {, and White wins, since on} Kg4 {there follows} (10... Kg6 {, then %05while if} 11. Kd7 $18) 11. Kf6 $18 * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1938.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1p6/8/2PK4/5k1p/8/6P1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] [EventDate "1938.??.??"] 1. Kc4 {!} Ke4 (1... Kg3 {is met by %05now} 2. Kb5 {with a draw}) 2. Kb4 {!} Kd4 3. Kb5 Kc3 4. Ka5 {!} Kc4 5. Kb6 Kb4 {(in contrast to the analogous position in example^013^010 ~3($41527)~, Black cannot gain a tempo, since the attack on the g-pawn requires too much time)} 6. c6 {!} bxc6 7. Kxc6 {Draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1938.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/1p4k1/8/P5p1/8/7P/5K2 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "19"] [EventDate "1938.??.??"] 1. Ke2 {!} Kf5 2. Kd3 {!} Kf4 3. Kd4 {!} Kf5 (3... Kf3 4. Ke5) 4. Kd5 Kf4 5. Ke6 Kg5 6. Ke5 Kg6 7. Kf4 Kh5 8. Kf5 Kh4 9. Kg6 Kh3 10. Kg5 $18 {, and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1958.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Pospisil Dusan (CZE)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "6K1/8/2p2p2/8/2Pk2P1/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] [EventDate "1958.??.??"] 1. Kf7 Ke5 2. Ke8 {!} (2. Ke7 {?} c5 {! - draw}) 2... Kd6 (2... Kf4 3. Ke7 Kg5 4. c5 Kg6 5. Kd6 $18) (2... Ke6 3. c5 Kd5 4. Kf7 Ke5 5. Ke7 $18) 3. Kd8 c5 4. Ke8 Ke6 5. Kf8 Kd6 6. Kf7 Ke5 7. Ke7 $18 {%04etc.} * [Event "Moscow (Russia)"] [Site "Moscow (Russia)"] [Date "1955.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Ivanova Antonia (BUL)"] [Black "Graf-Stevenson Sonja (GER)"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/6p1/1p3k2/p4p1P/P4K2/6P1/1P6/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "18"] [EventDate "1955.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ367 %212045826630=4HLJ375 %212045826630=4HLJ381} 1... g5+ 2. hxg6 Kxg6 3. Ke5 Kg5 4. Ke6 Kg6 5. Kd5 Kh5 6. Ke6 Kg6 7. b3 {? (see below)} (7. Kd7 {! should have been played (keeping the b2-b3 tempo in reserve), when 7... Kh7 is not possible, since after 8. Kc6 etc. the b-pawn queens with check. As a result Black loses the opposition, e.g. %05Romanovsky showed that} Kh6 (7... Kf6 8. Kd6) (7... Kg5 8. Ke7 $18) 8. Kd6 Kh5 9. Ke7 {(a by-pass)} Kg6 10. Ke6 Kg5 11. Kf7 Kh5 12. Kf6 Kg4 13. b3 $18 {, and wins.}) 7... Kg5 8. Kf7 f4 {?} (8... Kh5 {!= with a draw %05correct is}) 9. gxf4+ Kxf4 10. Ke6 $18 {, and White won.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1938.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "k7/1p5p/7P/8/1P6/8/2K5/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "0"] [EventDate "1938.??.??"] {In this study, Grigoriev's explanation of White's winning method perfectly illustrates the theory of corresponding squares. The following analysis, however, proves that that White is unable to win here... "The basic winning idea is the same as in example ~3( 519)~. But there the problem was simple, whereas here, with an interval of 2 squares between the b-pawns, it becomes complicated. The point is that, after Kh7 Kf7, White cannot release his king by b4-b5 due to ... b6. It follows that he must achieve an interval of only one square between the pawns (b5/b7 or b4/b6), when he will calmly be able to pick up the h-pawn. The solution to the study was never explained using the theory of corresponding squares, and therefore it seemed more complicated than in fact is. Let us find out which squares correspond to one another. The first zugzwang position is Kb6/Kb8.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1938.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "1k6/1p5p/1K5P/8/1P6/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "6"] [EventDate "1938.??.??"] {If it is Black to move, he loses:} 1... Ka8 2. Kc7 Ka7 3. b5 Ka8 4. Kd7 $18 { %04etc} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1938.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1pk4p/7P/2K5/1P6/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "4"] [EventDate "1938.??.??"] {The second zugzwang position is Kc5/Kc7} 1... Kd7 {%05For example:} (1... Kd8 {%05or} 2. Kb6 $18) (1... Kb8 2. Kb6 $18) (1... Kc8 2. Kd6 Kd8 (2... Kb8 3. b5) 3. b5 $18) (1... b6+ 2. Kd5 Kd7 3. b5 $18) 2. Kb6 Kc8 3. Ka7 $18 {When the black pawn goes to b6, White seizes control of^013^010 its critical squares.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1938.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1p1k3p/7P/3K4/1P6/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] [EventDate "1938.??.??"] {It should be noted, incidentally, that Kd5/Kd7 is also a decisive zugzwang position ~5 (RR) Contrary to the opinion of Grigoriev, who thought that Black is in zugzwang and loses, even here Black saves the game.~} 1... Ke7 (1... Kc7 2. Kc5 $18) 2. Kc5 Ke6 {!} (2... Kd7 {?} 3. Kb6 Kc8 4. Ka7 Kc7 5. b5 $18) 3. b5 (3. Kb6 Kd5 {!} 4. b5 Kc4 {=}) 3... Kd7 4. Kd5 b6 {= ^013^010} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1938.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1pk4p/7P/4K3/1P6/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] [EventDate "1938.??.??"] {as is Ke5/Kc7} 1... Kd7 {there follows %05 since on} (1... Kc6 {? %04then %05 while if} 2. Ke6 b6 (2... b5 3. Ke5 $18) (2... Kc7 3. b5 Kd8 4. Kf7 b6 5. Ke6 $18) 3. Kf6 $18) 2. Kd5 Ke7 3. Kc5 Ke6 {!= with a draw ~3($41535)~} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1938.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "k7/1p5p/7P/8/1P6/8/2K5/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1938.??.??"] {%15N #B(1I1I15/2I15/1D16/1D1D15/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(101I03I04I4/ 1XI02I5/101DXD5/103D02D5/204D03D4/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) The correspondence of the squares b6/b8 and c5/c7 also reveals the correspondence b5/c8. This completes the determination of the main zone: for White - b6, b5 and c5 (c6 is inaccessible), and for Black - b8, c8 and c7 (b7 is inaccessible) . These triangles are easy to remember. Let us now examine the nearest rear squares. The white king at c4 attacks the squares b5 and c5 of the main zone, and therefore Black's king must be at d8, so as to hold the c8 and c7 squares in his main zone. Hence the correspondence c4/d8. And what if the white king is at d4 (attacking c4 and c5)? Then the black king must stand at c8 (defending d8 and c7). Having revealed all the necessary correlations, we can embark on the solution, which is now fairly simple. First, however, two general remarks should be made: (1) the most natural path for White is to take his king to the centre as quickly as possible, so as to penetrate as deeply as possible into the opponent's position; (2) White should aim for there to be two files between the kings, since then Black will be unable to answer Kh7 with ... Kf7."} 1. Kd3 {! %15N #B(1I1I15/2I15/1D16/1D1D15/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8) #C(101I03I04I4/1XI02I5/101DXD5/103D02D5/204D03D4/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8)} Kb8 {%15N #B(1I1I15/2I15/1D16/1D1D15/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (101I03I04I4/1XI02I5/101DXD5/103D02D5/204D03D4/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} ( 1... Ka7 {is out of keeping with the character of the defence. Nevertheless, here too Black holds his ground. After} 2. Ke4 {!} Kb6 3. Kf5 {!} (3. Ke5 Kc7 4. Kd5 Kd7 5. b5 b6 {=}) 3... Kc7 {!! Only move.} (3... Kc6 {? Black loses due to %05After} 4. Ke6 {! (the only winning move)} (4. Kf6 {?} Kd7 5. Kg7 Ke7 {=}) (4. Ke5 {?} Kd7 {=}) 4... Kc7 5. b5 {!} Kd8 6. Kd6 Kc8 7. Ke7 Kc7 8. Kf8 $18) 4. Ke5 Kd7 5. Kd5 Ke7 6. b5 Kd7 7. b6 Ke7 8. Ke5 Kd7 9. Kf6 Kd6 10. Kg7 Ke7 11. Kxh7 Kf7 {=}) 2. Ke4 {%15 N #B(1I1I15/2I15/1D16/1D1D15/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(101I03I04I4/1XI02I5/101DXD5/103D02D5/204D03D4/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8)} (2. Kc4 {there would have followed %05On} Ka7 {! , with a counter-attack.}) 2... Kc8 {%15N #B(1I1I15/2I15/1D16/1D1D15/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (101I03I04I4/1XI02I5/101DXD5/103D02D5/204D03D4/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} ( 2... Kc7 {%05or} 3. Ke5 {This position too was considered won for White. After} Kd7 {! , however, the win cannot be found, for example:} 4. b5 Ke7 5. b6 Kd7 6. Kf6 Kd6 7. Kf7 Kd5 8. Ke7 Kc6 9. Kf7 Kd7 {=}) 3. Kd4 {%05now White begins approaching the main zone %15 N #B(1I1I15/2I15/1D16/1D1D15/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8) #C(101I03I04I4/1XI02I5/101DXD5/103D02D5/204D03D4/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8)} Kd8 {%15N #B(1I1I15/2I15/1D16/1D1D15/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (101I03I04I4/1XI02I5/101DXD5/103D02D5/204D03D4/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} ( 3... Kd7 {%05Nothing is changed by} 4. Kd5 Ke7 5. Kc5 Ke6 {= , and Black draws as in the main line}) (3... b6 {? %05but not} 4. Ke5 {, and if} Kd7 {, then} ( 4... Kc7 {%05or} 5. b5 $18) 5. Kf5 b5 6. Ke5 $18) 4. Kc4 {%15 N #B(1I1I15/2I15/ 1D16/1D1D15/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(101I03I04I4/1XI02I5/101DXD5/ 103D02D5/204D03D4/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc8 {? This mistake was unnoticed for many decades and revealed only by computer testing.} (4... Ke7 { ! %05Correct is} 5. Kc5 Ke6 6. b5 (6. Kb6 Kd5 7. Kxb7 Kc4 8. Kc6 Kxb4 9. Kd6 Kb5 {=}) 6... Kd7 7. Kd5 Ke7 8. b6 Kd7 9. Ke5 Ke7 {= , Draw !}) 5. Kb5 Kc7 6. Kc5 $18 {, and wins.^013^010 ^013^010 In endings of this type an important role is played by the positioning on the ranks (how far up the board they are), and also the distance between the pawns (in terms of files).} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "4k3/8/8/1p5p/1P5P/8/8/5K2 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "22"] {In endings of this type an important role is played by the positioning on the ranks (how far up the board they are), and also the distance between the pawns (in terms of files). Here the player to win is the one who seizes the opposition, since the distant opposition can always be transformed into close opposition.} 1. Ke2 {!} Kf8 2. Kd3 {! (a by-pass)} Ke7 3. Ke3 {!} Ke6 4. Ke4 Kd6 5. Kd4 {!} (5. Kf5 {?} Kd5 {, and the pawns queen simultaneously}) 5... Kc6 6. Ke5 {, and wins. The attempt after} Kc7 7. Kd5 Kd7 8. Kc5 Kc7 9. Kxb5 Kb7 { to reduce play to example ~3 ($41279)~ (a passed pawn with^013^010 blocked rook's pawns) does not succeed, since Black^013^010 cannot attain the "normal" position. After} 10. Kc5 {he is forced to play} (10. Kc4 {?? %05of course, not} Kb6 (10... Kc7 {%04or})) 10... Kc7 {, when after} (10... Ka6 11. Kc6) 11. Kd5 Kb6 {the black king can no longer reach f8 in time. If it is Black to move, he wins by 1... Kf7. The situation is radically changed if the b-pawns are moved onto the a-file.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "4k3/8/8/p6p/P6P/8/8/5K2 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "18"] 1. Ke2 {White still wins the pawn, but not the game, e.g. %05After} Ke7 2. Ke3 Kd6 3. Kd4 Ke6 4. Kc5 Ke5 {!} 5. Kb5 Kd5 6. Kxa5 Kc5 7. Ka6 Kc6 8. a5 Kc7 9. Kb5 Kb7 {= with a draw, since the "normal" position has been attained. This factor neutralizes the possession of the opposition (whether distant or close). If the h-pawns are moved onto the g-file, an unusual situation arise, where the possession of the distant opposition does not play a part, and only the close opposition is of importance.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "4k3/8/8/1p4p1/1P4P1/8/8/5K2 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "6"] 1. Ke2 {%05In reply to} Ke7 (1... Kd7 {is also possible}) 2. Ke3 {Black plays} Kd7 {forcing the enemy king up to the front line:} 3. Ke4 (3. Kd4 {%05or} Kd6 { =}) 3... Ke6 {with a draw, since White has no possibility of a by-pass.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1927.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/p6p/P3k2P/8/8/2K5/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "3"] [EventDate "1927.??.??"] 1. Kc3 {! Black is not saved either by %05White's pawns have crossed the middle of the board, and this ensures a win, in spite of the black king's good position. After} (1. Kd3 {?} Kd5 {!}) 1... Kf5 (1... Kd5 {%05or} 2. Kd3 {!} Kc5 3. Ke4 {%04etc.}) 2. Kc4 {, since White queens first. The attempt to answer Ka5^013^010 with ... Kc6 is also hopeless, since the b5 pawn has^013^010 crossed the middle of the board ~3 ($40279)~.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/p6p/P3k2P/8/8/2K5/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "1"] {If the pawns stand further down the board or further up, with White to move too the result is a draw.} 1... Kf5 {with a counter-attack on the a6 pawn %05With Black to move it is a draw: White answers} (1... Kd4 {, winning the a5 pawn, the general rule ~3($41279)~ shows^013^010 that Black is unable to win. %05while if}) * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1927.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/p3k2p/P6P/8/1K6/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] [EventDate "1927.??.??"] 1. Kc3 Kf4 2. Kd4 Kg4 3. Ke4 Kxh4 4. Kf4 {Draw ~3($40539)~.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1927.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p6p/P6P/4k3/8/8/1K6/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "6"] [EventDate "1927.??.??"] 1. Kc3 {%05After} Kf5 2. Kd4 Kg5 3. Kc5 {Black is saved by} Kf6 {! etc. (Ka7 is met by ... Kc7, and the white king cannot escape from the corner).} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1936.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Bahr Peter (GER)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/3k4/7p/p6P/P7/3K4 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] [EventDate "1936.??.??"] 1. Ke1 {%05White gives up his a-pawn, but protects the critical squares of the h3 pawn:} Ke5 2. Kf1 {!} Kd4 3. Kf2 Kd3 4. Kf3 Kd2 5. Kf2 (5. Kf4 {or 5. Ke4 is also possible}) (5. Kg4 {? %05, but not}) 5... Kc1 6. Ke1 Kb2 7. Kd2 Kxa2 8. Kc2 {Draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1920.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/3K4/7p/p7/5k2/P6P/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] [EventDate "1920.??.??"] {This was the first study by Grigoriev to be published. It is by no means obvious that play here reduces to an ending with a passed pawn and blocked pawns~3 ( 279).~} 1. a4 {! %05After} Kg3 {White halts the passed black h-pawn in time, attaining the "normal" position:} 2. Ke6 Kxh3 3. Kf5 h5 4. Kf4 h4 5. Kf3 Kh2 6. Kf2 h3 7. Kf1 Kg3 8. Kg1 {Draw. Positions close to those considered, but nevertheless distinctive, are those in which each of the kings is in the enemy rear. Taking the opposition on the main files proves decisive.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1932.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "3K4/8/8/1p5p/1P5P/8/8/4k3 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1932.??.??"] 1. Ke7 {!} Ke2 (1... Kd2 2. Kd6 {! and 3. Kg5}) 2. Ke6 {!} (2. Kd6 {?} Kf3) (2. Kf6 {?} Kd3 {!}) 2... Ke3 3. Ke5 Ke2 (3... Kd3 4. Kd5 {!}) 4. Ke4 {!} Ke1 5. Ke3 {and wins, since} Kd1 {is met by} (5... Kf1 {%04by %05and} 6. Kf4 {!}) 6. Kd4 {!} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1932.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "5K2/8/8/1p5p/1P5P/8/8/3k4 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "8"] [EventDate "1932.??.??"] 1... Ke2 2. Ke8 {!} Ke3 {(White parries an attack on either pawn by a counter-attack on the opposite wing)} 3. Ke7 Ke4 4. Ke6 Kd4 (4... Kf4 5. Kd5) ( 4... Ke3 {? %05but not} 5. Ke5) 5. Kf5 {Draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1935.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Bahr Peter (GER)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p7/8/7p/P1k4P/8/1K6/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1935.??.??"] 1. Kc2 {%05Correct is !} (1. Ka3 {? %05White fails to save the game by} Kc3 2. a5 Kc4 3. Ka4 Kc5 4. a6 Kb6 5. Kb4 Kxa6 6. Kc5 Kb7 7. Kb5 {, since the a7 pawn is inside the winning zone ~3($40279)~} Kc7 8. Ka6 Kd6 {%04etc.}) 1... Kb4 2. Kd3 Kxa4 3. Kc4 {!} Ka5 (3... Ka3 4. Kb5) (3... a6 {immediately, to attain the "normal" position White must continue %05If after 3. Kc4 Black plays not 3... Ka5, but} 4. Kc5 {!} (4. Kc3 {? %05but not} Kb5 {, winning})) 4. Kc5 a6 { There is no other way for the black king to free itself, but now the pawn is no longer inside the winning zone, and to draw White only needs to take the "normal" opposition.} 5. Kc4 Kb6 6. Kb4 {Draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1979.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Zinar M"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "k7/8/8/7p/8/p4K2/P6P/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "17"] [EventDate "1979.??.??"] 1. Ke4 {%05The way to win is as follows:} (1. h4 {%05 For which pawn should the white king make? If for the h5 pawn, Black has time to reach the a2 pawn, while the following is a loss of time:} Kb7 2. Ke4 Kc6 3. Kd4 Kd6 4. Kc4 Ke5 5. Kb3 Kd4 6. Kxa3 Kc3 {, and we reach Bahr's drawn position ~3($41279)~.}) (1. h3 {%05No better is} Kb7 2. Ke4 Kc6 3. Kd4 Kd6 4. Kc4 Ke5 5. Kb3 Kf4 {!}) 1... h4 {! The best defence.} (1... Kb7 {Prokop gives %05If} 2. Kd5 Kb6 (2... Kc7 3. Kc5 {!}) 3. Kc4 Kc6 4. Kb3 Kd5 5. Kxa3 Kc4 6. Ka4 {! winning.}) 2. h3 { essential;} (2. Kd5 {, then %05if} h3 3. Kc4 Kb7 4. Kb3 Kb6 5. Kxa3 Kb5 { with a draw.}) 2... Kb7 3. Kd5 {!} Kb6 4. Kc4 Kc6 5. Kb3 Kd5 6. Kxa3 Kc4 7. Ka4 {!} Kc5 8. Kb3 Kb5 9. Kc3 {, and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1887.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Salvioli C"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/1p6/1p6/k7/8/PKP5/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "16"] [EventDate "1887.??.??"] {In conclusion, here a few examples with doubled pawns.} 1. c3 {%05This position was suggested by Horwitz, but with an incorrect analysis:} b4 { ! %05The correct solution was pointed out by Salvioli:} (1... Ka5 {(Horwitz)} 2. Kb3 Ka6 3. Kb4 Ka7 4. Kxb5 Kb7 5. a4 Kc7 6. Ka6 Kc6 {with a draw (??), although} 7. c4 $18 {wins easily.}) 2. c4 b3 {!!} 3. a3 (3. axb3+ {%04with %05to answer} Kb4 {and 4... b5}) 3... Ka5 4. Kxb3 Ka6 5. Kb4 Ka7 {!} 6. Kb5 Kb7 7. a4 Kc7 {!} (7... Ka7 {?} 8. a5) 8. Ka6 Kc6 {Draw ~3 ($41327).~} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1954.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Maizelis I"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/2p5/2p5/1k6/8/1PKP4/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "4"] [EventDate "1954.??.??"] {The position obtained by moving example 438 one file to the right was at first inadequately analyzed.} 1. d3 {, Berger's 1... Ka4 is bad. A draw is given by %05Thus in reply to} c4 {!} (1... Ka4 {%05Berger restricted himself to the comment that it was a draw in view of} 2. Kc3 Kb5 3. b3 (3. Kb3 { ! , keeping b2-b3 in reserve. All that remains for Black is the try %05But this system of defence collapses if, instead of 3. b3?, White plays} c4+ 4. dxc4+ Ka5 {, but after} 5. Kc3 c5 (5... Ka4 6. b4) (5... Kb6 6. Kd4) 6. b3 { ! White wins.}) 3... Ka5 4. Kc4 Kb6) 2. d4 Ka4 {=} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1922.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Berger Johann N (AUT)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/2p5/1kp5/8/2K5/1P1P4/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] [EventDate "1922.??.??"] {The following position is simpler for White.} 1. d3 (1. b3 {, which in the event of %05Fine gives this example, and begins with} c4 {forces} 2. bxc4+ { He does not give any analysis, despite the fact that a whole set of new variations is revealed here. Therefore 1. b3 (although it does in fact win) must be considered less clear, in view of the absence of a detailed analysis.}) 1... Ka5 (1... c4 {the simplest is %05If} 2. d4 (2. dxc4+ {leads to complicated variations ~3 ($40217).~ %05whereas}) 2... c5 3. d5) 2. Kc4 Kb6 3. b3 {and wins. If it is Black to move, he draws by 1... c4.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1933.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Ebersz"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5p2/5p2/8/5KP1/8/6P1/3k4 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] [EventDate "1933.??.??"] 1. Kf5 {%05After} Ke2 2. Kxf6 Ke3 3. Ke5 {!} Kf2 4. g5 Kg3 5. Kf5 $18 {the position reached has already been examined in^013^010 example ~3($40365)~ (after White's 4th move).} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "k7/Pp6/1P6/5ppp/8/8/4K3/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "1"] {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/4D13/4D13/4D13) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) By expanding ancient analyses we can compile the following table (we will suppose that the schematic position ~3 ( 556)~ exists on the Q-side). With reference to the pawn formations in the table: pawn formation king position 1. f5,g5,h5 e1-e3 2. f5,g6,h5 d1-d4 3. f6,g5,h5 d1-d4 4. f6,g6, h5 c1-c5 5. f7,g6,h6 c1-c5 6. f7,g7,h6(h7) d1-d6} 1. Z0 * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "k7/Pp6/1P3pp1/7p/8/2K5/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] {%15N #B(8/8/8/2D15/2D15/2D15/2D15/2D15) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kd4 {%05 (4) A sample variation:} (1. Kd2 {%05or}) 1... h4 2. Ke3 f5 3. Kf2 {!} g5 (3... f4 {%05or}) 4. Kg1 {! , and the pawns are stopped.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "k7/Pp3p2/1P4pp/8/8/2K5/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] {%15N #B(8/8/8/2D15/2D15/2D15/2D15/2D15) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) (5) The position is weakened, since the pawn stands not at g7, but at g6. From c1-c5 the king reaches the key e3 square in two moves.} 1. Kd2 {%05 A sample variation:} (1. Kd4 {%05or}) 1... h5 2. Ke3 h4 (2... f5 3. Kf3) 3. Kf3 f5 4. Kg2 {!} f4 5. Kg1 {! , and the pawns are stopped.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "k7/Pp3p2/1P4pp/3K4/8/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] {If it is Black to move, White loses with his king at d5 %212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ383 %212045826630=4HLJ385} 1... f5 2. Ke5 h5 3. Kf4 h4 4. Kf3 g5 $19 {, and Black wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "k7/Pp3ppp/1P6/8/8/2K5/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "4"] {%15N #B(8/8/3D14/3D14/3D14/3D14/3D14/3D14) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) (6) From the c-file the king is too late. %212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ383 %212045826630=4HLJ385} 1. Kd2 {%04then %05If} (1. Kd3 {%05or}) 1... f5 2. Ke3 h5 $19 {and wins, since the king cannot reach g2 or g3.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "k7/Pp3ppp/1P6/8/2K5/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "4"] {%15N #B(8/8/3D14/3D14/3D14/3D14/3D14/3D14) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kd4 {(or 1. Kd5) , then it is true that the immediate 1... f5 is^013^010 not possible due to 2. Ke5, but Black wins by %05If instead} h5 2. Ke4 h4 {and 3... f5$19. The remaining cases have been examined earlier.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "1k6/8/P1P2pp1/7p/8/8/8/2K5 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "0"] {%15N LA4(c1:e3) LA4(c2:b6) #B(8/8/1I16/2I15/2I15/2I15/2I15/2D15) #S(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) If in positions 4 and 5 there is a situation of type~3 ( 557)~ on the Q-side, then with his king at c1 White should carry out the plan of eliminating the pawns; but if it stands further up the board, it is simpler to go to b6.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5p2/1ppp4/2k5/5P2/7P/8/5K2 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "19"] {The following study, which is as though taken from a practical game, is a good example.} 1. h4 Kd5 2. h5 Ke6 3. h6 Kf6 4. f5 {! The position of interest to us has been reached.} b5 {!} 5. Ke2 b4 6. Kd3 d5 7. Kc2 {!} (7. Kd4 { ? %05Not} c5+ {!} 8. Kd3 b3 {!$19 , when it is Black who wins ( ~3($41574)~ and^013^010 ~3($41575)~ ).}) 7... d4 8. Kc1 {!} c5 9. Kb2 {!} c4 10. Kc1 { !$18 ~3($40559)~ and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/1k6/5ppp/PPP5/6K1/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "21"] {The play become rather complicated if both sides have connected passed pawns. Here positions of three types have to be reckoned with.} 1. a5+ {%05To win, the opponent has to be put in zugzwang on both wings. Since he will not occupy such a positional voluntarily, the extra tempo (the advantage of the first move) must be used to advance the pawns.} Ka6 2. c5 h4+ (2... Kb5 3. Kg2 {!}) ( 2... Kb7 3. b5) 3. Kh3 f4 (3... Kb5 4. Kh2 g4 5. Kg2 f4 6. Kg1 $18) 4. c6 f3 5. b5+ Ka7 6. b6+ (6. c7 {is also possible %05the most energetic, but}) 6... Kb8 7. a6 g4+ 8. Kh2 g3+ 9. Kg1 h3 10. a7+ Ka8 11. c7 {, and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1780.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Chapais"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2k5/8/5pp1/PP5p/5K2/2P5/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "1"] [EventDate "1780.??.??"] 1. a5 {White achieves the set-up a6, b5 and wins. %05After} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1900.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Behting Carl"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "1k6/1P6/P7/2P5/5ppp/8/6K1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] [EventDate "1900.??.??"] 1. Kg1 {!} h3 (1... Ka7 {or 1... Kc7 immediately provokes the combinational finish}) 2. Kh2 f3 3. Kg3 Ka7 4. b8=Q+ {!} Kxb8 5. c6 $18 {%04etc. The number of zugzwang positions is relatively small (almost all of them have already been indicated).} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1k6/8/P4pp1/1PP4p/8/6K1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "2"] 1. c5 {%04with %05Here Black answers} (1. Kh2 {or 1. b5 is the same %05The reply to} f4) (1. Kg1 {Black can play %05On} f4 (1... Ka6 {? %05but not} 2. c5 Kb5 3. Kh2 g4 (3... f4 {%05or} 4. Kg2) 4. Kg2 {, winning - Petersman, 1958}) 2. Kg2 (2. c5 g4) 2... Ka6 3. c5 Kb5 4. Kg1 g4 $19 {, and wins.}) 1... f4 { , when white is in zugzwang on both wings. The position on each of the wings does not in itself lead to zugzwang, but the necessity to have (under conditions of complete symmetry!) not the first word, but the last, creates here a position of mutual zugzwang. Drawn positions is also occur.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5p2/Pk6/1P6/6p1/6Kp/2P5/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "12"] 1. c3 {? %05 The kings are forced to move between h2-g3 and a7-b6 respectively. If either player risks moving his backward pawn, he inevitably loses, e.g.} (1. Kh2 {!=}) 1... f6 2. Kh2 Ka7 3. Kg3 (3. c4 Kb6 4. Kg3 f5 $19) 3... f5 4. c4 Kb6 5. c5+ Ka7 6. c6 Kb6 $19 {%04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "4k3/5ppp/8/8/8/8/PPP5/3K4 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "18"] {This position has an interesting history. It was analyzed by many analysts: Greco (1612), Szen, Walker (1840). None of them, however, did solve it correctly. Moreover, its evaluation is still unclear!} 1. Ke2 {(already stopping the black pawns, it is best, of course, not to allow them to advance far) %05It is clear from the preceding analysis that the correct strategy cannot consist of an attempt to advance the pawns as %05quickly as possible - all the same they will be quickly stopped. An advantage must be gained uniformly on both wings, %05aiming to put the opponent in zugzwang, and if he should avoid it then extra tempo must be exploited.} (1. a4 {%05The solution can also be begun with} Kd7 2. Ke2 (2. a5 {%05but not})) (1. Ke1 {%05as well as by}) 1... Kd7 (1... h5 2. Kf3 Kd7 {!} (2... g5 {?} 3. a4 h4 (3... Kd7 4. c4 Kc6 5. a5 f5 6. Kg3 f4+ 7. Kf3 Kb7 8. c5 Kb8 9. b3 Kb7 10. b4 $18) 4. Kg4 f5+ ( 4... Kd7 5. c4 f6 6. Kh3 f5 7. b4 $18) 5. Kh3 Kd7 6. c4 Kc6 7. a5 $18 {, and White's decisive advantage is obvious}) 3. a4 Kc6 4. c4 Kb7) 2. Kf3 Kc6 3. a4 h5 4. c4 f5 {(each side is now threatening to advance his rook's pawn)} 5. Kg3 Kb6 6. b4 {~5?~ ~5 In the previous edition of this book (1987) this position was evaluated as easily won for White. But it turns out that^013^010 ~5White's last move is a fatal mistake, which even loses!^013^010 ~5Thus an additional investigation is required in order to evaluate the initial position.~5} (6. Kg2 {! %05~5Only a draw results from~} Kb7 {!=}) 6... Kb7 {!} (6... g6 {?} 7. Kg2 { !} Kb7 (7... h4 8. Kh3 g5 9. b5 Kc7 10. c5 Kb7 11. a5 Kb8 12. Kh2 g4 13. a6 Ka7 14. Kg2 f4 15. Kg1 $18) (7... g5 8. b5 h4 9. Kh3 Kc7 10. c5 Kb7 11. a5 Kb8 12. a6 Ka7 13. Kh2 f4 14. Kg2 g4 15. Kg1 $18) 8. a5 Ka6 9. Kg3 g5 10. Kg2 h4 11. c5 Kb5 12. Kh3 $18) (6... g5 {?} 7. a5+ {, and wins ~3($40599)~. Here there are numerous other^013^010 variations, but they are fairly simple.}) 7. Kg2 (7. Kf3 h4 8. Kf4 (8. Kg2 f4 $19) 8... g5+ 9. Kf3 g4+ 10. Kf4 h3 11. Kg3 f4+ 12. Kh2 Kb6 13. b5 Kb7 14. c5 Ka7 15. a5 Kb8 $19) (7. c5 Kc6 8. a5 Kb5 9. Kg2 h4 10. Kh2 f4 11. Kg2 g5 $19) 7... h4 8. Kh3 (8. a5 Ka6 $19) 8... g5 9. a5 Ka6 $19 * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1928.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "6K1/8/pp5p/8/7k/3PP3/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "17"] [EventDate "1928.??.??"] {Instances with isolated and doubled pawns, and also with two passed pawns, are examined in the following examples.} 1. d4 {%05Thanks to the unfortunate position of the enemy king. White's pawns are the stronger:} Kg5 2. Kf7 Kf5 3. d5 Ke5 4. e4 {, and now, depending on which pawn advances, there are three echo-variations:} a5 (4... b5 5. Ke7 b4 6. d6 b3 7. d7 b2 8. d8=Q b1=Q 9. Qd6+ Kxe4 10. Qg6+ $18) (4... h5 5. Ke7 h4 6. d6 h3 7. d7 h2 8. d8=Q h1=Q 9. Qd6+ Kxe4 10. Qc6+ $18) 5. Ke7 a4 6. d6 a3 7. d7 a2 8. d8=Q a1=Q 9. Qh8+ $18 * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1936.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "4k3/2p5/2p3P1/p1K5/7P/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "17"] [EventDate "1936.??.??"] 1. h5 {%05White wins only because he succeeds in advancing his pawn to h7:} Ke7 2. h6 Kf6 3. h7 Kg7 4. Kc4 {!! (Kc6-d7-e7 or Kd4-e5-e6 is bad, since Black obtains a queen at a1 just in time)} Kh8 5. Kd4 a4 6. Ke5 a3 (6... Kg7 7. Ke6 { and 8. h8Q$18}) 7. Kf6 {!} a2 8. g7+ {!} Kxh7 9. Kf7 $18 {, and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1928.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2pp2kP/6P1/3p4/8/8/8/6K1 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1928.??.??"] 1. Kf2 {!} c5 (1... d4 {, then %05if} 2. Kf3 {!} c6 3. Kf4 c5 4. Ke4 {!}) 2. Ke3 {!} c4 (2... d4+ 3. Ke4 Kh8 4. Ke5 Kg7 5. Kd6 $18) 3. Kd4 Kh8 (3... d6 4. Kxd5 {and 5. Ke6$18}) 4. Ke5 {!} Kg7 5. Kd6 c3 6. Ke7 $18 {%04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1851.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Horwitz & Kling"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/6kP/6P1/4p2P/5p2/5K2/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "17"] [EventDate "1851.??.??"] 1. h5+ Kh7 2. Ke3 Kg8 3. g6 Kh8 4. h7 Kg7 5. h6+ Kh8 6. Kf2 e3+ 7. Kxf3 (7. Kxe3 {%05or}) 7... e2 8. g7+ Kxh7 9. Kxe2 $18 {, and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "4k3/2p5/1p1p4/1P1K4/8/8/7P/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "17"] 1. Ke6 {%05Only stalemate at h8 can force the black pawns to lose their invulnerability:} Kf8 2. Kf6 Kg8 3. Kg6 Kf8 4. h3 {!! The chief subtlety: the move h6-h7 must not be accompanied by check.} (4. h4 {? %05Wrong is} Kg8 5. h5 Kh8 6. h6 Kg8 7. h7+ Kh8 8. Kh6 d5 9. Kg5 Kxh7 {Draw.}) 4... Kg8 5. h4 Kh8 6. h5 Kg8 7. h6 Kh8 8. h7 d5 9. Kf5 $18 {%04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1851.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Horwitz & Kling"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/2p5/2Pp4/3K2Pk/7P/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "27"] [EventDate "1851.??.??"] 1. Ke4 {%05White's king is close enough to be able to lend his pawns^013^010 %05decisive support ~3($40397)~:} Kg4 2. h4 Kh5 3. Kf4 Kh6 4. g4 Kg6 5. h5+ Kh6 6. Ke4 Kg5 7. Kf3 Kh6 8. Kf4 Kh7 9. g5 Kg7 10. g6 {!} (10. h6+ {?} Kh7 { leads to a draw}) 10... Kh6 11. Kg4 Kg7 12. Kg5 {!} d3 13. h6+ Kg8 14. Kf6 $18 {, and wins If the white king and c- and d-pawns are moved one file to the left, the position is still a win; if they are moved two files to the left, it is a draw, as in the following position.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Fine Reuben (USA)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/p7/Pp3kP1/1K3P2/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "0"] {Here White cannot even move his pawns, since the opponent's king manoeuvres between g5 and h4.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1932.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1p4kP/5pP1/3p4/8/4P3/7K/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1932.??.??"] 1. e4 {! This move must be made at once, without allowing the b-pawn immediately to begin its dangerous advance. %05The idea of the draw is as follows: the king is forced sooner or later to take on b3, otherwise it will be impossible to block the queen; but after Kb3 the queen gives check from below at b1 and c1, to answer Kb4 with ... Qb+1, and if Kc5 Qc2+, or Ka5 Qf5+, when the king cannot cross the 6th rank due to ... Qg6+.^013^010 There is an alternative: to penetrate with the king to e6 (with the idea of h8Q+ and Kf7), but it is easy to see that Black obtains a new queen at b1 and averts the mate at g6. One is led to conclude that the b1-h7 diagonal must be blocked by e3-e4, but at what point should this move be made?} (1. Kg3 {%05The winning path is not easy to find. The attempt to win the seemingly helpless b-pawn does not succeed: ?} b5 2. Kf3 (2. e4 {, then %05If} b4 {! with a draw.}) 2... b4 3. Ke2 f5 {!} 4. Kd3 b3 {!} 5. Kc3 d4+ {!!} 6. exd4 f4 7. d5 f3 8. d6 f2 9. d7 f1=Q 10. d8=Q Qc1+ {!} 11. Kb4 Qe1+ {! , with a draw by perpetual check.}) 1... dxe4 (1... d4 2. Kg3 b5 3. Kf4 b4 4. Kf5 b3 5. Ke6 {, winning}) 2. Kg3 b5 3. Kf4 e3 (3... b4 {is met by} 4. Kf5 {%04etc.}) 4. Kxe3 b4 (4... f5 {, then %05If} 5. Kf4 {!} (5. Kd4 {? %05but not} f4 {!}) 5... b4 6. Ke5 {%04etc.}) 5. Kd4 f5 ( 5... b3 {%05After} 6. Kc3 f5 7. Kxb3 {Black loses both pawns, but now the pawn at f5 provides the interference that White requires.}) 6. Ke5 {, and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1900.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Reichhelm"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "k7/P7/1P1p4/7p/2P3p1/6K1/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] [EventDate "1900.??.??"] 1. Kf4 Kb7 2. c5 {!} dxc5 {(now not only is the way open for the white king, but the g1-a7 diagonal is also blocked)} 3. Ke5 $18 {%04etc.} * [Event "Ostrava (Czech Republic)"] [Site "Ostrava (Czech Republic)"] [Date "1946.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Sajtar Jaroslav (CZE)"] [Black "Thelen"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "2k5/2p5/3p4/2PPpK2/8/8/P7/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "23"] [EventDate "1946.??.??"] {The following group of examples illustrates the strength of a protected passed pawn.} 1... Kb7 {%05Black won by a precise manoeuvre:} 2. a3 {!} Ka6 3. c6 {!} (3. a4 {Black has the quickly decisive %05after} Ka5 4. c6 Kxa4 5. Ke6 Kb5) 3... Kb6 {!} 4. a4 Kc5 {!!} 5. Ke6 e4 6. Kd7 e3 7. Kxc7 e2 8. Kd7 e1=Q 9. c7 Kxd5 10. c8=Q Qe6+ 11. Kd8 Qxc8+ 12. Kxc8 Kc6 {! White resigns.} (12... Kc5 {?} 13. Kb7 {! - draw}) * [Event "Karlovy Vary (Czech Republic)"] [Site "Karlovy Vary (Czech Republic)"] [Date "1929.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Colle Edgard (BEL)"] [Black "Gruenfeld Ernst F (AUT)"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/p4pPp/P6P/4k1K1/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] [EventDate "1929.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ383 %212045826630=4HLJ385} 1. g6 {%05White must correctly parry the advance of the f-pawn:} f4+ 2. Kg2 {!} Ke2 3. g7 f3+ 4. Kg3 {!} (4. Kh2 {%05The tournament bulletin incorrectly gives} f2 5. g8=Q f1=Q 6. Qc4+ Ke1 7. Qxf1+ Kxf1 8. Kg3 Ke2 9. Kf4 {Resigns, although a by-pass by the king leads to a draw:} Kd3 {!} 10. Kg5 Ke4 11. Kxh5 Kf5 12. Kh6 Kf6 13. h5 Kf7 14. Kg5 Kg7 {=}) 4... f2 5. g8=Q f1=Q 6. Qc4+ Ke1 7. Qxf1+ Kxf1 8. Kf4 $18 {Black resigns, since White queens his h-pawn. The idea of this finish occurred in this earlier ending.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1924.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Gusev"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/7p/6p1/4kp2/8/5PKP/1P6/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] [EventDate "1924.??.??"] 1. h4 (1. b4 {%05or first}) 1... h6 2. b4 (2. h5 {?} f4+ {!}) 2... g5 3. f4+ Ke4 4. hxg5 {!} (4. b5 {?} Ke3 {leads to a draw}) 4... hxg5 5. fxg5 Ke3 6. g6 f4+ 7. Kg2 {! , and wins.} * [Event "Kemeri (Latvia)"] [Site "Kemeri (Latvia)"] [Date "1937.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Bergs Theodor (LAT)"] [Black "Petrov Vladimir (LAT)"] [Result "0-1"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "7k/6p1/8/p7/Pp5P/8/1K4P1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "20"] [EventDate "1937.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ383 %212045826630=4HLJ385} 1. g4 {Black's task now is to approach the opponent's K-side pawns. %05With his sealed move White forced a transition into this pawn ending, but he resigned without resuming, since a curious winning path was found for Black, based on a subtle king manoeuvre.^013^010 If it were now Black to move, 1... g5! would immediately decide the game in his favour. Therefore White must play} Kg8 2. Kc2 Kf7 3. Kd3 Ke7 (3... Ke6 4. Ke4 b3 {?} 5. Kd3 Ke5 6. Kc3 Kf4 {fails to win due to} 7. g5 {!} Kg4 8. Kxb3 Kxh4 9. Kc4 Kxg5 10. Kb5 Kf5 11. Kxa5 g5 12. Kb5 g4 13. a5 {= , when the pawns queen simultaneously.}) 4. Ke3 {!} (4. Ke4 {%05White loses immediately after} Ke6 { (zugzwang)} 5. h5 (5. g5 {%05or} g6) 5... Kf6) 4... Kd7 {%05 Black has to be able to bring his king out onto the 5th rank (to c5, d5 or e5), and by taking the distant opposition White tries to prevent this.} 5. Kd3 {!} Kc7 {! The occupation of this square is decisive, since in White's position there is no corresponding square. But the struggle is not yet over, and Black has to proceed with certain accuracy.} 6. Ke4 (6. h5 {he should play %05Thus on} Kd6 7. Ke4 Ke7 {!} 8. g5 Ke6 {!$19 %04etc.}) 6... Kc6 {!} 7. Kd4 Kd6 8. Ke4 Kc5 9. Kd3 (9. h5 {can be met by} Kd6 (9... Kc4 {%05or})) 9... Kd5 10. Ke3 Ke5 $19 { , and Black won.} 0-1 [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1851.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Horwitz & Kling"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/3p4/3p4/5p2/2kP1P2/8/4P3/2K5 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] [EventDate "1851.??.??"] 1. e4 {! %05A passed pawn can sometimes be defended indirectly. Here after} fxe4 (1... Kxd4 2. exf5 Kd5 3. Kd2 $18) 2. f5 {, and if} Kd5 {, then} (2... Kd3 {%05or} 3. f6 e3 4. Kd1 $18) 3. Kd2 $18 {%04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1946.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Prokes Ladislav (CZE)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/3p4/1P1kp3/8/3P4/5P2/7K w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] [EventDate "1946.??.??"] 1. f4 {!} exf4 (1... Kc5 2. f5 $18) 2. d4 Ke6 3. Kg2 Kd7 4. Kf3 Kc7 5. Kxf4 Kb6 6. Ke4 Kxb5 7. Kd5 $18 {, winning.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1930.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/2k5/p3pp2/P1K5/5P2/2P5/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "19"] [EventDate "1930.??.??"] {The possession of an outside passed pawn is an undoubted positional advantage. The following example is typical, and shows the method of realizing this advantage.} 1... Kd6 {! %05White's resistance is based on the good position of his king, but he is unable to maintain it:} 2. Kb5 (2. c3 {? %05Now the following are obviously bad:} Kc6) (2. f4 {?} exf4) (2. Kd3 {?} Kd5 3. c4+ Kc5 4. Kc3 e4 5. fxe4 (5. f4 e3) 5... fxe4 6. Kb3 Kd4 {, and wins.}) 2... e4 {!} 3. fxe4 fxe4 4. Kc4 Ke5 5. Kc3 Kf4 6. Kd2 Kf3 7. Ke1 Ke3 {!} 8. c4 Kd4 9. Kd2 Kxc4 10. Ke3 Kb4 {! , and Black wins.} * [Event "Brussels (Belgium)"] [Site "Brussels (Belgium)"] [Date "1935.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "O'kelly De Galway Alberic (BEL"] [Black "Mieses Jacques (GER)"] [Result "1/2-1/2"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p6p/5k2/5P2/p3K2P/P7/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "17"] [EventDate "1935.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ383 %212045826630=4HLJ385 But certain exceptions are possible, where an outside passed pawn cannot be realized.} 1. Kf4 Kf7 2. Ke5 Ke7 3. f6+ Kf7 4. Kf5 Kf8 5. Ke6 Ke8 6. Kf5 (6. f7+ Kf8 7. Kf6 h5 8. Kg6 a5 {= - draw.}) 6... Kf7 7. Kg5 Ke6 8. Kh6 Kxf6 9. Kxh7 {= Drawn.} 1/2-1/2 [Event "Venice (Italy)"] [Site "Venice (Italy)"] [Date "1949.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Tartakower Saviely G (RUS)"] [Black "Stalda Giuseppe"] [Result "1/2-1/2"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/7p/6p1/3k4/1P1p4/3K1P2/7P/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "19"] [EventDate "1949.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ383 %212045826630=4HLJ385} 1... g5 2. b5 Kc5 3. b6 Kxb6 4. Kxd4 Kc6 5. Ke5 h6 6. h3 {(if White tries to preserve this tempo, all the same a draw is inevitable)} Kd7 7. Kf6 Kd6 8. Kg6 Ke5 9. Kg7 Kf5 {!} 10. Kxh6 Kf6 {= Drawn.} 1/2-1/2 [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1934.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2p4p/1p3K2/8/P7/1P2k3/2P5/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "21"] [EventDate "1934.??.??"] {The following examples are instructive, with three pawns against two on one wing.} 1. b4 {%05There is a story behind this position. An analogous position, but with an additional black pawn at h6, was published in 1927 by Mattison. ^013^010 But why is Grigoriev's position (without the h6 pawn) won? Let us follow the solution:} Kd4 2. Ke6 {!} h6 (2... c5 {? %05trying to complicate White's task; if} 3. a5 {!}) 3. c3+ {!} Kc4 4. Ke5 {! (had the pawn moved to h5, White would have played 4. Kf5!)} h5 (4... c5 5. b5) (4... c6 5. Ke4 {!} ( 5. Ke6 {! %05or})) 5. Kf5 {!} Kd5 6. Kg5 c6 7. Kh4 {!} (7. Kxh5 {? %05hoping for} c5 8. b5 c4 {when Black has the opposition}) 7... c5 8. b5 c4 9. Kxh5 { , and White has the opposition. It is this that explains all the trickery: Black can rearrange his moves as much as he likes - all the same it is hopeless. The rest is simple:} Kd6 10. Kh6 {! (opposition on the main rank - the middle one in the space between the 5th and 8th)} Kd7 (10... Kd5 11. Kg7 $18) (10... Ke6 11. Kg6 Kd6 12. Kf6 $18) 11. Kg5 $18 {, winning in all cases by a by-pass.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1927.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Mattison Herman (LAT)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2p4p/1p3K1p/8/P7/1P2k3/2P5/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] [EventDate "1927.??.??"] 1. b4 {%05The idea of the study was as follows:} Kd4 2. Ke6 {! not allowing the king to go to d5;} (2. Kf5 {? Black succeeds in defending by %05if} Kd5 3. Kg4 Kc6 4. Kh5 Kb7 5. Kxh6 Ka6 6. Kxh7 c5 7. c3 {- an enforced loss of time -} cxb4 8. cxb4 Kb7 9. Kg6 Kc6 10. Kf6 {- White is short of the tempo for Kf6-e6 - } Kd5 {%04Draw}) 2... h5 3. c3+ {! (this gains the lacking tempo)} Kc4 4. Kf5 { , and the defence ... Kd5-c6-b7 no longer works.} h4 (4... h6 {%05or} 5. Kf4) ( 4... c5 {to be hopeless due to %05Mattison also considered} 5. b5 {But it was here that Grigoriev discovered a mistake! He found that after} Kd5 6. Kg5 { Black can save the draw by} c4 {!! , creating a stalemate shelter for his king c5, on condition that Black holds the opposition. For example:} 7. Kxh5 h6 8. Kxh6 (8. Kg4 {%05or} Ke6 9. Kh5 Kd5 10. Kxh6 Kd6 {! He can also leave the pawn at h7, and answer Kh7 with ... Kd7!}) 8... Kd6 {! If he holds the opposition, Black cannot lose, e.g.} 9. Kg7 Ke7 10. Kg6 Ke6 11. Kg5 Ke5 12. Kg4 Ke6 { ! (in view of the threat of a4-a5, Black must keep within the square of the b5 pawn; the manoeuvring here is similar to that in example ~3($41162)~.} 13. Kf4 Kd6 {! (this would also have been the reply to 13. Kh4)} 14. Ke4 Kc5 {! Draw.}) 5. Kg4 {is hopeless for Black, since in both cases the king picks up both black pawns within 4 moves. Thus Grigoriev found a fundamentally new system of defence, which made Mattison's study incorrect.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1pp5/3k3p/P7/1PP2K2/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "14"] {Does Grigoriev's "stalemate shelter" save the game if the position is moved one rank up the board? The answer to this question is given by an analysis of the following position, which occurred in a practical game.} 1. b5 {%05The continuation was} Kd7 {! %05But defence "a la Mattison" succeeds:} (1... c6 { %05Black did not even suspect that there was any possibility of saving the game. It is %05extremely curious that defence "a la Grigoriev" did not work here:} 2. b6 c5 3. Kg4 Kd7 4. Kh5 Kc6 5. Kxh6 Kd6 {, and, despite holding the opposition, Black loses, since due to the necessity for manoeuvring within the small "square" of the b6 pawn he immediately loses the opposition} 6. Kg7 { %04etc.}) (1... Kc5 2. Kg4 Kd6 3. Kh5 $18 {, and White won.}) 2. Kg4 Kc8 3. Kh5 Kb8 4. Kxh6 Ka7 5. Kg6 c6 6. Kf6 (6. bxc6 {is also hopeless}) 6... cxb5 7. cxb5 Kb8 {= Draw.~3 ($41223)~.} * [Event "Karlovy Vary (Czech Republic)"] [Site "Karlovy Vary (Czech Republic)"] [Date "1907.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Nimzowitsch Aaron"] [Black "Chigorin Mikhail I (RUS)"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/3k1p1p/3p4/3K1PP1/8/7P/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] [EventDate "1907.??.??"] 1... Kc6 {! Black could have drawn, e.g. %05In the tournament book Schlechter expressed the opinion that by} (1... Ke6 {? %05In this theoretically interesting position, after} 2. Kc5 f5 3. h3 fxg4 4. hxg4 d4 5. Kxd4 Kd6 6. f5 {Black resigned.}) 2. h4 (2. h3 {%05Nimzowitsch did not agree with this assessment. Here is his analysis (1918):} Kd6 3. h4 Kc6 (3... Ke6 4. Kc5 f5 { loses to} 5. g5) 4. g5 (4. h5 {, then %05if} Kd6 5. g5 fxg5 6. fxg5 Ke6 {!} 7. g6 Kf6 {! with a draw -~3($41146)~}) 4... fxg5 (4... hxg5 {, then %05if} 5. fxg5 {!} (5. h5 {%05But} g4 6. Ke3 Kc5 7. h6 d4+ 8. Ke2 d3+ {leads only to a draw.}) 5... Kd6 6. g6 Ke6 7. h5 f5 8. h6 Kf6 9. g7 Kf7 10. Kxd5 {, winning.}) 5. fxg5 hxg5 6. h5 g4 7. Ke3 {!} (7. h6 g3 8. Ke3 d4+ 9. Kf3 d3 {leads to a simple draw}) 7... Kc5 {!} 8. Kf4 {!} d4 9. Kxg4 d3 10. Kf3 Kc4 11. h6 Kc3 ( 11... Kb3 {! instead of the incorrect 11... Kc3, Black can draw. Thus Schlechter was right! %05However, as was shown by readers of the magazine Shakhmaty v SSSR, by playing}) 12. h7 {, and White wins.}) 2... Kd6 3. h5 Ke6 { !} 4. Kc5 f5 5. g5 hxg5 6. h6 Kf7 {!} 7. fxg5 f4 {After an examination of position ~3 ( 626)~ it is easy to conclude that the general pawn formation ensures White a comparatively easy breakthrough, obtaining a more distant and hence more dangerous passed pawn; as for whether it is a win or a draw - this depends on various details of the position, and at times (as the given analysis shows) on a single tempo.} * [Event "Zandvoort (Netherlands)"] [Site "Zandvoort (Netherlands)"] [Date "1936.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Bogoljubow Efim D (UKR)"] [Black "Fine Reuben (USA)"] [Result "1/2-1/2"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "6k1/6pp/5p2/8/5P2/P7/2K4P/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "25"] [EventDate "1936.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ383 %212045826630=4HLJ385} 1... Kf7 {%05In the absence of blocked pawns, Black easily gains a draw:} 2. Kd3 Ke6 3. Ke4 g6 {!} 4. Kd4 (4. f5+ {?} Kd6 {!= leads immediately to a draw.}) (4. a4 Kd6 5. a5 Kc5 6. a6 Kb6 7. Kd5 {is also futile in view of} g5 {!} 8. f5 (8. fxg5 {occurred in the game}) 8... h5 9. Ke6 h4 {= , and the queens are obtained simultaneously.}) 4... Kd6 5. Kc4 h6 (5... Kc6 {= is also good}) 6. Kd4 Kc6 (6... g5 {?} 7. Ke4 {!$18}) 7. Ke4 Kb5 8. Kd5 g5 {!} 9. fxg5 fxg5 {!} 10. Ke5 Ka4 11. Kf5 Kxa3 12. Kg6 Kb4 13. Kxh6 g4 { != Draw (the black king goes to f8).} 1/2-1/2 [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1924.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Alekhine Alexander A (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1k3p1p/3P2p1/8/3K2P1/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] [EventDate "1924.??.??"] {The possession of a passed pawn is normally a decisive advantage only if the opponent has no chance of obtaining a passed pawn in turn.} 1. g5 {! (paralysing the enemy forces) %05In his comments to the game Marshall - Reti (New York, 1924), analysis by Alekhine leads to this position.} Kc6 2. Ke5 Kd7 3. Kd5 {!} (3. Kf6 {? %05of course, not} Kxd6 4. Kxf7 Ke5 {%04etc.}) 3... Kd8 4. Kc6 {, winning.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1938.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Moravec"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2pk4/2p5/8/2p4P/2P5/8/2K5 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "17"] [EventDate "1938.??.??"] 1. Kb2 {!} Ke6 2. Ka3 Kf5 3. Kb4 Kg4 4. Kc5 {!!} Kxh4 5. Kxc6 Kg5 6. Kxc7 Kf4 ( 6... Kf6 7. Kd6) 7. Kd6 Ke3 8. Kc5 Kd3 9. Kb4 {, and White wins.} * [Event "Hague (Netherlands)"] [Site "Hague (Netherlands)"] [Date "1910.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Van Trotsenburg"] [Black "Esser Johannes F (NED)"] [Result "0-1"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/p3pk2/6p1/1P2K1P1/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "19"] [EventDate "1910.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ383 %212045826630=4HLJ385} 1... Kf7 {! %05Things are made slightly difficult for Black here by the fact that he cannot play ... e5 immediately. The subsequent play takes account of the zugzwang position Kc5/Ke7.} (1... Ke7 {is a loss of time due to} 2. Ke5 Kf7 3. Kd4 Kf6 4. Kc5 Ke7 {!} 5. Kd4 (5. Kb6 {, then %05if} e5 6. Kxa6 e4 7. b5 e3 8. b6 e2 9. b7 e1=Q 10. b8=Q Qa1+ 11. Kb7 Qb2+ {, and after the exchange of queens Black promotes his g-pawn}) (5. Kc6 {%05while after} e5 6. Kd5 Kf6 7. Kc4 e4 8. Kd4 e3 {!} 9. Kxe3 Ke5 $19 {he again wins.})) 2. Kd4 Ke8 {!} 3. Ke4 Kd7 4. Kd4 {Here there are two ways to win:} Kc6 (4... Kd6 5. Ke4 e5 6. Kf5 Kd5 7. Kxg5 e4 8. Kf4 Kd4 9. g5 e3 10. g6 e2 11. g7 e1=Q 12. g8=Q Qf2+ $19 {, and with his next move Black wins the opponent's queen.}) 5. Ke5 Kb5 6. Kf6 Kxb4 7. Kxg5 a5 8. Kf4 Kc5 {!} 9. Ke5 (9. g5 {%05after} Kd6 { the king stops the g-pawn}) 9... a4 10. g5 a3 $19 {, and Black's pawn queens with check;} 0-1 [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1929.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Herbstman Alexander I (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/1p1p3p/3P4/4K3/8/4P2k/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] [EventDate "1929.??.??"] {In the following examples one of the sides decisively creates an outside passed pawn, which proves stronger than the opponent's (cf. also ~3( 626)~).} 1. Kf3 {! %05In making his breakthrough, White has to concern himself over shutting the enemy king out of play, and has also to take measures against the "wandering square" which arises.} b5 2. e4 b4 3. Ke2 {!} b3 4. Kd1 {!} Kg3 5. e5 dxe5 6. d6 e4 7. d7 e3 {(had the king gone to d2 on move 4, this move would have given check and would have led to a draw)} 8. d8=Q {, and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1942.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Smetana Jaroslav (CZE)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/4k1p1/6Pp/4K3/5P2/5P2/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] [EventDate "1942.??.??"] 1. f4 h4 2. f5+ {!} gxf5+ 3. Kf3 {!} Kf7 4. Kg2 Kg6 5. f4 {, and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1763.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Lolli"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/4k1pp/8/4KPPP/8/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "3"] [EventDate "1763.??.??"] {~17.2 ENDINGS WITHOUT PASSED PAWNS~ Endings without passed pawns are divided into three groups. In the first group all the pawns are on one wing, opposite one another. First we examine the struggle of connected pawns, then connected pawns against isolated (including doubled pawns), and finally, isolated pawns against isolated. In the second group the pawns are deployed separately on both wings. The remaining formations (with mixed or scattered pawns) are assigned to the third group. Within each group the material is arranged thematically, which in the majority of cases is directly related to the pawn formation. Endings with three pawns against two are given first, and then three against three - but, of course, only if as a result the overall thematic arrangement of the material is not disturbed. ~17.21 All pawns on one wing~} 1. g6 {! %05With White to move, the only way to win is by} (1. h6 {? %05A draw results from both} gxh6 2. gxh6 {~3($40299)~}) (1. f6+ {? %05, and} gxf6+ 2. gxf6+ Kf7 3. Kf5 Ke8 {! ~3($41299)~.}) 1... hxg6 {%05After 1. g6! Black is not saved either by} (1... h6 {%05or} 2. Kd5 (2. f6+ {? %05In the latter case, it is true, White cannot immediately play} gxf6+ 3. Kf5 Kf8 4. Kxf6 Kg8 {with a draw ~3 ($41146)~, but must first drive the king to h8,^013^010 %04e.g.}) 2... Kf8 (2... Kd7 3. f6) (2... Kf6 3. Ke4 (3. Kd6 {%05or more simply} Kxf5 4. Ke7)) 3. Kd6 Ke8 4. Ke6 Kf8 5. Kd7 Kg8 6. Ke7 Kh8 7. f6 gxf6 8. Kf7) 2. hxg6 $18 { ~3($40178)~} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/4k1pp/8/4KPPP/8/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "2"] 1... h6 {%05With Black to move:} (1... g6 2. hxg6 hxg6 3. f6+ $18 (3. fxg6 { ! %05or, even simpler} Ke8 4. Ke6 {!} Kf8 5. Kf6 {~3($4048)~.})) (1... Kf7 2. g6+ Kg8 {, and now White can play either} (2... hxg6 3. hxg6+ {-~3 ($40178)~}) 3. Ke6 (3. gxh7+ {%05or "a la Salvioli",} Kxh7 4. Ke6 Kh6 5. Kf7 Kh7 6. Kf8 Kh8 7. h6 $18 {~3($40335)~.}) 3... Kh8 4. Kf7 hxg6 (4... h6 5. f6) 5. h6 gxh6 6. fxg6 $18) 2. g6 $18 (2. gxh6 {%05or}) (2. f6+ {? due to %05only not Berger's} Kf7 {!}) * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1954.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Maizelis I"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/4k1pp/8/4KPPP/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "3"] [EventDate "1954.??.??"] {Surprisingly, this position is not analyzed in other books. Moving position ~3 ( 634)~ one or more ranks down the board is in general favourable to White, but certain special features appear.} 1. g5 {%05If it is White to move, he can win by} (1. f5+ {%05or}) (1. h5 {%05or}) 1... hxg5 2. hxg5 {!$18} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/4k1pp/8/4KPPP/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "2"] 1... h5 {can be met by %05With Black to move,} (1... Kf6 {either %05while after } 2. h5 {%04wins} (2. f5 {%05or}) (2. g5+ {%05but not ?})) 2. gxh5 $18 (2. g5 { %05or}) (2. f5+ {%05or}) * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1766.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Cozio"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/5kpp/8/5PPP/8/2K5 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] [EventDate "1766.??.??"] 1. Kd2 {%05The king was moved to c1 by Walker; the composer had it at c3.} h4 2. gxh4 {!} (2. g4+ {? %05Berger recommended} Kf4 3. Ke2 {, but then} Kg3 { leads to a draw; this variation is possible for White only in the position moved one rank up the board}) 2... gxh4 3. Ke3 $18 {%04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/5kpp/8/5PPP/8/2K5 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "3"] 1... h4 {! %05With Black to move,} 2. gxh4 (2. g4+ {? loses}) 2... gxh4 { gives a draw. If the position moved one rank up the board, Black would be unable to draw.} * [Event "Ch URS (1/2 final)"] [Site "?"] [Date "1938.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Ilyin-Zhenevsky Alexander F (R"] [Black "Abramian Suren (AZE)"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/1k6/8/5ppp/7P/4K1P1/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] [EventDate "1938.??.??"] 1... g3 {! would have won, e.g.} (1... f3+ {? an incomprehensible mistake, since even} 2. gxf3 (2. Kf2 gxh3 3. gxh3 {Drawn.}) 2... g3 {does not give Black a win}) 2. Kf3 Kc5 3. Kxf4 Kd4 4. Kg4 Ke3 $19 {%04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1954.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Maizelis I"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/7p/4k1p1/8/4KPPP/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "3"] [EventDate "1954.??.??"] {This is a drawn position (with White to move) which is not referred to elsewhere. If one supposes that the white pawn is at h2, and the black one at g7, then h2-h4? (h2-h3 is correct) would be a decisive mistake in view of ... g6!} 1. f5+ {%05With White to move:} (1. g5 Kd6 2. f5 (2. h5 {%05or} Ke6 { = ~3($41182)~}) (2. Kf3 {%05or} Ke6 3. Kg4 Ke7 {Draw.}) 2... gxf5+ 3. Kxf5 Ke7 {= ~3($41241)~}) (1. h5 gxh5 2. g5 h4 3. f5+ Kd6 4. g6 (4. Kf4 h3 {Draw.}) 4... hxg6 5. fxg6 Ke6 {=}) (1. Kd4 Kd6 2. Kc4 Kc6 3. Kc3 Kc7 {, and the white pawns cannot break through. ! =}) 1... gxf5+ 2. gxf5+ {Draw ~3($40299).~} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/7p/4k1p1/8/4KPPP/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "28"] 1... Kd6 {The win is rather complicated: %05With Black to move, after} 2. Kd4 ( 2. h5 {%05White does not achieve anything by}) (2. g5 {%05or}) (2. f5 {%05or} gxf5+ 3. Kxf5 Ke7 {~3($41252)~} 4. Kg5 Kf7 5. Kh6 Kg8 {Draw (the h-pawn does not stand at h3 or h2).}) 2... Ke6 3. Kc5 Ke7 (3... h5 4. gxh5 {!} gxh5 5. Kd4 Kf5 6. Ke3 Kg4 7. Ke4 Kxh4 8. Kf3 $18 {and wins}) 4. Kd5 Kf6 (4... Kd7 5. Ke5 Ke7 {, as in the main variation}) 5. Kd6 Kf7 (5... h5 {fails to draw due to} 6. g5+ {!} Kf5 7. Ke7 {%04etc.}) 6. Ke5 Ke7 7. g5 {!} Kf7 8. Kd6 {!} (8. h5 {?} Ke7 {- draw}) 8... Kf8 9. Ke6 Ke8 10. Kf6 Kf8 11. h5 gxh5 12. Ke5 h4 (12... Ke7 13. f5 {! etc., as in example ~3 ($40437)~}) 13. Ke4 Ke7 (13... Kf7 14. f5 {!}) 14. Kf3 {!} Ke6 15. Kg4 $18 {, and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "1K6/5k1p/6pP/8/5PP1/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] 1... Kf8 {! %05Black maintains the balance, by manoeuvring with his king on the corresponding squares:} (1... Ke6 {%05Active play by Black loses here due to the possibility of a breakthrough, e.g.} 2. Kc8 Kd5 3. f5 gxf5 4. g5 Ke6 5. g6 {, and the pawn cannot be stopped.}) 2. Kb7 Kf7 3. Kc6 Ke6 4. Kc5 Ke7 5. Kd5 Kf7 6. Kd6 (6. Ke5 {%05similarly, nothing is achieved by} Ke7 7. f5 gxf5 8. gxf5 Kf7 {%04etc.}) 6... Kf6 7. Kd7 Kf7 8. Kd8 Kf8 {=} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1908.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Keidanski"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1p6/pk6/8/P1P5/1K6/1P6/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] [EventDate "1908.??.??"] 1. Kc3 Ka5 (1... Kc5 2. b4+ Kc6 3. Kd4 b6 4. c5 $18) (1... a5 {%05or} 2. Kd4 Kc6 3. c5 Kd7 4. Kc4 Kc6 5. b3 b6 6. cxb6 Kxb6 7. Kd5 {, winning}) 2. b3 b6 3. Kd4 {!} Kb4 4. a5 {!} Kxa5 (4... bxa5 5. c5 $18) 5. Kc3 b5 6. c5 b4+ 7. Kd4 $18 {, and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1p6/pk6/8/P1P5/1K6/1P6/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] 1... a5 {! %05But if it is Black to move, he draws after} (1... Kc5 {?} 2. a5 { !}) 2. Kc3 Kc5 {!} 3. b3 b6 4. Kd3 Kb4 5. Kc2 Kc5 6. Kc3 Kc6 {!} (6... Kd6 {?} 7. Kd4 Kc6 8. c5 $18 {!}) 7. Kd4 Kd6 {=} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1925.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/pp6/k7/P1p5/1P6/K7 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] [EventDate "1925.??.??"] 1. Ka2 {!} b4 2. axb4 axb4 3. Ka1 {!} c2 (3... Kb3 4. Kb1) 4. b3+ Kb5 5. Kb2 Kc5 6. Kxc2 Kd4 7. Kd2 {Draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1841.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Walker George (ENG)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/5p1p/4k2P/6P1/5P2/5K2 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] [EventDate "1841.??.??"] 1. Ke2 {%05Contrary to the opinion of the composer, White wins only if it is him to move:} f4 2. f3+ Kf5 3. gxf4 Kxf4 4. Kf2 $18 {, and then as in position~3($40297)~.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/5p1p/4k2P/6P1/5P2/5K2 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "6"] 1... Kf3 {%05If Black begins, he can draw:} 2. Kg1 (2. Ke1 f4 3. gxf4 Kxf4 4. Ke2 Kg4) 2... f4 3. Kh2 fxg3+ 4. fxg3 {= ~3($40184)~.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/5kp1/7p/5P1K/5P2/7P/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "19"] 1. Kg3 {%05In spite of his doubled pawns, White can realize his advantage:} Kf5 2. h4 Kf6 3. Kf2 Ke6 4. Ke2 {!} Kf6 5. Kd3 {!} Kf5 6. Ke3 {Now Black has two possibilities, but neither saves the game:} Kf6 (6... Ke6 7. Ke4 Kf6 8. f5 {!} g5 (8... gxf5+ 9. Kd5 $18 (9. Kf4 $18 {%05or})) 9. hxg5+ Kxg5 10. Ke5 h4 11. f6 h3 12. f7 h2 13. f8=Q h1=Q 14. Qg7+ Kh5 15. Qh7+ $18) 7. Ke4 Ke6 8. f5+ {!} gxf5+ 9. Kd4 {!} Kd6 10. f4 $18 * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1898.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Neustadtl"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/3k1p1p/5P2/4K1PP/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "19"] [EventDate "1898.??.??"] {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/303I02I3/301I4/8/401D02D2/ 403D03D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kd4 {%05The composer's solution demonstrates a by-pass by the king with the aim of an attack on the opponent's pawn weaknesses:} (1. Kf3 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/ 303I02I3/301I4/8/401D02D2/403D03D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) %05However as was found by Zinar, White can win more simply - by a pawn breakthrough, %05after preparing it with a precise king manoeuvre.^013^010 %05 Let us consider the corresponding squares. The square corresponding to e4 is d6, to %05f4 - e7, and to e3 and f3 there is only one corresponding square, d7. This means that we %05have a classic case of "triangulation"! By manoeuvring between e3 and f3, White breaks %05the correspondence in his favour.^013^010 %05 And so:} Kd7 { %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/303I02I3/301I4/8/401D02D2/ 403D03D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (1... Ke5 {%05if} 2. Ke3 h5 {, then} 3. Kf3 {%04etc.}) 2. Ke3 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/303I02I3/ 301I4/8/401D02D2/403D03D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd6 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/303I02I3/301I4/8/401D02D2/403D03D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8)} (2... Ke7 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/ 303I02I3/301I4/8/401D02D2/403D03D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kf4 {%15N #B(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/303I02I3/301I4/8/401D02D2/403D03D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf7 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/ 303I02I3/301I4/8/401D02D2/403D03D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Ke4 {%15N #B(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/303I02I3/301I4/8/401D02D2/403D03D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/ 303I02I3/301I4/8/401D02D2/403D03D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kd5 Kd7 6. h5) 3. Ke4 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/303I02I3/301I4/8/ 401D02D2/403D03D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc6 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/303I02I3/301I4/8/401D02D2/403D03D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) } 4. Kf4 Kd6 5. g5 {, and White wins.}) 1... Kc6 2. Kc4 Kd6 3. Kb5 {!} Kd5 {!} (3... Ke5 {, then %05if} 4. Kc5 Kf4 (4... h5 {%05or} 5. gxh5 Kxf5 6. Kd5 { , winning}) 5. Kd5 Kxg4 6. Ke6 $18) 4. Kb6 Kd6 5. Kb7 {!} Kd7 6. h5 Kd6 7. Kc8 Ke5 8. Kd7 Kf4 9. Ke6 Kg5 10. Kf7 $18 {, and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1905.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Behting Carl"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/6p1/8/5p1P/5P2/6P1/8/5K1k w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] [EventDate "1905.??.??"] {The following study is another example on the breakthrough theme.} 1. Ke1 {!} (1. g4 {%05The immediate breakthrough does not succeed: after} fxg4 2. f5 g3 { the black pawn very quickly promotes.^013^010 This means that, by king manoeuvres, White must force the opponent's king to stand on the g-file, where it will hinder the advance of its own pawn, but which move is correct; 1. Ke2 or 1. Ke1? We will consider them in turn:}) (1. Ke2 Kg2 (1... Kh2 {is bad} 2. Kf2 Kh3 (2... Kh1 3. g4 fxg4 4. Kg3 $18) 3. Kf3 Kh2 4. g4 {, and win.}) 2. g4 fxg4 3. f5 g3 4. f6 (4. h6 {, then %05if} gxh6 5. f6 Kh1 {with a draw}) 4... gxf6 5. h6 f5 {!} 6. h7 f4 7. h8=Q f3+ 8. Ke3 f2 {, and it transpires that, thanks to the possibility of advancing his pawn with check, Black has attained a theoretically drawn position.^013^010 This means that it is correct to play the king to e1, not allowing Black this possibility.}) 1... Kg2 2. g4 fxg4 3. f5 g3 4. f6 gxf6 5. h6 f5 (5... Kf3 6. Kf1) 6. h7 f4 7. h8=Q f3 8. Qa8 { ! , and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1932.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Jelinek"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/7p/8/5p2/8/8/p1K2PPP/k7 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] [EventDate "1932.??.??"] 1. Kc1 {! %05Typical "tempo" play with three pawns against two - only the obtaining of a queen at h8 is any good for White:} f4 (1... h5 2. h4) (1... h6 2. h3) 2. Kc2 {!} f3 3. g4 h6 4. h3 h5 5. h4 {, and wins.} * [Event "Prague (Czech Republic)"] [Site "Prague (Czech Republic)"] [Date "1897.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Charousek Rezso (HUN)"] [Black "Kosterka"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/4k1p1/8/4KPp1/6P1/7P/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "31"] [EventDate "1897.??.??"] {This interesting position was saved from oblivion by Dedrle (1950). It was reached in a simultaneous display, and after unsuccessful attempts to win, Charousek agreed to a draw. But analysis by Josef and Johann Kvicala demonstrated the possibility of a win.} 1. Ke4 {! %05With the key squares being c6, d6 and e6, the main file is the d-file. If White's chances lay only in taking the opposition on the main file, he would be unable to achieve anything. He wins only by combining this threat with the appropriate preparation of h3-h4.} Ke8 {!} 2. Kf3 {! Now Black is in dilemma: after 2... Ke7 he loses the opposition, while if 2... Kf7 or 2... Kd7, White succeeds in playing h3-h4. For example:} Ke7 (2... Kf7 3. h4 {! (with the threat of 4. h5; with the king at e7 or d7 this does not work due to 3... gh 4. g5 Kd6 and 5... Ke5, but now the king does not have the e6 square)} gxh4 4. g5 Ke7 5. Kg4 Kd6 6. Kxh4 Ke5 7. Kg4 Kd6 8. Kf4 {and 9. g6 ~3 ($40178)~.}) (2... Kd7 {(the king is now so far away that White has time for a necessary preparatory move)} 3. Kg3 {!} Ke7 4. h4 gxh4+ 5. Kxh4 Kf6 {(otherwise 6. Kg5)} 6. Kh5 {and wins.}) 3. Ke3 Kd7 4. Kd3 Ke7 5. Kc4 Kd8 6. Kd4 Ke8 7. Kc5 Kd7 8. Kd5 Ke7 9. Kc6 (9. Ke5 { %05this is quicker than} Kf7 {-~3 ($41147)~}) 9... Kf6 10. Kd6 Kf7 11. Kd7 Kf8 12. Ke6 Ke8 13. f6 g6 14. f7+ Kf8 15. Kd6 {! ~3($40493)~} Kxf7 16. Kd7 { , winning. A valuable analysis!} * [Event "Stockholm (Sweden)"] [Site "Stockholm (Sweden)"] [Date "1948.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Najdorf Miguel (POL)"] [Black "Kotov Alexander A (RUS)"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/4k2p/6p1/4K1P1/8/8/5P1P/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "19"] [EventDate "1948.??.??"] 1. h4 Kf7 {Here the simplest win is by} 2. Kd6 (2. f4 {%05but also possible is} Ke7 3. h5 gxh5 4. f5 Kd7 (4... h4 5. Kf4) 5. Kf4 Kd6 6. Kg3 Ke5 7. f6 Ke6 8. Kh4 h6 9. Kxh5 hxg5 10. Kg6 $18) 2... Kf8 3. Ke6 Ke8 4. Kf6 Kf8 5. f4 Kg8 6. Ke7 Kg7 7. h5 {!} gxh5 8. f5 h4 9. f6+ Kg6 10. f7 $18 {Najdorf failed to find the win, and the game ended in a draw!} * [Event "London (England)"] [Site "London (England)"] [Date "1899.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Pillsbury Harry N (USA)"] [Black "Mason James (ENG)"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "5k2/6p1/4K1p1/6P1/6PP/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "4"] [EventDate "1899.??.??"] 1. h5 gxh5 (1... Kg8 {A mistake.} 2. Ke7 Kh8 3. Kf8 Kh7 4. Kf7 gxh5 5. gxh5 Kh8 6. Kg6 {!} (6. h6 Kh7 {!}) 6... Kg8 7. h6 {, and White won.}) 2. gxh5 Ke8 { ! would have led to a draw.} * [Event "Moscow (Russia)"] [Site "Moscow (Russia)"] [Date "1977.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Vaganian Rafael A (ARM)"] [Black "Tal Mikhail N (LAT)"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/7p/4k1p1/8/5P2/5K1P/5P2/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] [EventDate "1977.??.??"] 1. Kg4 {! %05Correct was} (1. Ke4 {%05The game went:} Kf6 2. h4 Ke6 3. f5+ gxf5+ 4. Kd4 Kd6 5. h5 Ke6 6. f4 Kd6 7. h6 {In this way White succeeds in wining a pawn, but ... after} Ke6 8. Kc5 Ke7 {!} 9. Kd5 Kd7 {the players agreed a draw, since the extra pawn does not lead to a win.^013^010 But a reader of the magazine Shakhmaty v SSSR showed that White failed to win, only due to his incorrect plan. He should not have taken the opposition (that opposition again!), but threatened a by-pass.}) 1... Kf6 2. h4 h6 (2... Ke6 { %05If instead} 3. Kg5 Kf7 {, then} 4. f5 gxf5 5. Kxf5 Ke7 6. f4 Kf7 7. Ke5 Ke7 8. h5 {! , and White wins ~3 ($40304)~.}) 3. f3 {!} h5+ (3... Ke6 4. f5+ {!} gxf5+ 5. Kh5 $18) 4. Kh3 {!$18 , and then as in example ~3($40648)~.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1938.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Halumbirek Josef (AUT)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/6k1/7p/7p/5p2/5P2/7P/5K2 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "41"] [EventDate "1938.??.??"] 1. Ke2 {%05Black loses due to the weakness of his f-pawn:} Kf6 2. Kd3 Ke5 (2... Kg5 3. Ke4 Kh4 4. Kxf4 Kh3 5. Ke3 {!} Kxh2 6. f4 {, with a win in the queen ending}) 3. Kc4 h4 {! (threatening after ... h3 to create a stalemate shelter at h4)} 4. h3 {!} Ke6 5. Kd4 Kf5 6. Kd5 Kg5 7. Ke5 Kg6 8. Kxf4 Kf6 9. Ke4 {!} ( 9. Kg4 {?} Ke5) 9... Ke6 10. f4 Kf6 11. f5 Kf7 12. Ke5 Ke7 13. f6+ Ke8 {!} 14. Ke4 Kf8 15. Kf4 Ke8 16. Ke5 {!} (16. Kg4 {%05but not} Kf8 17. Kxh4 {?} Kf7) 16... Kf7 17. Kf5 h5 18. Kg5 Kf8 19. Kxh5 Kf7 20. Kg5 Kf8 21. Kxh4 {, and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1913.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Sackmann"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/6p1/4K3/6k1/6P1/6pP/6P1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "16"] [EventDate "1913.??.??"] 1. Ke5 {!} (1. Kf7 {?} g6 {!} 2. Kg7 Kh4 {! - draw}) 1... Kh4 {!} 2. g5 {!} Kxg5 3. Ke4 Kh5 {!} 4. Kf3 {!} (4. Kf4 Kh4 5. Kf3 g5 {- draw}) 4... Kg5 { ! ~5 (RR) This move refutes the study.} (4... g6 5. Kxg3 g5 6. Kf2 {!} Kh4 7. Kf3 Kh5 8. Kg3 $18 {%04etc.}) (4... Kh4 5. Kf4 g6 6. Ke3 Kg5 7. Kf3 Kh4 8. Kf4 g5+ 9. Kf3 $18 {, winning.}) 5. Kxg3 Kh5 {!} 6. Kf3 Kh4 7. Kf4 g6 {!} 8. Kf3 g5 {=} * [Event "Ostend (Belgium)"] [Site "Ostend (Belgium)"] [Date "1905.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Chigorin Mikhail I (RUS)"] [Black "Tarrasch Siegbert (GER)"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/6pp/5p2/3k1PP1/5K1P/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "6"] [EventDate "1905.??.??"] 1. Kg4 {! %05Instead of 1. gf?, Maroczy showed that White could have drawn by} (1. gxf6 {? evidently hoping for %05White played} gxf6 2. Kg4 Ke4 3. Kh5 Kxf5 4. Kh6 Kg4 (4... Ke6 {! %05Some commentators stated that instead of 4... Kg4 the only correct continuation was} 5. Kxh7 f5 {with a win in the queen ending, but 4... Kg4! 5. Kh7 is in fact the simplest, and now not 5... f5?, but 5... Kh5!, winning.}) 5. Kxh7 f5 (5... Kh5 {!}) 6. Kg6 {with a draw, but on noticing a mistake in this variation, he resigned two moves later.}) 1... Ke4 2. g6 {!} h6 3. Kh5 {!} Kxf5 {- stalemate.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Neustadtl"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2p5/3k4/1p1p1K2/8/1P1P4/2P5/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] 1. b4 {! (fixing the "hole" at c5)} c5 (1... c6 {a by-pass and the reserve tempo prove decisive: %05after} 2. d4 Kd7 3. Kf6 Kd6 4. Kf7 {!} Kd7 5. c3 { %04etc.}) 2. d4 {!} cxd4 3. Kf6 {, winning.} * [Event "London (England)"] [Site "London (England)"] [Date "1947.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Kottnauer Cenek (ENG)"] [Black "Thomas George A (ENG)"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5ppp/8/8/8/5kPP/5P2/4K3 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "18"] [EventDate "1947.??.??"] 1... g5 {!} 2. Kf1 h5 3. Kg1 f6 {Excessively slow.} (3... h4 {did not work immediately due to %05Since} 4. g4) (3... f5 {! , and now either %05the logical move was} 4. h4 (4. Kf1 {%05or} h4 5. gxh4 gxh4 $19 {%04etc.}) 4... gxh4 5. gxh4 Ke2 {!} 6. Kg2 f4 7. Kg1 f3 $19) 4. Kf1 f5 5. h4 gxh4 6. gxh4 Kg4 {! (the previous winning method is no longer possible)} 7. Kg2 Kxh4 8. Kf3 Kg5 {?} (8... Kh3 {!} 9. Kf4 Kg2 $19 {would still have won}) 9. Kg3 f4+ 10. Kh3 { = Drawn. The defensive resources in such positions are shown by the following two examples.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1983.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Averbakh Yuri L (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/5p1p/6p1/6P1/k4P1P/2K5/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "17"] [EventDate "1983.??.??"] 1... Kb4 {%05Things seem to be bad for Black: the opponent's king will break into his position and win a pawn. But after} 2. Kd3 Kc5 3. Ke4 Kd6 4. Kf5 Ke7 5. Kg6 Ke6 6. Kxh6 {the clever} Kd6 {! enables Black to maintain control of the key squares f5, f7 and f8. For example:} 7. Kh5 (7. Kh7 {%05or} Kd7 {!} 8. Kh8 Kd8 {!} 9. Kg8 Ke8 {!} 10. Kg7 Ke7 11. Kg6 Ke6 {=}) 7... Ke5 {!} 8. h4 gxh4 9. Kxh4 Kf4 {= Black's system of defence is very simple - maintaining the distant and close opposition.} * [Event "Hamburg (Germany)"] [Site "Hamburg (Germany)"] [Date "1965.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Honfi Karoly (HUN)"] [Black "Troeger Paul (GER)"] [Result "0-1"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5ppp/8/8/7P/3k2P1/5P2/4K3 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "35"] [EventDate "1965.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ383 %212045826630=4HLJ387 %212045826630=4HLJ389} 1... h5 2. Kf1 f5 3. Kg1 (3. Ke1 { , then %05if} f4 4. Kf1 f3 5. Ke1 Kc2 $19 {%04etc.}) 3... Ke2 4. Kg2 g6 5. g4 { ! The last chance!} (5. Kg1 {%05After the passive} Kf3 6. Kf1 f4 $19 {Black wins without any difficulty.}) 5... hxg4 {! %05Correct was} (5... fxg4 { ? A mistake, after which Black has no chance of winning.} 6. Kg3 Ke1 (6... Kd3 {there follows %05On} 7. f3 {with a draw}) 7. Kg2 (7. f3 {loses to %05whereas now} gxf3 8. Kxf3 Kf1) 7... Kd2 8. Kg3 Kc2 9. Kf4 Kd2 10. Kg3 {= with a draw , (Honfi - Troeger, Hamburg 1965)}) 6. Kg3 Kd3 {!} (6... Kf1 7. f3 {!} gxf3 8. Kxf3 {= with a draw}) 7. Kf4 (7. f3 Ke3 {!} 8. fxg4 f4+ $19) 7... Kd4 {! , and Black wins, e.g.} 8. Kg5 (8. Kg3 Ke4 $19) (8. f3 g3 {!} 9. Kxg3 Ke3 $19) 8... Ke4 {!} 9. Kxg6 f4 10. h5 g3 11. fxg3 fxg3 12. h6 g2 13. h7 g1=Q+ 14. Kf7 Qd4 15. Kg8 Qd8+ 16. Kg7 Qe7+ 17. Kg8 Kf5 {!} 18. h8=Q Kg6 $19 {, winning.} 0-1 [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1929.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Mattison Herman (LAT)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/6p1/6pp/8/k4P2/6K1/6PP/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] [EventDate "1929.??.??"] 1. f5 {! %05Correct is} (1. Kf3 {? %05 It can be assumed that the black king has had to eliminate a pawn at a4. Nevertheless, if the opponent delays Black will be able to bring his king back, seriously hindering the white king. White fails to win, for example, after} Kb5 2. Ke4 Kc6) (1. Kg4 {? %05or} Kb5 2. h4 Kc5 3. h5 gxh5+ {!} 4. Kxh5 Kd5 5. Kg6 Ke4 6. g3 h5 {!!} 7. Kxg7 (7. Kxh5 Kf5 8. Kh4 g6 9. Kh3 g5 {=}) 7... Kf5 8. Kh6 Kg4 9. f5 h4 {!} 10. gxh4 Kxf5 {=}) 1... Kb5 2. Kf4 Kc6 3. Ke5 Kd7 4. f6 Ke8 5. fxg7 (5. Ke6 Kf8 6. g3 {is also possible - Pospisil, 1956} (6. h3 {%05or})) 5... Kf7 6. g8=Q+ Kxg8 7. Kf6 { , winning ~3($40463)~.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "7k/8/6p1/5p1p/8/5PP1/6KP/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] 1. Kh3 {! %05Correct is} (1. f4 {? %05White rapidly approaches g5 with his king, keeping all three pawn tempi in reserve. There is no other way to win, e. g.} Kg7 2. Kf3 h4 {!} 3. gxh4 Kh6 {! , and against the attempt at a by-pass Black replies by eliminating the h4 and f4 pawns;}) (1. Kf2 {?} Kg7 2. Ke3 Kf6 {now White gains no advantage by} 3. Kf4 (3. f4 {%05or} g5 {!} 4. Kd4 (4. h4 { %05or} gxh4 {!} 5. gxh4 Ke6) 4... h4 {!}) (3. Kd4 Kg5 {!} (3... Ke6 {? %05not} 4. f4 {with a by-pass thanks to the reserve tempi}) (3... g5 {? %05or} 4. Kd5) 4. h4+ (4. Ke5 h4 {!}) 4... Kf6 5. f4 (5. Kd5 {?} f4) 5... Ke6 6. Kc5 Ke7 { ! , and Black maintains the opposition.}) 3... g5+ 4. Ke3 Ke5) 1... Kg7 (1... g5 {achieves nothing due to} 2. f4 {!} gxf4 3. gxf4 Kg7 {, and now "a la Bondarevsky"} 4. Kh4 {!} Kg6 (4... Kh6 {White wins by %05It should be noted that after} 5. Kg3 Kg6 (5... h4+ 6. Kxh4 {-~3 ($40320)~}) 6. Kf3 h4 7. Ke3 { ! , and if} Kh5 (7... h3 {%05or} 8. Kf3 {! %04etc.}) 8. h3 {!}) 5. h3 Kh6 6. Kg3 h4+ (6... Kg6 {%05or}) 7. Kf3 {! , winning.}) 2. Kh4 {!} Kf6 (2... f4 { , then not %05if} 3. g4 {?} (3. gxf4 {followed by the transfer of the king to e4 - ~3($40648)~ %05but}) 3... Kh6) 3. f4 Kf7 {(now White exploits his remaining pawn tempi)} 4. Kg5 Kg7 5. h3 {!} Kf7 6. Kh6 Kf6 7. h4 {, and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "2k5/8/6p1/5p1p/8/6PP/5P2/3K4 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] 1. Ke2 {%05The solution is similar:} Kd7 2. Kf3 (2. Ke3 {?} g5 {!} 3. h4 f4+ 4. gxf4 gxh4) 2... Ke6 (2... g5 3. h4) 3. Kf4 Kf6 4. h4 $18 {%04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "4k3/8/6p1/5p1p/5P2/6P1/7P/6K1 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "25"] 1. Kf2 {%05Here White has only two reserve tempi, so that the %05advance of the king to h4 is doomed to failure. But on %05the other hand, with the black pawns blocked there is a %05possibility of a by-pass and the seizure of the opposition %05on the main rank (the 7th, since the key points are g6, %05g7 and g8).} Kf7 2. Ke3 Ke6 (2... Kf6 3. Kd4 g5 4. h4 {! -~3($40659)~}) 3. Kd4 Kd6 4. h3 {!} Ke6 5. Kc5 Ke7 6. Kc6 {!} (6. Kd5 {%05Only a draws results from} Kd7 7. Ke5 Ke7 8. h4 Kf7 9. Kd6 (9. Kd5 {%05or} Ke7) 9... Kf6 {= The last tempo is needed for seizing the opposition on the main rank.}) 6... Ke6 7. h4 {!} Ke7 8. Kc7 {!} Ke6 (8... Ke8 9. Kd6) 9. Kd8 {, and now a possible conclusion is} Kd5 ( 9... Kf7 {%05or} 10. Kd7 Kf8 11. Ke6 Kg7 12. Ke7 Kg8 13. Kf6 Kh7 14. Kf7 Kh6 15. Kg8 {, winning.}) 10. Ke7 Ke4 11. Kf6 Kf3 12. Kxg6 Kxg3 (12... Kg4 13. Kf6) 13. Kg5 $18 {!} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1938.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "k7/8/1p6/p1p5/2P4K/8/PP6/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1938.??.??"] 1. a4 {%05Grigoriev died on 10th October 1938, and this study was printed in the October 1938 issue of the magazine Shakhmaty v SSSR. Its solution was only published after the composer's death, in 1939. The published solution was as follows:} Kb7 {~5 (?) ~} (1... Kb8 {!! %05~5 (RR) Surprisingly, Black saves the game by the %05~5paradoxical~} 2. Kh5 Kb7 (2... Kc7 3. Kg6 Kd6 (3... Kc6 4. Kf7 Kd6) 4. Kf5 Kd7 5. Kf6 Kd6 6. b3 Kd7 7. Kf7 $18) 3. Kg5 (3. Kg6 Kc7) (3. Kh6 Kc8 (3... Kc7 4. Kg7) (3... Kc6 4. Kg7 (4. Kg6 Kd6 5. Kf5 Kd7 {=}) 4... Kd6 5. Kf6 Kd7 6. Kf7 Kd6 {=}) 4. Kg7 Kc7 {=}) 3... Kc6 4. Kf5 Kd6 {=}) 2. Kg5 { %05^013^010} (2. Kh5 {!! , e.g. %05And even so, White can win. The correct continuation is} Kc6 (2... Kc7 {%05if} 3. Kg6) (2... Kc8 {%05or} 3. Kg5) 3. Kg5 {!} Kc7 4. Kg6 Kc6 5. b3 {!} Kc7 6. Kg7 Kc6 7. Kf8 Kd7 8. Kf7 Kd6 9. Ke8 $18 { etc. Thus this Grigoriev gem continues to live! ~5((RR) starting from White's second move)~}) 2... Kc7 3. Kf6 Kd6 (3... Kd7 {! %05However, this solution is incorrect: instead of the erroneous 3... Kd6?, Black maintains the balance by} 4. Kf7 Kd6 {= , when there is no way for White to exploit his spare tempo.}) 4. b3 {!} Kd7 5. Kf7 Kd6 6. Ke8 {!$18 , winning as in example ~3 ($40666)~. ^013^010 ^013^010 ^013^010} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/5Kpk/5p2/5P1p/7P/6P1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] 1. Ke7 {%05White wrests the opposition, thanks to the enemy king's lack of manoeuvrability on the edge of the board.} Kg7 2. Ke6 Kh7 3. Kf7 Kh6 4. Kg8 g5 5. Kf7 gxf4 6. Kf6 {and wins (cf. also ~3($40697)~.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/7p/6p1/5p2/1k3P1P/6P1/8/5K2 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] {This position was reached in a consultation game between the Riga Chess Society and a Polytechnical School (Riga, 1892). Here we have the same pawn formation as in example ~3( 666)~, but the placing of the kings is more favourable for the weaker side, which in this case is White. White lost after 1.Ke2?} 1. Kg2 {! , e.g. %05But it was shown by Behting that White could have drawn by} (1. h5 {? is also insufficient due to} gxh5 2. Kg2 h4 {!$19}) 1... Kc4 (1... h5 {in view of %05It should be added that after 1. Kg2! it is hopeless to play} 2. Kf2 {! , when White has the opposition.}) 2. h5 {!} gxh5 3. Kh3 Kd4 4. Kh4 Ke4 5. Kxh5 Kf3 6. Kg5 (6. Kh4 Ke4 7. Kg5 Kf3 {=}) 6... Kxg3 7. Kxf5 {= ^013^010} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1933.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "2k2K2/8/pp6/2p5/2P5/PP6/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "35"] [EventDate "1933.??.??"] 1. a4 {! %05Therefore:} (1. Ke8 {does not achieve anything, since Black is not forced to continue %05An instructive position. In spite of the symmetric arrangement of the pawns, taking the opposition by} a5 {?} (1... Kc7 {%05After} 2. Ke7 {he has the tactical resource} (2. a4 {: all the same Black plays %05The move ... b5 cannot be prevented by} b5 3. a5 (3. Ke7 Kb6 4. Kd6 b4) 3... bxc4 4. bxc4 Kd6) 2... b5 {! , creating the possibility of a stalemate ~3 ($41658)~. For example:} 3. Ke6 b4 4. a4 (4. axb4 {%05if instead} cxb4 5. Kd5 { , Black draws by} a5 {!} 6. Kc5 a4 {=}) 4... Kb6 {%04etc.}) 2. a4) 1... Kd7 ( 1... b5 {would merely weaken irrevocably the c-pawn %05Now} 2. a5 Kd7 3. Kf7) 2. a5 {! is forced, but at the same time it is the basic solution. %05Now} (2. Kf7 {?} a5 {!}) 2... Kd6 {!} (2... b5 {there follows %05On} 3. Kf7) (2... bxa5 {%05or}) (2... Ke6 {, then %05while if} 3. axb6 {and 4. b7, as in the main variation.}) 3. Kf7 (3. axb6 {%05Now} Kc6 4. Ke7 Kxb6 5. Kd6 {is premature due to} Ka5 {! (again stalemate).}) 3... Kd7 (3... Ke5 {%05Or} 4. axb6) (3... bxa5 {is also hopeless due to %05while} 4. Kf6 Kc6 (4... a4 5. bxa4 a5 6. Kf5) 5. Ke6 Kb6 6. Kd6 a4 7. bxa4 Ka5 8. Kxc5 {, and White queens first.}) 4. Kf6 Kd6 5. Kf5 Kc7 {Relatively best.} (5... Ke7 {, then %05If} 6. axb6 {!} Kd6 7. b7 {! } Kc7 8. Ke6 Kxb7 9. Kd7 {, as in the main variation}) (5... Kd7 {%05or} 6. Ke5 Kc6 7. Ke6 b5 (7... Kc7 8. Kd5 Kb7 9. Kd6) 8. Ke5 Kc7 9. Kd5 bxc4 10. bxc4 { and 11. Kc5 ~3 ($40298)~.}) 6. Ke6 {!} (6. Ke5 {is a loss of a time in view of} Kd7) 6... Kc6 7. Ke7 Kc7 8. Ke8 {!} Kc8 (8... Kc6 {, then %05If} 9. Kd8 {!} bxa5 10. Ke7 {!} Kc7 11. Ke6 Kc6 12. Ke5 Kc7 13. Kd5 Kb6 14. Kd6 Kb7 15. Kxc5 Kc7 16. Kd5 Kd7 17. c5 Kc7 18. c6 {and wins ~3 ($40301)~.}) (8... Kd6 9. axb6 { !}) 9. axb6 {!} Kb7 10. Kd7 Kxb6 (10... a5 11. Kd6 Kxb6 12. Kd5) 11. Kc8 { ! The decisive zugzwang! With White to move there is no win, e.g. Kb8 a5! or Kd7 Ka5.} Kc6 (11... Ka5 12. Kb7 Kb4 13. Kxa6 {%04etc.}) 12. Kb8 {! , and White wins:} Kb6 13. Ka8 a5 14. Kb8 a4 15. bxa4 Ka5 16. Kb7 Kxa4 17. Kc6 Kb4 18. Kd5 $18 * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1933.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "k7/8/pp6/2p4K/8/PPP5/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] [EventDate "1933.??.??"] {Here the a3, c3 pawns could also be at a2, c2. It is in White's interests to block the enemy pawns since his king can easily gain the opposition on the 7th rank (the black king is hindered by its own pawn at b6). He must also prevent . .. c4, which could lead to a draw.} 1. c4 {!} Kb7 {Black threatens to create a stalemate shelter at a5 by ... b5-b4.} 2. a4 {!} (2. Kg5 {%05In addition, in reply, say, to} a5 {is also possible with the threat of ... a4, when if} 3. a4 Kc7 {!= , and Black has the opposition ~3($41669).~}) 2... Kc6 (2... b5 { %05The black pawns are paralysed: after} 3. a5 {the c5 pawn is lost}) (2... a5 {%05while} 3. Kh6 {!$18 gains White the opposition, since the opponent does not have 3... Kb6.}) (2... Kc7 {! %05~5 (RR) The study is refuted by~} 3. Kg5 ( 3. Kg6 Kc6 {=}) 3... a5 {= , and Black has the opposition ~3($41669)~.}) 3. Kg5 {!} (3. Kg6 {? %05of course, not} a5 {= - draw}) 3... Kc7 (3... Kd6 {%05No better is} 4. Kf5 {!}) (3... Kd7 {%05or} 4. Kf6 {!} (4. a5 {? in view of %05but not} Ke6 {!} 5. Kf4 bxa5 6. Ke4 a4 7. bxa4 a5 {with a draw.}) 4... Kd6 5. a5 {! ~3($40670)~}) 4. Kf6 {!} (4. Kf5 {? %05Not} a5 {! with a draw, since White can no longer gain the opposition on the 7th rank.}) 4... Kd7 {(with the threat of meeting 5. Ke5 with 5... a5, drawing)} 5. a5 $40 {!$18 , and White has achieved a winning position, as in the^013^010 example ~3 ($40670)~ after White's 4th move.^013^010 ^013^010 Both these examples (~3( 670)~ and ~3 ( 671) ~ ) illustrate how the black pawns are weakened by the pawn being at a6 instead of a7.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/7p/3k2p1/5p2/3K1P2/7P/6P1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] 1. h4 {Black defended badly: %05This position was reached in a practical game (East Germany, 1949). After} Ke6 (1... h6 {%05The commentator on the game regarded 1... Ke6 as the decisive mistake, and recommended} 2. g3 (2. h5 {%05or } gxh5 3. g3 h4 4. gxh4 h5) 2... h5 {= Of course this would have given a simple draw}) (1... h5 {, e.g. %05as would incidentally,} 2. g3 Ke6 3. Kc5 Ke7 {=} (3... Kd7 {= %05or})) 2. Kc5 h6 (2... Ke7 {in their diagonal formation the black pawns are invulnerable, and g2-g3 can be answered (in opposition positions) by ... h5. Black could also have drawn by %05But 1... Ke6 does not yet lose! The decisive mistake was 2... h6. The simplest reply to it is 3. h5, but even after 3. g3 Black has no defence (any king move is answered by 4. h5) Instead of 2... h6?, Black could have drawn by} 3. h5 {= ~3($40673)~.}) 3. g3 h5 4. Kc6 $18 {and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1955.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Maizelis I"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/4k1p1/2K2p1p/5P1P/8/6P1/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "2"] [EventDate "1955.??.??"] 1... Ke7 {%05After} (1... Kd7 {%05or} 2. Kd5 $18 {%04etc.}) 2. Kc6 $18 { the reserve tempo 3. g3 proves decisive.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/4k1p1/2K2p1p/5P1P/8/6P1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "17"] 1. Kc6 {%05But if it is White to move, the position is drawn, e.g.} Ke7 2. Kc7 Ke6 3. Kd8 Kd5 4. Ke7 {(a by-pass is futile - the f4 pawn is not defended!)} Ke4 5. Kf6 {!} (5. g3 {? loses}) 5... Kxf4 6. Kxg6 Kg4 7. g3 Kxg3 8. Kxf5 Kxh4 9. Kf4 {Draw.} * [Event "Riga (Latvia)"] [Site "Riga (Latvia)"] [Date "1970.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Averbakh Yuri L (RUS)"] [Black "Karpov Anatoly (RUS)"] [Result "1/2-1/2"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/4k1pp/4p3/4K3/8/6P1/5P1P/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "26"] [EventDate "1970.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ383 %212045826630=4HLJ387 %212045826630=4HLJ389} 1. h3 {%05White's significant positional advantage proves insufficient for a win:} Kd7 2. h4 Ke7 3. f3 Kd7 4. Kf4 {! (White's plan is to place his king at g5 and play h5-h6)} Ke7 5. Kg5 Kf7 (5... Kd6 {%05It is dangerous to play} 6. h5 Ke5 7. h6 g6 (7... gxh6+ 8. Kxh6 Kd4 9. Kxh7 Ke3 10. g4 Kf4 11. Kh6 e5 12. g5 Kxf3 13. g6 $18 {, winning}) 8. f4+ Ke4 9. Kf6 Kf3 10. Kg7 Kxg3 11. Kxh7 $18 {, and White wins.}) 6. g4 Ke7 7. h5 Kf7 (7... h6+ {?! %05Just how safe is Black's position is shown by the variation} 8. Kg6 Kf8 9. Kh7 Kf7 10. f4 Kf6 {!} (10... Kf8 {?} 11. g5 hxg5 12. fxg5 e5 13. h6 gxh6 14. g6 $18 {, winning}) 11. Kg8 g5 12. hxg6 Kxg6 13. Kf8 h5 {= , with a draw.}) 8. h6 g6 (8... gxh6+ {? %05not} 9. Kxh6 Kg8 10. g5 Kh8 11. g6 $18) 9. Kf4 Kf6 10. g5+ Kf7 11. Ke5 Ke7 12. f4 Kf7 13. Kd6 Kf8 {= Drawn.} 1/2-1/2 [Event "Moscow (Russia)"] [Site "Moscow (Russia)"] [Date "1974.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Averbakh Yuri L (RUS)"] [Black "Kogan Izrail"] [Result "1-0"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "2k5/8/1K3p2/5p1p/5P1P/6P1/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "10"] [EventDate "1974.??.??"] {Doubled pawns are normally a serious weakening, but to disclose this, other factors favouring the stronger side are necessary. %212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ383 %212045826630=4HLJ387 %212045826630=4HLJ389} 1... Kd7 {%05Here White succeeded in carrying out a by-pass with his king:} 2. Kb7 {!} Kd6 3. Kc8 {!} Kd5 4. Kd7 Ke4 5. Ke6 Kf3 6. Kxf6 $18 {, and White won. It is readily apparent that, if the f6 pawn had been at g6, White's manoeuvre would not have been successful.} 1-0 [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1967.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Goldenov Boris"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5p1p/8/1k5p/4P2P/4K1P1/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "17"] [EventDate "1967.??.??"] 1. Kf4 (1. Kd4 {is also possible, followed by 2. Ke5 and 3. Kf6}) 1... Kc4 2. Kf5 {%05 Correct is the second path, a highly instructive one, where Black does not gain any counter-chances:} (2. Kg5 {%05 Here White can quickly attack the opponent's pawns, but for which pawn should he head with his king - h5 or f7? Let us first consider the first path:} Kd4 3. Kxh5 Kxe4 4. Kg5 {!} Kf3 5. g4 Ke4 {!} (5... Kg3 {%05This is stronger than} 6. h5 h6+ (6... Kf3 7. Kf5) 7. Kf5 Kh4 8. Kf4 f6 9. Kf5 Kg3 10. Kxf6 Kxg4 11. Kg6 {, when White wins.}) 6. h5 (6. Kf6 {%05Instead of 6. h5 White should play} Kf4 7. h5 Kxg4 8. h6 Kf4 9. Kg7 {, but then position 234 is reached, where Black is able to draw.} (9. Kxf7 Kf5 10. Kg7 Ke6 {with a draw})) 6... Ke5 7. Kh6 f5 {! An unexpected chance. The only possibility of playing for a win is} 8. g5 (8. gxf5 {, then %05If now} Kxf5 9. Kxh7 Kf6 {! with a draw.}) 8... f4 9. Kxh7 f3 10. g6 f2 11. g7 f1=Q 12. g8=Q {, leading to a queen ending with chances for White, but the result of it is far from clear.}) 2... Kd4 3. e5 Kd5 4. Kf6 Ke4 5. Kxf7 Kxe5 {It is very important that the black king is at e5 (and not e4), and is not able to attack White's pawns immediately.} 6. Kg7 Kf5 7. Kxh7 Kg4 8. Kg6 Kxg3 9. Kxh5 { , and White wins.} * [Event "Moscow (Russia)"] [Site "Moscow (Russia)"] [Date "1935.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Flohr Salomon M (CZE)"] [Black "Capablanca Jose Raul (CUB)"] [Result "1/2-1/2"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/4kp2/5p1p/8/3KP1P1/7P/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "12"] [EventDate "1935.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ383 %212045826630=4HLJ387 %212045826630=4HLJ389} 1... Ke5 {%05Here White is aiming to transfer his king to f4; a defensive resource available to Black is ... h4, devaluing the white pawns. The decisive zugzwang position is Ke2/Ke4.} (1... Kd5 {? would have lost to %05Grigoriev (1935) showed that} 2. Kd2 {!} Ke5 (2... h4 3. gxh4 f4 4. exf4 Ke4 5. h5 $18) (2... Ke4 3. Ke2 {!} h4 (3... Kd5 {%05or} 4. Kf3 Ke5 5. h3 {!} Kd5 6. Kf4 Ke6 7. h4 $18 {, winning}) 4. gxh4 f4 5. h5 Kf5 6. exf4 $18) 3. Ke1 {!} Kd5 4. Kf2 {!} Ke4 5. Ke2 $18 {, and White wins.}) ( 1... Kf7 {was also possible, e.g. %05Grigoriev also emphasized that, apart from 1... Ke5,} 2. Ke2 Kg6 3. Kf3 (3. Kf2 Kh6 {=}) 3... Kg5 4. h3 h4 {!} 5. gxh4+ Kxh4 6. Kf4 (6. Kg2 f4 7. exf4 f5 {= - draw}) 6... Kxh3 7. Kxf5 Kg3 { = Draw.}) 2. Ke2 (2. Kd2 {Capablanca would have continued %05in the event of} h4 {!} 3. gxh4 f4 {!} 4. h5 fxe3+ {!= with a draw}) 2... Ke4 {!} 3. h3 (3. Kf2 h4 {!=}) 3... Kd5 (3... f4 {! was also possible, e.g.} 4. exf4 (4. gxf4 {%05or} h4 5. Kf2 (5. Kd2 {, then %05if} Kf3 6. Kd3 Kg3 7. Ke2 Kxh3 8. Kf3 f5 {= , with a draw}) 5... Kd3 6. Kf3 f5 {!} 7. Kf2 Kd2 {= , with a draw.}) 4... h4 {!} 5. Kf2 f5 6. Kg2 Ke3 7. Kh2 Kf3 8. gxh4 Kxf4 {=}) 4. Kf3 Ke5 {(after this White is forced to use up his last tempo)} 5. h4 Kd5 6. Kf4 Ke6 {= Drawn.} 7. Z0 (7. e4 fxe4 8. Kxe4 f5+ {=}) 1/2-1/2 [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1935.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "4k3/8/5p2/5p1p/3K4/4P1P1/7P/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "14"] [EventDate "1935.??.??"] 1. Kd5 (1. Kc5 {%05Also possible is} Ke7 2. Kc6 Ke6 3. h3 (3. h4 {was already been considered;}) (3. Kc7 {, then %05if} Ke5 4. Kd7 Ke4 5. Ke6 Kxe3 6. Kxf5 Kf3 7. Kxf6 h4 {! - draw}) 3... Ke5 4. Kd7 h4 5. gxh4 f4 {Draw.}) (1. e4 { %05It should be added that a draw also results from} fxe4 2. Kxe4 h4 3. g4 h3 4. Kf4 Kf7 5. Kg3 Kg6 6. Kxh3 f5 {=}) 1... Kd7 2. h3 Ke7 3. Kc6 Ke6 4. h4 f4 { !!} (4... Ke5 {? %05Black loses after} 5. Kd7 Ke4 6. Ke6 Kxe3 (6... Kf3 {%05or} 7. Kxf6 {!} Kxg3 8. Kxf5 Kxh4 9. Kf4 {!} Kh3 10. e4 {%04etc.}) 7. Kxf5 {!}) 5. gxf4 Kf5 6. Kd5 Kg4 7. Ke6 Kxh4 {Draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1942.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Dedrle Frantishek (CZE)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/4kp2/5p1p/2K5/4P1P1/7P/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "8"] [EventDate "1942.??.??"] {"It has not been possible to find the composer's solution, but, taking account of Grigoriev's analysis of position ~3( 678)~, it can be assumed that there is no winning solution to Dedrle's study".} 1. Kd4 {!! %05These words were written by Maizelis in 1956. It was later established that Dedrle's solution to the position was as follows (the exclamation marks are his)} Ke7 { ! %05It is not difficult to see that, on the basis of the previous %05position, Black can answer 1.Kd4 with} (1... Kd6 2. Kc3 {!!} Kd5 (2... Ke6 {! , so as to answer %05But, of course, 1... Kd6 also does not lose, On 2. Kc3 Black should not continue 2... Kd5? 3. Kd2 or 2... Ke5? 3. Kd3!, but} 3. Kd3 {%04with} Kf7 { !} 4. Ke2 Kg6 {!= %04etc.}) 3. Kd2 {!} Ke5 4. Ke1 {!!} Kd5 5. Kf2 {!!} Ke4 6. Ke2 Kd5 7. Kf3 $18 {, and White wins.}) 2. Kc5 (2. Kd3 {%05or} Kf7 {!} 3. Ke2 Kg6 4. Kf3 Kg5 5. h3 h4 {! , with a draw.}) 2... Kd7 3. Kd5 Ke7 4. Kc6 Ke6 { = , with a draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1911.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Lasker Edward (GER)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2p5/2p1k3/p7/P4K2/1P6/2P5/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "10"] [EventDate "1911.??.??"] 1. Ke4 {%05The aim of this instructional position was to illustrate the weakness of isolated pawns:} c5 {! , e.g. %05But A. Feinstein (Tallinn) showed that after 1. Ke4 Black can draw by} (1... Kd6 2. Kd4 c5+ 3. Kc4 Kc6 4. c3 Kb6 5. Kd5 c6+ 6. Kc4 $18 {, and wins. (Ed Lasker, 1911)}) 2. Kd3 Kd5 3. Kc3 c6 4. Kd3 c4+ 5. bxc4+ Ke5 {!= and 6... c5 with a draw. With the kings at Ke4/Kd6 the example is correct.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1952.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Pospisil Dusan (CZE)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/7k/6p1/5p2/6pP/3K2P1/4P3/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "29"] [EventDate "1952.??.??"] 1. e3 {!} (1. Kd4 {? %05White has to reckon with the threat of ... f4, e.g.} f4 {!} 2. gxf4 Kh6 3. e4 Kh5 4. e5 g3 5. Ke3 Kxh4 6. e6 Kh3 7. e7 g2 {-draw.}) (1. Ke3 {? is insufficient in view of %05But} Kh6 {!} 2. Kf4 Kh5 3. e3 Kh6 4. Ke5 g5 {!} 5. hxg5+ Kxg5 {, with a draw.}) 1... Kh6 {The best defence.} (1... Kg7 { , then %05If} 2. Kd4 Kf6 3. Kd5 Ke7 (3... Kf7 4. Ke5 Ke7 5. e4 fxe4 6. Kxe4 Kf6 7. Kf4 Kg7 8. Kxg4 Kh6 9. Kf3 Kh5 (9... g5 10. Kg4) 10. Kf4 Kh6 11. Kg4 { , winning}) 4. Ke5 Kf7 5. e4 g5 {! (the last chance)} 6. hxg5 fxe4 7. Kxe4 Kg6 8. Kf4 Kh5 9. g6 Kh6 10. Kf5 Kg7 11. Kg5 {, and White wins.}) 2. Kd4 Kh5 3. Kd5 {!} (3. Ke5 {? there would have followed %05On} g5 4. hxg5 Kxg5 {with a draw}) 3... Kh6 {!} (3... g5 {? loses to %05, whereas now} 4. hxg5 Kxg5 5. Ke5 Kg6 6. Ke6 Kg5 7. Kf7 {and 8. Kf6.}) 4. Ke6 Kh5 {!} 5. Ke7 {!!} (5. Kf6 {Black is saved by %05After} f4 {!!} 6. exf4 g5 7. fxg5 {- stalemate} (7. hxg5 {%05or =}) ) 5... Kh6 6. Kf8 {!} (6. Kf7 {would be a loss of time due to %05Now} Kh7 { , when White has to win back the opposition ~3($41668)~.}) 6... Kh5 {!} 7. Kg8 {!} (7. Kg7 {? %04with %05with the aim of answering} f4 {!}) 7... Kh6 8. Kh8 {! } Kh5 9. Kh7 {, and White wins both after} f4 (9... g5 {%05and after} 10. hxg5 f4 11. gxf4 g3 12. g6 g2 13. g7 g1=Q 14. g8=Q {, when the checks can be avoided:} Qb1+ 15. Kh8 Qa1+ 16. Qg7 Qa8+ 17. Kh7 Qe4+ 18. Kg8 {!} Qa8+ {!} 19. Qf8 Qg2+ {!} 20. Kh8 {!} Qb2+ 21. Qg7 Qb8+ 22. Kh7 Qb1+ 23. Kg8 Qb8+ 24. Qf8 { %04etc.}) 10. exf4 g5 11. f5 {!} gxh4 12. f6 hxg3 (12... h3 {%05or}) 13. f7 g2 14. f8=Q g1=Q 15. Qh6# {%04mate} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p2p4/6k1/6Pp/7K/8/1PP5/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "4"] {~17.22 Separated pawns on both wings~ Since only pawns can be moved, an assessment of who will first run out of moves is required well in advance. Together with the three subsidiary positions (~3 ( 685) - ( 688)~ ), this example exhausts all conceivable pawn formations of two against two, when they stand on their initial squares.} 1. c4 {Black must reply %05The turn to move is a disadvantage here. On} (1. c3 {, correct is %05If} a6 {!} (1... d5 { %05If, then after} 2. b3 a5 {one of the white pawns can again break through to queen, albeit later than the opponent's (this is to be understood in a theoretical sense, since on the K-side a great variety of positions is possible; in the given case White would be mated at g4).}) 2. b3 d6 $19) 1... a5 {! , not allowing 2. b4 (which would allow white to make a breakthrough), then} 2. c5 (2. b3 {%05or} d6 $19) 2... a4 $19 * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p2p4/6k1/6Pp/7K/8/1PP5/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "6"] 1... a6 {is met by %05If it is Black to move,} (1... a5 2. c4 $18) 2. c3 d6 3. b3 d5 4. b4 $18 {, winning. In the following three subsidiary positions the situation on the K-side is the same as in examples ~3 ( 683) - ( 684)~, since in practice the kings are often in zugzwang when there is a large number of pawns.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/pp6/6k1/6Pp/7K/8/PP6/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "2"] 1. b3 {%05Here one must simply imitate the opponent's moves:} (1. b4 {%05or} b5 $19 {!}) 1... b6 $19 {!} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/pp6/6k1/6Pp/7K/8/1PP5/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "2"] 1. c4 {%05The principle of the play is exactly the same:} (1. c3 {%05or} a6 $19 {!}) 1... a5 $19 {!} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p1p5/6k1/6Pp/7K/8/PP6/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "1"] 1. b4 $18 {%05The connected pawns win, irrespectively of who it is to move, with the b-pawn always moving first: !} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p1p5/6k1/6Pp/7K/8/PP6/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "2"] 1... c5 {%05or} 2. b3 {!$18 %04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1851.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Horwitz & Kling"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1p1k4/8/2PK3p/2P5/7P/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "27"] [EventDate "1851.??.??"] {If the distance between the pawns is less than 4 ranks, or if any of the pawns have been advanced from their initial squares, other results and exceptions of various types are possible, with an important role sometimes being played by a pawn (or pawns) retaining the right to a double move.} 1. c6+ {! %05This position illustrates a typical procedure.} bxc6+ 2. Ke5 {!} (2. Kc5 {?} h4 {!}) 2... h4 (2... Ke7 {given by the composers, which is met not by %05this is better than the} 3. c5 (3. h4 {, with an easy win %05but by the more decisive}) 3... h4) 3. c5 Ke7 4. Kf5 Kf7 5. Kg5 Ke6 6. Kxh4 Kd5 7. Kg5 Kxc5 8. h4 Kd6 {! (the threat of ... Ke7-f8 forces White to lose a tempo)} 9. Kf6 {!} c5 10. h5 c4 11. h6 c3 12. h7 c2 13. h8=Q c1=Q 14. Qd8+ {, winning.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1879.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Horwitz Bernhard (GER)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/3p1k2/2p5/2p1PK2/2P5/4P3/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] [EventDate "1879.??.??"] 1. e5+ dxe5+ 2. Kg4 {!} Kg6 3. e4 Kf6 4. Kh5 $18 {%04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/4p3/3kp1p1/6P1/3K1P2/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] {This position arose in a game from a junior tournament at Hastings (1949). Here the players agreed to a draw.} 1... e4+ {! %05George Thomas pointed out a win:} 2. fxe4+ Kc5 {!} (2... Ke5 {?} 3. Ke3 {- draw}) 3. Kc3 e5 $19 {%04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/4p3/3kp1p1/6P1/3K1P2/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "4"] {The following position has a distant similarity to the previous one, and is instructive in its own way.} 1. Ke3 {%05It should be added that the initial position is won for Black, irrespective of whose turn it is to move, e.g.} e4 2. fxe4+ (2. f4 gxf4+ 3. Kxf4 Kd4 $19) 2... Kc4 $19 {, winning.} (2... Ke5 { %05or}) * [Event "Warsaw (Poland)"] [Site "Warsaw (Poland)"] [Date "1916.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Lowtzky Mojsesz (POL)"] [Black "Rubinstein Akiba K (POL)"] [Result "1/2-1/2"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/p7/P3kp1p/7P/5KP1/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] [EventDate "1916.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ383 %212045826630=4HLJ387 %212045826630=4HLJ391} 1... f3 {!? A clever try.} (1... Kd4 {? %05In the event of} 2. Kf3 Kc4 3. Kxf4 Kb4 4. g4 {!} hxg3 5. Kxg3 $18 { the white pawn queens first.}) 2. gxf3+ Kf4 {!} (2... Kd3 {is weaker in view of } 3. f4 Ke4 4. f5 Kxf5 5. Kf3 {= , and Black is saved only by the fact that the h-pawn is^013^010 outside the winning zone -~3($40279)~}) 3. Ke2 {! The only move.} (3. Kg2 {? %05In the event of} Ke3 {Black wins the f-pawn, after which his king heads for the a-pawn, without trying to pick up the h-pawn which would allow White to save the game.}) 3... Kg3 4. Ke3 {!} Kxh3 5. Kf2 {!} Kh2 6. f4 h3 7. f5 Kh1 8. f6 h2 {= Drawn (now it is White who is short of a tempo for a win in the queen ending).} 1/2-1/2 [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1887.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Salvioli C"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/6pp/k7/1p1K2PP/8/2P5/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "17"] [EventDate "1887.??.??"] 1. g5 hxg5 (1... h5 {also fails to draw}) 2. hxg5 Kb5 3. Kd5 Kb6 4. Kc4 Ka5 5. Kc5 Ka4 6. Kb6 Ka3 7. Kb5 Kb2 8. Kxb4 Kxc2 9. Kc4 {, and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1932.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/6pp/Kpk5/6PP/P7/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "4"] [EventDate "1932.??.??"] {Some interesting features are revealed in this simple ending, if the positions of the kings are reversed.} 1. g4 {! %05If the K-side pawns were blocked, White would win on condition that it was Black to move, but it is precisely this that he is unable to achieve.} (1. h4 {? %05It is interesting that other moves lose for White, e.g.} g4 2. Ka5 b3 $19) (1. Ka5 {? %05or} g4 { !} 2. hxg4 hxg4 3. Ka4 Kc3 {and 4... b3$19}) 1... h4 {!} (1... hxg4 {? %05But not} 2. hxg4 Kc5 (2... Kc3 3. Kb5) 3. Ka5 Kc4 4. Kb6 {, winning.}) 2. Ka5 Kc5 { = with a draw} (2... b3 {%05or} 3. axb3+ Kxb3 4. Kb5 Kc3 5. Kc5 Kd3 6. Kd5 Ke3 7. Ke5 Kf3 8. Kf5 Kg3 9. Kxg5 Kxh3 10. Kf4 Kg2 11. g5 h3 12. g6 h2 13. g7 h1=Q 14. g8=Q+ Kf1 {!= with a draw}) * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/K5pp/1pk5/6PP/P7/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "4"] 1. g4 {! %05If in the initial position White's king were at a5, all the same the result would be a draw:} hxg4 {! (the only way)} 2. hxg4 Kc5 {(The composer's solution was not published, and the content of this position has not been fully covered in literature).} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1936.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/p6p/6p1/KPk3P1/8/6P1/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] [EventDate "1936.??.??"] 1... Kd4 {!} 2. Ka5 (2. Kb3 Kd3 $19) 2... Kc3 3. Ka4 Kb2 4. g3 Ka2 $19 { , and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1934.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Bahr Peter (GER)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/6p1/6Pp/2p4P/2k5/2P5/1K6/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] [EventDate "1934.??.??"] {Although of a different type, the following positions are also of great practical interest.} 1. Kc2 Kd5 (1... Kb5 2. Kd3 {!}) 2. Kb3 {!} Kc6 (2... Kd6 3. Ka4 {!} Kc6 4. Ka5) 3. Kc4 Kd6 4. Kb5 Kd5 5. Kb6 {!} Kc4 6. Kc6 {(the successive taking of the opposition at c2, c4 and c6 is amusing)} Kxc3 7. Kxc5 {, and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/6p1/6Pp/2p4P/2k5/2P5/1K6/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "3"] 1... Kb5 {! (the only move) %05Black to move draws by} 2. Kb3 c4+ {%04etc. =} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1939.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Glazier"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "4k3/3p4/8/3P4/K5p1/6P1/6P1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "19"] [EventDate "1939.??.??"] 1. Kb5 Ke7 (1... Kd8 2. d6 {, and either} Kc8 (2... Ke8 {%05or} 3. Kb6 Kf7 4. Kb7 $18 {%04etc.}) 3. Ka6) 2. Kc5 Kd8 3. Kd6 Ke8 4. Kc7 Ke7 5. Kc8 Kd6 6. Kd8 Kxd5 7. Kxd7 Ke5 8. Ke7 Kf5 9. Kf7 Kg5 10. Ke6 {, and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1945.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Botvinnik Mikhail M (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/5pk1/1p5p/1P5P/8/6P1/6K1 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "17"] [EventDate "1945.??.??"] 1. Kf2 Kf5 {! (in the event of 1... f5 White occupies f4 with his king, having the g2-g3 tempo in reserve)} 2. Kf3 Ke5 {!} 3. g4 hxg4+ 4. Kxg4 Ke4 5. h5 f5+ 6. Kh3 {!} f4 7. h6 f3 8. h7 f2 9. Kg2 $18 {%04etc. Botvinnik composed this study on the basis of an ending which occurred in a simultaneous display by him, although it is true that he also took account of a mistake he found in analysis by Fine (1941).} * [Event "Amsterdam (Netherlands)"] [Site "Amsterdam (Netherlands)"] [Date "1936.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Kmoch Hans (AUT)"] [Black "Van Scheltinga Theo D (NED)"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/5pk1/8/1p5P/1P4K1/P7/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "22"] [EventDate "1936.??.??"] 1... Kf5 2. Kf3 Ke5 3. Kg4 Ke4 4. h5 f5+ 5. Kg3 {a mistake; as shown by Botvinnik, 5. Kh3 was correct} Ke3 6. h6 f4+ {Drawn. The continuation} 7. Kg4 f3 8. h7 f2 9. h8=Q f1=Q 10. Qe5+ Kd2 {!} 11. Qd4+ Kc2 12. Qxb4 {was evidently also not taken into account by Fine.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1940.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Euwe Max (NED)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5p2/1p6/p1p1k3/P1P5/1P2K3/7P/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] [EventDate "1940.??.??"] {Botvinnik accompanied his study with a joke: "It will probably be demonstrated that the study is not original - in our time it is so difficult to devise something new in chess". A response to this comment was made by Nedeljkovic (1951), who found this example.} 1. h4 Kf5 2. Kf3 Ke5 3. Kg4 Ke4 4. h5 f5+ 5. Kh3 $40 {!$18 %04etc. "I think that this manoeuvre must have occurred even earlier" writes Nedeljkovic. This supposition is correct (cf. for example Grigoriev's study ~3( 117)~, White's 4th move).} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1938.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "5k2/8/7p/1p6/pP6/P6P/6K1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "27"] [EventDate "1938.??.??"] {For a long time this interesting and complicated position remained little-known, since its solution was not published. In order to understand it better, let us first examine the following, more simple ending.} 1. Kf2 { ! %05It is clear that the white king must move into the centre of the board, maintaining the opposition. Therefore:} Kf7 (1... Kg7 {? %05Of course, not} 2. Ke3) (1... Ke7 {%05while if} 2. Ke3 {, and with the seizure of the opposition on the e-file, White's problem is in general solved, e.g.} Ke6 3. Ke4 Kf6 (3... Kd6 {%05or} 4. Kd4 $18 {!}) 4. Kd5 $18) 2. Kf3 Kf6 3. Kf4 Kg6 {! (we have reached the most difficult point of the solution; 4. Ke5 appears to win, but this is not so, as will be seen later)} 4. Kg4 {!! (White voluntarily creates this position, which to all appearances is hopelessly drawn!)} (4. Ke5 { win in the same way? It is because there would have followed %05One question remains to be clarified: why does not} Kg5 5. Kd5 Kh4 6. Kc5 Kxh3 7. Kxb5 { , and now not} Kg4 {? as in the main variation} (7... Kg2 {? in view of %05and not} 8. Kxa4 {with a subsequent exchange of queens (by check along the diagonal)}) (7... h5 {! %05but} 8. Kc4 h4 {! , when White is faced with an unpleasant choice: either} 9. b5 (9. Kd3 {%05or} Kg2 {! - in both cases with a draw. Now it is clear why the pawn had to be driven to h5, denying Black the possibility of this counter-play.}) 9... Kg4 {!})) 4... Kf6 (4... Kg7 {? loses immediately}) 5. h4 {!} Kg6 6. h5+ Kf6 7. Kf4 Ke6 8. Ke4 Kf6 {(it is still not clear how White can win; both sides require an identical 8 moves to obtain a queen)} 9. Kd5 Kg5 10. Kc5 Kxh5 11. Kxb5 Kg4 12. Kc4 {!! Here is the solution: the white king has not only cleared the way for its pawn, but has also stepped into the "square" of the h6 pawn.} h5 13. Kd3 {!} Kf3 {(otherwise the white king goes to f1; in the event of 13... Kg3 the king is checked from b8)} 14. b5 {, and the queen at h1 will be won by a skewer. One of the many Grigoriev gems! } * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1949.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Volpert Larisa (RUS)"] [Black "Belova Tamara (RUS)"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/p5kp/1p6/1P4K1/P6P/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "3"] [EventDate "1949.??.??"] {An analogous final position must obviously result in example ~3( 704)~, but with the difference that Black's Q-side pawns are much weaker, and that to obtain a queen White requires considerably much less time.} 1... Kf6 { %05Romanovsky showed that Black should have played} (1... h5+ {? proved to be a fatal mistake, in view of} 2. Kf4 Kf6 3. h4 $18) 2. Kf4 (2. h4 {%05or} Kg6 3. h5+ Kf6 4. Kf4 Ke6 5. Ke4 Kf6 {= , when the draw is obvious.}) 2... Kg6 {=} ( 2... Ke6 {%05or even}) * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1939.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Louma"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1p1k3p/pP6/P7/8/8/7P/4K3 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] [EventDate "1939.??.??"] {As in example ~3( 704)~, the main file is the e-file (Black has weak pawns at b7 and h7). The position on the Q-side is even more favourable for White.} 1. Kf2 {! (beginning a by-pass and approach to the h7 pawn; at the same time ... Kc6-b5 can now be met by Ke3-d4)} Ke6 (1... Ke7 2. Ke3) (1... Kd6 2. Kf3 {!} Kd5 3. Kf4 Kc5 (3... Kd6 {%05or} 4. Kg5) 4. Ke5) 2. Kg3 {!} Kf7 {!} 3. Kh4 {!} Kg6 (3... Kf6 4. Kh5) 4. Kg4 h6 5. h3 {!} Kf6 6. Kf4 Ke6 7. Ke4 {, winning.} * [Event "Leningrad (Russia)"] [Site "Leningrad (Russia)"] [Date "1938.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Chekhover Vitaly A (RUS)"] [Black "Bondarevsky Igor Z (RUS)"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p1k4p/6p1/8/6P1/P4K2/5P2/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "14"] [EventDate "1938.??.??"] {deep analysis by Chekhover revealed the complicated nature of this position.} 1. Kf4 h6 {!} (1... Kd6 {, then %05If} 2. Kg5 Ke5 3. f3 {!} (3. Kh6 {?} Kf4 4. g5 Kg4 5. f3+ Kf4) (3. f4+ {?} Ke4 {!} 4. f5 gxf5 5. gxf5 Ke5 6. f6 Ke6) 3... h5 4. f4+ {!} (4. gxh5 gxh5 5. f4+ {is futile in view of} Ke6 {!} 6. f5+ Kf7 7. Kxh5 Kf6 8. Kg4 a5 {!} 9. a4 Kf7 {with a draw -~3 ($41279)~.}) 4... Ke6 5. f5+ {!} gxf5 6. gxh5 {!} a5 7. a4 Kf7 8. Kxf5 {, and wins.}) 2. Ke5 h5 3. gxh5 gxh5 4. a4 {!} (4. Kf5 {%05Nothing is achieved by} Kd6 5. Kg5 (5. a4 Kd5 6. Kg5 Ke4) 5... Ke5 6. f3 a6 {!} 7. a4 a5 8. f4+ Ke6 9. f5+ Kf7 {, with a draw.}) 4... Kc6 {! , e.g. %05But Black could have drawn by the subtle move suggested by Bondarevsky,} (4... a5 {there followed: %05After the incorrect} 5. Kf5 Kd6 6. Kg5 Ke5 7. f3 {!} Ke6 8. f4 h4 9. Kxh4 Kf6 10. Kg4 Kg6 11. Kf3 Kf6 12. Ke4 Ke6 13. Kd4 {! , and White won (the pawn if just inside the winning zone -^013^010 ~3($40279)~.}) (4... a6 {%05Also bad is} 5. Kf5 Kd6 6. Kg5 Ke5 7. f4+ {!} Ke6 8. a5) (4... h4 {%05or} 5. Kf4 Kd6 6. Kg4 Ke5 7. a5 $18) 5. Kf5 (5. a5 {%05or} h4 6. Kf4 Kd5 7. Kg4 Ke5 {!} (7... Ke4 {?} 8. a6 h3 9. Kg3 {! , winning}) 8. a6 (8. f3 a6) 8... Ke4 9. f3+ Ke3 10. f4 h3 {Draw.}) 5... Kd5 6. Kg5 Ke4 {!} 7. f4 h4 {=} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1920.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1p4p1/3kp3/8/1P1K1PP1/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "25"] [EventDate "1920.??.??"] {~17.23 Scattered pawns~ By this we imply that there are pawns both in the centre, and on the wings. Among them there may be two connected pawns, but most often all the pawns are isolated. With both sides having weaknesses, the strategic difficulty is usually presented by the correct choice of direction of the so-called "main blow", since attacking one pawn means giving up another to the opponent.} 1. b5 {! %05This is one of Grigoriev's early and little-known studies (the solution to which was not published).^013^010 Here White has the more active king and a slightly superior pawn formation.^013^010 In the 1st edition of this book, Maizelis gave his own solution to Grigoriev's study, but it proved to be inaccurate. The correct path was indicated by Knyazev (Moscow).} (1. Ke4 {, but after %05Maizelis begins with} b6 {!} 2. Kd4 (2. b5 {, but after %05Probably the best that White has is} Kc5 3. Ke5 Kxb5 4. Kxe6 Ka4 5. Kf7 b5 6. Kxg7 b4 7. f5 b3 8. f6 b2 9. f7 b1=Q 10. f8=Q {play transposes into a theoretically unclear queen ending.}) 2... b5 {it is unlikely that White can realize his slight advantage, e.g.} 3. Ke4 Kd7 4. Ke5 Ke7 5. f5 exf5 6. Kxf5 Kf7 7. Kg5 g6 {, with a draw.}) 1... b6 2. Kc4 {!} Ke7 3. Kd3 {!} Kf6 (3... Kd7 {, then %05With his great freedom for manoeuvring, White can always reach the important e5 square. If, for example,} 4. Ke4 Kd6 5. Kd4 Kd7 6. Ke5 Ke7 {, and now, as shown by Maizelis, after} 7. f5 exf5 8. Kxf5 Kf7 9. Kg5 Kf8 {!} (9... g6 10. Kh6 Kf6 11. Kh7 {!} Kg5 12. Kg7 $18) 10. Kf4 { ! White breaks decisively into his opponent's position:} Ke8 11. Ke4 Kd8 12. Kf5 {!} Ke7 13. Kg6 Kf8 14. Kh7 Kf7 15. g5 {, winning.}) 4. Ke4 g6 (4... Kf7 5. Ke5 Ke7 {leads after f4-f5 to situations already considered.}) (4... Ke7 {%05or } 5. Ke5 Kd7) 5. Kd4 Ke7 6. Ke5 Kf7 7. Kd6 Kf6 8. Kc6 g5 9. fxg5+ Kxg5 10. Kxb6 e5 11. Kc5 e4 12. Kd4 Kf4 13. b6 {, and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1938.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "5k2/7p/1p6/8/3p4/1P1P4/7P/3K4 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "41"] [EventDate "1938.??.??"] 1. Ke2 {%05White wins the d4 pawn, but loses his b3 pawn; the d3 and b6 pawns are also exchanged (after promoting). Victory is secured by the h2 pawn.} Ke7 2. Kf3 Kd6 3. b4 {!} Kc6 (3... Ke5 4. Kg4) 4. Ke4 Kb5 5. Kxd4 Kxb4 6. Ke5 b5 7. d4 Kc3 8. d5 b4 9. d6 b3 10. d7 b2 11. d8=Q b1=Q 12. Qd4+ Kc2 (12... Kb3 13. Qb6+) 13. Qe4+ Kc1 14. Qxb1+ Kxb1 15. Kf6 {!} Kc2 16. Kg7 {!} h5 17. Kg6 h4 18. Kg5 h3 19. Kg4 Kd3 20. Kxh3 Ke4 21. Kg4 {, and wins.} * [Event "Southport (England)"] [Site "Southport (England)"] [Date "1905.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Wahltuch Victor"] [Black "Michell Reginald P (ENG)"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/1p2k1p1/8/2P1p3/8/P4K1P/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "14"] [EventDate "1905.??.??"] 1... Kd6 {%05Black has a passed pawn, but it will be either exchanged for the c-pawn or blockaded:} (1... Ke5 {, then %05If} 2. Ke3 g5 3. h3 Kf5 4. a3 {!!} ( 4. a4 {? leads only to a draw in view of %05But} Ke5 5. c5 bxc5 6. a5 Kd5 7. a6 Kc6 8. Kxe4 Kb6 9. Kd5 Kxa6 10. Kxc5 Kb7 {=}) 4... Ke5 5. a4 Kf5 6. c5 {!} bxc5 7. a5 {and wins.}) 2. Ke3 Kc5 (2... Ke5 3. a4 {!} Kf5 4. c5 {!}) 3. Kxe4 Kxc4 4. h4 {!} b5 5. Ke5 b4 6. Kd6 (6. Kf6 {?} Kc3 7. Kxg6 Kb2 8. h5 Kxa2 9. h6 b3 { - draw}) 6... Kb5 7. Kd5 Ka4 8. Kc4 {, and wins ~3 ($40694)~.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1940.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Leick"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p5p1/P3p3/7P/3K3P/5Pk1/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "8"] [EventDate "1940.??.??"] 1. Ke5 Kxf3 (1... Kxh4 2. Kxe6 Kxh5 3. Kd7) 2. Kxe6 Kg4 3. h6 {!!} (3. Kd6 {?} Kxh5 4. Kc6 Kxh4 {- draw}) 3... gxh6 4. Kd6 {, and neither} Kxh4 (4... Kf5 { saves the draw. %05nor}) * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1940.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Leick"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/3k3p/7P/5p2/5P2/3p4/3P4/6K1 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "17"] [EventDate "1940.??.??"] 1. Kf2 Ke7 2. Ke3 Kf6 (2... Ke6 {%05after} 3. Kxd3 Kd5 4. Ke3 Kc4 {the win is achieved as in example ~3($41318)~}) 3. Kd4 {!} (3. Kxd3 {?} Kg6) 3... Kg6 4. Ke5 Kxh6 5. Kf6 Kh5 6. Kxf5 Kh6 7. Kf6 Kh5 8. f5 Kg4 9. Ke6 {, and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1930.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "5K2/1p5p/3k3P/P7/4p3/8/5P2/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] [EventDate "1930.??.??"] 1. Ke8 {! Now there are three possibilities:} Ke6 (1... Kc6 2. Ke7 {!} Kc5 3. Ke6 Kc4 4. Ke5 Kb5 5. Kf6 {!} Kxa5 6. Kg7 b5 7. Kxh7 b4 8. Kg7 {!} b3 9. h7 b2 10. h8=Q b1=Q 11. Qa8+ {, and wins.}) (1... Ke5 2. Kd7 {!} Kf4 3. Kd6 {!} Kg4 4. Ke5 Kg5 5. Kxe4 Kxh6 6. Kf5 Kg7 7. Ke6 {!} h6 8. f3 {!} h5 9. Kf5 Kh6 10. f4 {! , and wins.}) 2. Kd8 Kd6 3. Kc8 Kc6 4. Kb8 Kb5 5. Kxb7 Kxa5 6. Kc6 Ka6 7. Kd5 Kb6 8. Kxe4 $18 {, and the king penetrates to f6.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1910.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Tattersall"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/3p4/3Pk3/2P2p2/3K4/4P3/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] [EventDate "1910.??.??"] 1. e4 {!} f3 (1... fxe3 {%05Black also fails to save the game after} 2. Kxe3 Kf6 {!} 3. Kd4 {!} Ke7 4. Kc3 {, when White wins by a by-pass ~3 ($40198)~}) ( 1... Kf6 {%05or} 2. Ke2 Kg6 3. Kf3 Kg5 4. c5 {!$18 %04etc.}) 2. c5 {!!} dxc5 3. Ke3 $40 {, and wins. In the position moved to the left, the by-pass is not possible, and therefore it is a draw ~3( 196)~.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "5k2/p4ppp/8/8/8/8/PP3PPP/6K1 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "29"] {~18. ENDINGS WITH SEVERAL PAWNS (material advantage)~ In endings with several pawns, with only very rare exceptions an advantage of one pawn is sufficient for a win. The realization of such an advantage does not normally present any difficulty. If the opponent's king succeeds in stopping this pawn, then, exploiting the fact that it has been diverted, the stronger side breaks through with his king to the enemy pawns on the opposite wing and gains there a decisive material advantage. Before setting up a passed pawn, it is normally useful to improve the position of one's own king, so as to advance the pawn most effectively towards the queening square, without allowing the opponent any chances. As an example of the realization of a passed pawn, let us consider the following position.} 1. Kf1 {(the king must be brought into play)} Ke7 2. Ke2 Kd6 3. b4 (3. Kd3 {%05or} Kc5 4. Kc3 {and 5. b4}) 3... Kd5 4. Kd3 f5 5. f4 g6 6. g3 a6 7. a4 Kc6 {The king cannot be maintained in its active position - Black has run out of moves, and he has to retreat.} 8. Kd4 Kd6 9. b5 axb5 10. axb5 Kc7 11. Ke5 {The simplest. White gives up his passed pawn, but gains a decisive material advantage on the opposite wing.} (11. Kc5 {%05The alternative was} Kb7 12. b6 Kb8 13. Kc6 Kc8 14. b7+ Kb8 15. Kb6 h6 (15... h5 16. Kc6) 16. h4 g5 {(a desperate attempt to play for stalemate)} 17. hxg5 hxg5 18. fxg5 f4 19. g6 f3 20. g7 f2 21. g8=Q# {mate.}) 11... Kb6 12. Kf6 Kxb5 13. Kg7 Kc4 14. Kxh7 Kd4 15. Kxg6 {, and White wins. The reader should note how easily White carried out his winning plan. Of course, to a certain extent this example was an ideal one, but it can safely be said that in the overwhelming majority of pawn endings a material advantage can be realized without difficulty. But even so, it should not be thought that an extra pawn in a pawn ending guarantees victory, or that the win is achieved automatically. As we have established, the winning plan consists of three stages: the creation of a passed pawn, supporting it with the king, and the breakthrough of the king to the enemy pawns. At each of these stages problems may arise, associated with this or that feature of the position. It may, for example, prove difficult to create a passed pawn due to some defect in the pawn formation (backward pawn, doubled pawns etc.), or it may be difficult for the king to support it, since it is tied up with other duties (stopping an enemy passed pawn, defending invasion squares et.). Finally, it may happen that it is altogether for the king to penetrate into the enemy position. In the following examples we will show how these difficulties are overcome.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/1p6/p4kp1/P6p/1P3P1P/4K1P1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] 1. Kf2 {%05After} Kf4 {Black tries to prevent the creation of a passed pawn, but White easily overcomes this barrier by a temporary pawn sacrifice:} 2. g3+ {!} hxg3+ 3. Kg2 Ke5 4. Kxg3 Kf5 {(setting up a second line of defence, but it too can be overcome)} 5. f4 {!} gxf4+ 6. Kf3 {By his pawn sacrifice White has set up an outside passed pawn, and now, after the enforced exchange of the K-side pawns, what proves decisive is the fact that his king is much closer than the opponent's king to the Q-side pawns.} Kg5 7. h4+ (7. Ke4 {%05or} Kh4 8. Kxf4 $18) 7... Kxh4 8. Kxf4 {, and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1p6/1Pp5/2Pp1k2/3P4/4PK2/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "21"] {In the following example White successfully combines an undermining of the enemy pawns with the threat of a breakthrough.} 1. e4+ {! %05White first carries out the undermining:} dxe4+ 2. Ke3 Ke6 (2... Kf6 {, the breakthrough %05if} 3. d5 cxd5 4. c6 $18 {is decisive}) 3. Kxe4 Ke7 4. Ke5 (4. d5 {also wins, but the text move is simpler.}) 4... Kd7 5. Kf6 Kd8 6. Ke6 Kc8 (6... Ke8 7. d5 cxd5 8. c6 $18) 7. Ke7 Kb8 8. Kd7 Ka8 9. d5 cxd5 10. c6 bxc6 11. Kc7 { , and White gives mate in three moves. Note that if this position is moved one file to the left, the assessment changes - Black easily draws by taking his king into the a8 corner.} * [Event "Jakarta (Indonesia)"] [Site "Jakarta (Indonesia)"] [Date "1979.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Averbakh Yuri L (RUS)"] [Black "Bachtiar Arovah (INA)"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/1p6/p1k2p1p/P1P2PpP/1PK3P1/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "17"] [EventDate "1979.??.??"] {Sometimes the opponent's counter-play may force the stronger side (before setting up a passed pawn) to resort to very subtle manoeuvring, to suppress this counter-play. %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/ 203I02I4/201I5/302D4/201D03D4/302D4/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kd3 {! %05However, the game lasted only another three moves: %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/203I02I4/201I5/302D4/201D03D4/302D4/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8)} (1. b4+ {%05How is White to realize his advantage? If, for example,} axb4+ 2. Kb3 {, Black launches an attack on the K-side pawns:} Kd4 3. Kxb4 Ke3 4. Kb5 (4. c5 {instead of 4. Kb5} bxc5+ 5. Kxc5 {gains an important tempo, but after} Kf3 6. a5 Kxg3 7. a6 Kh2 8. a7 g3 9. a8=Q g2 10. Qa2 Kh1 11. Qd5 Kh2 { no win is apparent.}) (4. a5 {! %05 Analysis has shown that White also had another, albeit more complicated path, nevertheless beginning with 1. b4 and now not 4. c5, but} bxa5+ 5. Kxa5 Kf3 6. c5 Kxg3 7. c6 Kh2 8. c7 g3 9. c8=Q g2 10. Qc2 {!} Kh1 11. Qxf5 {!} g1=Q 12. Qh3+ Qh2 13. Qxh2+ Kxh2 14. f5 $18 { %04etc.}) 4... Kf3 5. Kxb6 Kxg3 6. a5 Kxf4 7. a6 g3 8. a7 g2 {, and the queens appear simultaneously.}) 1... Kc6 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/203I02I4/201I5/302D4/201D03D4/302D4/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (1... Kb4 { %05totally bad is} 2. Kc2 Kc5 3. Kc3 {and the inevitable b3-b4}) 2. Kd2 { ! %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/203I02I4/201I5/302D4/ 201D03D4/302D4/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd6 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/203I02I4/201I5/302D4/201D03D4/302D4/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kc2 {! and Black resigned, since after %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/203I02I4/201I5/302D4/201D03D4/302D4/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc6 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/203I02I4/201I5/302D4/ 201D03D4/302D4/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kd3 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/203I02I4/201I5/302D4/201D03D4/302D4/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc5 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/203I02I4/201I5/302D4/ 201D03D4/302D4/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kc3 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/203I02I4/201I5/302D4/201D03D4/302D4/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd6 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/203I02I4/201I5/302D4/ 201D03D4/302D4/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. b4 axb4+ 7. Kxb4 Kc6 {there follows} 8. c5 bxc5+ 9. Kc4 $18 {%04etc. It is easy to establish that we have here a case of corresponding squares: to c3 the corresponding square is c5, d4-d6, d3-c6, d2-d6 (again), but to c2 the black king has no corresponding square - the familiar "triangulation". And if the black king retreats to the 7th rank. White plays his king to c3 and follows up with b3-b4.} * [Event "London (England)"] [Site "London (England)"] [Date "1954.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Taimanov Mark E (RUS)"] [Black "Barden Leonard W (ENG)"] [Result "1-0"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/1p3k2/p1p4p/2P2p1P/1P3P2/P3K1P1/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "18"] [EventDate "1954.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ395} 1... Ke5 { %05If there were no pawns on the Q-side, White would easily^013^010 %05be able to carry out the undermining move g2-g3 and^013^010 %05win as in position ~3 ($41297)~. But here Black has^013^010 %05counter-play associated with ... a4 and the threat of an^013^010 %05attack by his king on the Q-side pawns. This^013^010 %05complicates White's task, but not to extent that he is^013^010 %05unable to win.} (1... a4 {would have been more tenacious, when White wins by an instructive variation: %05Taimanov shows that} 2. bxa4 {!} Ke5 (2... Kf5 3. Kd3 Ke5 4. Kc3 Kd6 5. Kb3 Kc6 6. a5 bxa5 7. Ka4 Kb6 8. a3 {!} Ka6 9. Kb3 Kb6 10. Kc3 Kc6 11. Kd3 Kd6 12. Ke4 $18 {, and the battle for the invasion squares is won}) 3. Kd3 Kf5 4. Kc2 Ke5 5. Kc3 {! (in moving to the Q-side, White simultaneously defends the invasion squares)} Kf6 6. Kb3 Ke5 7. a5 {!} bxa5 8. Ka4 Kd4 9. Kb5 a4 10. a3 {!} Kc3 11. Kxc5 Kb3 12. Kd5 Kxa3 13. c5 Kb4 14. c6 a3 15. c7 a2 16. c8=Q a1=Q 17. Qc5+ Kb3 18. Qc4+ $18 {, exchanging queens with an easy win.}) 2. a4 {!} (2. Kf2 {? there could have followed %05on} a4 3. g4 fxg3+ 4. Kxg3 Kd4 {= with dangerous counter-play}) 2... Kd4 3. Kd2 Ke5 4. Kd3 { !} Kf5 5. Ke2 Ke5 6. Kf2 Kd4 7. g4 fxg3+ 8. Kxg3 Ke5 9. Kg2 Kd4 (9... Kf5 { %05if} 10. Kf1 {!}) 10. f4 {Resigns.} 1-0 [Event "Tbilisi (Georgia)"] [Site "Tbilisi (Georgia)"] [Date "1951.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Moisieev Oleg L (RUS)"] [Black "Elbekov"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2p3kp/3p4/1p1P4/pP5P/P5K1/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "26"] [EventDate "1951.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ395} 1. Kf4 { %05Black's plan is clear: to place his king at d7 and play ... c5, creating a passed pawn. White can counter this only by an attack on the h7 pawn:} (1. Kf3 {%04then %05If} Kf6 2. Kf4 Ke7 3. Kg5 Kd7 4. Kh6 c5 5. dxc6+ Kxc6 6. Kxh7 d5 7. h5 d4 8. h6 d3 9. Kg6 d2 10. h7 d1=Q 11. h8=Q Qg4+ 12. Kf7 Qd7+ 13. Kg8 Qe8+ 14. Kh7 Qxh8+ 15. Kxh8 Kd5 $19) 1... Kf6 2. Ke4 Ke7 3. Kf5 Kd7 4. h5 c5 5. dxc6+ Kxc6 {The assessment of this position provoked a discussion on the pages of the magazine Shakhmaty v SSSR. The game concluded as follows:} 6. h6 (6. Ke6 {%05Instead of 6. h6, Zamikhovsky recommended} h6 7. Kf5 {as being more tenacious, but after} Kd5 8. Kg6 Kc4 $17 {this leads to a favourable queen ending for Black.}) (6. Ke4 {%05Note that White also fails to save the game by} h6 7. Kd4 {?} (7. Kf5 Kd5 8. Kg6 Kc4 $17) 7... Kc7 8. Ke4 Kd8 {!} 9. Kf5 Ke7 10. Ke4 Ke6 11. Kd4 d5 12. Kc5 Ke5 $19 {%04etc.}) 6... Kd7 {?} (6... Kd5 { ! %05But analysis shows that Black's 6th move was also wrong. Correct was} 7. Kf6 Kc4 8. Kg7 d5 9. Kxh7 d4 10. Kg8 d3 11. h7 d2 12. h8=Q d1=Q {, with the same favourable queen ending.^013^010 As shown by Knyazev (1983), a precise assessment of this ending depends on whether Black can overcome his opponent's defences after} 13. Qb2 {!$17 , but a detailed analysis here would take us far off the main path.}) 7. Kf6 d5 8. Kg7 {?} (8. Ke5 {! %05 I. Asaritis remarked that it wasn't 6. h6 that was a mistake, but only 8. Kg7, and that instead of this White should have continued} Kc6 9. Kf4 {!} Kd6 10. Kf5 {with a draw, e.g. } d4 11. Ke4 d3 12. Kxd3 Kd5 13. Kc3 Ke4 14. Kc2 {!= %04etc.}) 8... d4 9. Kxh7 d3 10. Kg8 d2 11. h7 d1=Q 12. h8=Q Qg4+ 13. Kf7 Qe6+ $19 {, and White resigned, since the exchange of queens is inevitable. But what if there were no pawns on the h-file - the source of White's counter-play?} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2p3k1/3p4/1p1P4/pP6/P5K1/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "22"] 1. Kf3 {! %05Even here Black encounters certain difficulties over %05realizing his advantage. The following is a possible %05continuation:} Kf7 2. Kg3 {!} (2. Ke4 {%05White makes the only moves, all others losing quickly, e.g.} Kg6 3. Kf4 Kf6 4. Ke4 Kg5 {, and the d5 pawn is lost.}) 2... Ke7 3. Kg4 (3. Kf3 {!?} Kd7 4. Ke4 c5 5. dxc6+ Kxc6 6. Kd4 Kc7 7. Ke4 Kd8 8. Kd4 Ke7 9. Ke4 Ke6 10. Kd4 d5 11. Kc5 Ke5 12. Kxb5 d4 13. Kc4 Ke4 14. b5 d3 15. b6 d2 16. b7 d1=Q 17. b8=Q Qd4+ 18. Kb5 Qb2+ $19) 3... Kd7 4. Kf5 c5 5. dxc6+ Kxc6 6. Ke6 Kc7 7. Kf5 Kb6 { !} (7... Kd7 {achieves nothing due to %05As in example ~3($4118)~, Black wins by triangulation.} 8. Kf6) 8. Kf6 Kb7 {!} 9. Kf5 Kc7 {!} 10. Kf6 Kd7 11. Kf5 Ke7 $19 {etc.~3 ($4118)~.} * [Event "Parnu (Estonia)"] [Site "Parnu (Estonia)"] [Date "1947.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Randviir"] [Black "Keres Paul (EST)"] [Result "0-1"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/7p/p4p2/k1pP1Pp1/6P1/P1K5/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "37"] [EventDate "1947.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ395} 1... Kb5 { ! A necessary finesse. %05 Black's material advantage comprises his backward h7 pawn. But it nevertheless decides the game, since the threat of a breakthrough (... h5) restricts the manoeuvrability of the white king, and it also provides an extremely important reserve tempo for zugzwang positions.} ( 1... Kb6 {? %05After} 2. Kc4 a5 3. a4 {Black has to use up his reserve tempo, and after} h6 4. Kd3 Kc7 5. Kc3 {= the "untouchable" pawns lead to a draw.}) 2. a4+ (2. Kd3 c4+ 3. Kd4 c3 4. Kxc3 Kc5 $19) 2... Kb6 3. Kc4 a5 {The only move;} (3... h6 {%05after} 4. a5+ {! only White has winning chances.}) 4. d6 (4. Kd3 { %05But now he has to exchange his d-pawn for the c-pawn, since he loses quickly after} Kc7 5. Kc3 Kd6 6. Kc4 h6 {!$19 This where Black requires his reserve tempo.}) 4... Kc6 5. d7 Kxd7 6. Kxc5 Ke7 {Since the white king cannot attack the a-pawn due to the threat of ... h5, Black goes to the aid of his h-pawn.} 7. Kd5 Kf7 8. Ke4 (8. Kd4 {there could have followed %05On} h5 9. gxh5 Kg7 10. Kd5 g4 11. Ke4 Kh6 $19 {, when Black wins.}) 8... Kf8 {!!} 9. Ke3 (9. Kd5 {Black can play %05Unexpectedly White finds himself in zugzwang. On} h5 { Therefore White does not risk leaving the e-file, but now after parrying the threat of a breakthrough, he loses due to the opponent's reserve tempo.}) (9. Kd4 {%05or}) 9... Ke7 {!} 10. Ke4 Kd6 11. Kd4 h6 {!} 12. Ke4 (12. Kc4 { %05There is nothing better. If} Ke5 13. Kb5 {, then} h5 14. gxh5 Kxf5 15. Kxa5 g4 $19 {, and Black wins.}) 12... Kc5 {!} 13. Ke3 Kd5 (13... Kb4 {%05This is much simpler than working out the ending arising after} 14. Kd4 Kxa4 15. Kd5 Kb3 16. Ke6 a4 17. Kxf6 a3 18. Ke7 a2 19. f6 a1=Q 20. f7 {, although by} Qa3+ { !} 21. Ke8 Qa4+ 22. Ke7 Qxg4 23. f8=Q Qb4+ $19 {Black again wins.}) 14. Kd3 Ke5 15. Ke3 h5 16. gxh5 Kxf5 17. Kf3 Ke6 (17... g4+ {%05Of course, Black could also have played} 18. Kg3 Kg5 19. h6 Kxh6 20. Kxg4 Kg6 $19 {Since his pawn has not crossed the c2-h7 diagonal (Bahr's rule), he must win.}) 18. Kg4 Kf7 19. Kf5 Kg7 $19 {White resigns.} 0-1 [Event "Southend (England)"] [Site "Southend (England)"] [Date "1955.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Persitz Raaphi (SUI)"] [Black "Paffly"] [Result "1-0"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/p1k5/2Pp2p1/1K4P1/7P/2P5/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] [EventDate "1955.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ395} 1. Ka5 { %05 White's plan is to exchange his c5 pawn for the a-pawn, and then break through with his king to the g5 pawn.} (1. c3 {%05The attempt by White to support his passed pawn does not succeed:} a5+ 2. Kxa5 Kxc5 $19 {, and Black has the chances.}) 1... Kxc5 (1... Kb7 2. c3 {!} (2. c6+ {?} Kxc6 3. Kxa6 d4 { = with a draw}) 2... Kc7 3. Kxa6 Kc6 {! was more tenacious, but after} 4. Ka7 Kc7 5. c6 {!} Kxc6 6. Ka6 {!$18 White nevertheless attains the position from the game.}) 2. Kxa6 Kc6 (2... d4 {%05if} 3. Kb7 $18) (2... Kc4 {there follows %05while on} 3. Kb6 Kc3 4. Kc5 $18) 3. c3 {! In this way White puts his opponent in zugzwang, and forces him to allow the king into his position.} Kc5 4. Kb7 d4 (4... Kd6 5. Kb6 {!} (5. Kc8 {?} Kc6 {= with a draw}) 5... Ke5 6. Kc5 Ke6 7. Kc6 Ke5 8. Kd7 $18 {, and White wins.}) 5. cxd4+ Kxd4 6. Kc6 Ke5 7. Kd7 Kf6 (7... Kf4 8. Ke6 Kg3 9. Kf5 $18 {%04etc.}) 8. Kd6 {!$18 , and White won.} 1-0 [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1879.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Minckwitz Johannes (GER)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/7p/6pP/2k2pP1/4pP2/6P1/8/4K3 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] [EventDate "1879.??.??"] {If a passed pawn cannot be created by manoeuvring, only one possibility remains - a breakthrough (the sacrifice of one, or even several pawns, with the aim of carving a way to the queening square for another pawn).} 1. g4 { %05If the black king were at d6, the result would be a draw, but the remoteness of the king from the pawns creates the possibility of a breakthrough:} fxg4 2. f5 gxf5 3. g6 {, and White wins.} * [Event "Correspondence"] [Site "?"] [Date "1891.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Berger Johann N (AUT)"] [Black "Bauer"] [Result "1-0"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/6kp/p7/1p4P1/1P3K2/P1P5/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1891.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ395 The following example is more complicated.} 1. c4 {! %05On the Q-side the two black pawns are restraining three enemy pawns, and the white king cannot go there, since this loses the g-pawn.^013^010 %05 White nevertheless wins, by employing a typical device - the breakthrough. By the sacrifice of two pawns he creates an outside passed pawn, which the enemy king is unable to stop.} bxc3 2. Ke3 Kg5 3. a4 {!} Kxg4 4. b4 {!} axb4 5. Kd3 {! A necessary finesse.} ( 5. a5 {? %05After} b3 6. Kd3 b2 7. Kc2 Kf3 {!} 8. a6 Ke2 9. a7 b1=Q+ 10. Kxb1 Kd2 {= Black saves the draw.}) 5... h5 6. a5 $18 {, and White won.} 1-0 [Event "Hastings (England)"] [Site "Hastings (England)"] [Date "1919.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Capablanca Jose Raul (CUB)"] [Black "Conde Jm"] [Result "1-0"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5p2/2k2p1p/p1p2P2/P1Pp4/1P5P/5PP1/6K1 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "27"] [EventDate "1919.??.??"] {In the following example White wins by a breakthrough on both wings. %212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ395} 1. f4 { %05The pawn formation on the K-side permits the possibility of a breakthrough, so that the black king cannot move far away from that wing. This allows White to play b3-b4 at a convenient moment, creating a passed pawn.} Kd6 2. g4 Ke7 3. Kf2 Kd6 4. Kf3 Ke7 5. Ke4 Kd6 6. h4 Kd7 {Having deployed his king and his pawns in the best possible way, Capablanca turns to decisive action.} 7. b4 {!} axb4 8. a5 Kc7 9. g5 fxg5 10. fxg5 hxg5 11. hxg5 b3 12. Kd3 Kd7 13. g6 fxg6 14. fxg6 $18 {Resigns.} 1-0 [Event "Hastings (England)"] [Site "Hastings (England)"] [Date "1938.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Szabo Laszlo (HUN)"] [Black "Pirc Vasja (YUG)"] [Result "1-0"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2p5/7p/pP2k1pP/5pP1/8/1P2PPK1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "19"] [EventDate "1938.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ395} 1. f3 { ! Splendidly played! %05 The only thing that can stop the black king is the threat of a pawn breakthrough, but such that it is the knight's pawn or even the rook's pawn on the K-side that becomes the passed pawn.} (1. e3 {? %05The black king is extremely active, and so the usual plan of creating a passed pawn does not succeed here:} fxe3 2. fxe3 Kd5 3. Kf3 a4 4. Ke2 Kc4 5. Kd2 Kxb5 6. Kc3 Kc5 7. e4 c6 $17 {, and after losing a pawn White no longer has any winning chances.}) 1... Kd5 (1... Kd4 {%05If now} 2. Kf2 a4 {, first comes the standard procedure of undermining:} 3. e3+ {!} fxe3+ 4. Ke2 Kc4 5. Kxe3 Kb3 6. f4 gxf4+ 7. Kf3 Kxb2 {, and then the breakthrough:} 8. g5 {!$18 , and White wins.}) 2. Kf2 Kd4 3. Ke1 Kc4 (3... Ke3 {, then %05If} 4. b3 Kd4 5. Kd2 Kc5 6. e3 fxe3+ 7. Kxe3 Kxb5 8. f4 gxf4+ 9. Kf3 $18 {and 10. g5.}) 4. Kd2 {! This cool move was not played in the game, which took a sharp turn:} (4. e3 {?$16} fxe3 5. Ke2 Kd4 6. b3 Kc3 7. f4 gxf4 8. g5 Kd4 {!} 9. gxh6 f3+ 10. Kxf3 Kd3 11. h7 e2 12. h8=Q e1=Q 13. Qd8+ Kc3 14. Qxc7+ Kxb3 15. b6 Qd1+ 16. Kg3 {In this queen ending White has every chance of winning, but the struggle could still have continued for a long time (White's king would have had to hide behind the b6 pawn). The game in fact concluded surprisingly quickly:} Qxh5 {?} (16... Qd3+ {%02!?$16}) 17. b7 Qg5+ 18. Kf3 Qf5+ 19. Ke3 Qg5+ 20. Kd4 $18 {, and Black resigned since the king finds a shelter at a7.}) 4... a4 {%05The analysis of 4. Kd2 is by Euwe.} (4... Kxb5 {%05there is nothing better; if} 5. e3 $18) (4... Kd4 {%05or} 5. b3 $18) 5. e3 fxe3+ 6. Kxe3 Kxb5 (6... Kb3 { leads to variations already considered:} 7. f4 gxf4+ 8. Kf3 Kxb2 9. g5 {!} a3 10. gxh6 a2 11. h7 a1=Q 12. h8=Q+ $18 {%04etc.}) 7. f4 gxf4+ 8. Kxf4 c5 9. Ke3 c4 10. Kd2 $18 {and Black can resign: against the g4-g5 breakthrough there is no defence.} 1-0 [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1967.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Bronstein David I (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "3k4/5p2/7p/2P3p1/8/4PP1P/8/K7 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] [EventDate "1967.??.??"] 1. Kb2 {%05White's king is a long way from the K-side, and in the first instance he must defend against the threat of a breakthrough:} f5 2. Kc3 h5 3. Kd3 {!} h4 4. f4 {! The decisive move! By clarifying the situation on the K-side, White concludes the game in his favour.} g4 (4... gxf4 {%05If now} 5. exf4 {, and Black's counter-play is neutralized.}) 5. Ke2 g3 (5... Kd7 { , then %05There is nothing better. If} 6. hxg4 {!} fxg4 7. f5 {, and the black king cannot cope with the enemy passed pawns.}) 6. e4 {!} fxe4 7. f5 {, and one of the white pawns queens.} * [Event "Berlin (Germany)"] [Site "Berlin (Germany)"] [Date "1905.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Spiess"] [Black "Burger"] [Result "1-0"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/p6p/1p3kp1/1P6/P4PKP/5P2/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] [EventDate "1905.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ395 With doubled pawns the creation of a passed pawn is often a difficult, and sometimes altogether hopeless matter. Other factors come to the rescue, as we will now see.} 1. f4 {! %05Here White succeeds with a pawn sacrifice:} gxf4+ 2. Kh4 {! , activating his king.} Ke4 3. Kg4 f3 (3... h5+ 4. Kxh5 Kf3 5. Kg5 $18 { is no better}) 4. h4 h5+ 5. Kxh5 (5. Kg3 {%05Also possible is} Ke5 6. Kxf3 Kf5 7. Ke3 Kg4 8. f4 Kxh4 9. Kf3 {!$18 %04etc}) 5... Kf5 6. Kh6 Kf6 (6... Kg4 { does not achieve anything:} 7. h5 Kh3 8. Kg5 Kg2 9. h6 $18 {, and White queens first}) 7. h5 $18 {%04etc} 1-0 [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/p6p/1p3kp1/1P6/P4PKP/5P2/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] 1... h5 {! he would have won, e.g. %05One interesting point should be noted. If in the diagram position it had been Black to move, after} 2. Kh2 (2. f4 { %05or} gxf4+ 3. Kf3 (3. Kh4 Kg6 4. f3 Kh6 $19) 3... Ke5 4. Ke2 Ke4 5. h4 f3+ 6. Kd2 Kd4 7. Kc2 Kc4 $19 {%04etc.}) 2... Kf4 3. Kg2 h4 $19 * [Event "Berlin (Germany)"] [Site "Berlin (Germany)"] [Date "1891.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Von Scheve Theodor (POL)"] [Black "Walbrodt Carl A (GER)"] [Result "1-0"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5p2/1p4p1/4p1k1/1P6/5PK1/1P3P1P/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] [EventDate "1891.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ395} 1. b5 { ! %05The defects in White's pawn formation (two sets of doubled pawns) are strikingly apparent. Nevertheless, thanks to the existence of several reserve tempi, he succeeds in winning after} f5 (1... Kh5 {%05Other continuations would not have saved Black, e.g.} 2. f4 {!} e4 (2... exf4+ 3. Kxf4 Kh4 4. Ke4 Kh3 5. Kd5 $18) 3. f5 {!} g5 4. h3 f6 5. b3 Kh6 6. Kg4 Kg7 7. h4 $18 {%04etc.}) (1... Kf5 {%05or} 2. h4 g5 3. h5 f6 4. b3 Ke6 5. Kg4 $18) (1... f6 {is evidently the most tenacious, but here too White is helped by his reserve tempi:} 2. b3 {!} Kf5 (2... Kh5 {%05or} 3. f4 {, transposing into continuations already considered.}) 3. h4 $18) 2. f4+ Kf6 (2... exf4+ {%05If} 3. Kf3 Kf6 4. Kxf4 g5+ {, then} 5. Kg3 {followed by 6. h3 and 7. f4, while} Ke5 {can be met by} 6. f4+ {!} Ke4 7. fxg5 Ke3 8. g6 f4+ 9. Kg2 {!} Ke2 10. g7 f3+ 11. Kg3 f2 12. g8=Q f1=Q 13. Qc4+ $18 {, exchanging queens.}) 3. fxe5+ Kxe5 4. Kf3 g5 5. Ke3 Kd5 (5... g4 6. f3 {!$18}) 6. h3 Kc5 7. f4 $18 {, and White won.} 1-0 [Event "Berlin (Germany)"] [Site "Berlin (Germany)"] [Date "1897.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Teichmann Richard (GER)"] [Black "Blackburne Joseph H (ENG)"] [Result "0-1"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/2p5/5kpp/p1p5/P1P2PP1/6K1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "22"] [EventDate "1897.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ395} 1. Kh2 { %05Here the extra pawn is of importance only as a reserve tempo ... c5. Apart from his more active king, Black has another advantage: the possibility of ... h4, exchanging pawns and creating invasion squares.} Kf6 (1... h4 {%05Nothing is achieved by} 2. Kg2 {!= , and any king move by Black is met by 3. f4! with a draw.}) 2. Kg2 (2. Kh3 Ke6 {!} 3. Kg2 (3. g4 {, e.g. %05Here it is useful to consider another active possibility for White -} h4 4. f4 {!} gxf4 5. Kxh4 { But it too fails to save him:} Ke5 6. g5 (6. Kh3 Ke4 7. Kg2 Kd3 {!} 8. Kf3 Kxc3 9. g5 Kb2 10. g6 c3 $19 {%04etc.}) 6... Ke4 7. g6 f3 8. g7 f2 9. g8=Q f1=Q { Although it is White to move, he appears to have no way of saving even this relatively favourable ending, e.g.} 10. Qe8+ (10. Qg6+ {%05or} Ke3 11. Qe6+ ( 11. Qxc6 Qf4+ $19 {and 12... Qf3, exchanging queens}) 11... Kd3 12. Qd6+ Kc2 13. Qxc6 (13. Qb4 {does not help, since after a couple of checks the black queen reaches b5}) 13... Qe1+ 14. Kg4 Qxc3 15. Qxa4+ Qb3 $19 {, and Black queens his c-pawn.}) 10... Kd3 11. Qxc6 Qf2+ 12. Kg4 Qc2 $19 {, winning the c-pawn}) 3... Ke5 {! It is not hard to see that White is in zugzwang. If} 4. Kh3 {, then} (4. Kh2 {%05or} h4 $19) (4. Kf2 {, then again %05while if} h4 5. f4+ Kf5 6. fxg5 (6. Kf3 {%05in the event of} g4+ 7. Kf2 hxg3+ 8. Kxg3 {the reserve tempo} c5 {!$19 is again decisive}) 6... h3 {!$19 , and Black wins.}) 4... h4 {with continuations already considered}) 2... Kg6 3. Kh2 (3. Kh3 { %05 In 1922 Berger expressed doubts as to whether White had played the best. He indicated the possibility of preventing 3... h4, but refrained from drawing any conclusions. In Basic Chess Endings (1941) Fine gave this ending with Black to move, placed under the diagram "Black wins", and gave the continuation 1... Kf6 2. Kh3 Kg6 3. Kh2 h4 4. Kh3 hg 5. Kg3 Kf5 etc., as in the above game.^013^010 %05 In 1950 the continuation given in Fine's book was criticized in the magazine Shakhmaty v SSSR by Bonch-Osmolovsky and Ter-Pogosov. To 2... Kg6 and 3. Kh2 they attached questions marks, pointing out that playing the king to g6 should not have succeeded, since White could have replied 3. Kg2!, and if 3... h4 4. f4 with an obvious draw.}) 3... h4 {!} 4. Kh3 (4. f4 {Black wins by %05On} gxf4 5. gxh4 Kh5 6. Kh3 c5 {!$19 As we see, the extra tempo comes in very useful!}) 4... hxg3 5. Kxg3 (5. Kg2 {merely prolongs matters:} Kf6 {!} 6. Kh3 Ke5 {!$19 , and White has to take on g3.}) 5... Kf5 6. Kf2 (6. Kg2 {%05In the event of} Kf4 7. Kf2 {Black can again exploit advantageously his reserve tempo:} c5 {!} 8. Ke2 Kg3 9. Ke3 Kh3 { ! This move is the whole point: d3 is inaccessible to the white king, and Black succeeds in carrying out a decisive by-passing manoeuvre:} 10. Kf2 Kh2 {! } 11. Ke3 Kg1 12. Ke2 Kg2 13. Ke3 Kf1 $19 {, and wins.}) 6... Kf4 7. Ke2 Kg3 8. Ke3 c5 {!} 9. Ke2 (9. Ke4 Kf2 $19) 9... Kg2 {, and White resigned in view of} 10. Ke3 Kf1 11. Ke4 Ke2 $19 {%04etc. Only now can we say that this complicated ending has fully revealed its secrets.} 0-1 [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/2p2k2/6pp/p1p5/P1P2PP1/7K/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "19"] {Bonch-Osmolovsky and Ter-Pogosov made a thorough study of this ending, and determined a number of positions in which ... h4 is possible. Here, for example, is one of them.} 1... h4 {!} 2. f4 {! This counter-blow is White's main chance, otherwise play reduces to the continuation already seen in the game.} gxf4 3. gxh4 Kf5 {! An important finesse. It is useful to lure the white king to h3 (4... Kg4 is threatened).} 4. Kh3 Ke4 {! (the goal is achieved via a queen ending)} 5. h5 (5. Kg2 {%05Even worse is} Kd3 {!} 6. Kf3 Kxc3 7. h5 Kb3 8. h6 c3 9. h7 c2 10. h8=Q c1=Q {, when Black wins easily.}) 5... Ke3 6. h6 f3 7. h7 f2 8. h8=Q f1=Q+ 9. Kg4 Qf3+ 10. Kg5 Kd2 {, with a won queen ending. Note that in the initial position the black king could have been at e6, when the play would have been exactly the same.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/2p2k2/6pp/p1p5/P1P2PP1/5K2/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] 1... h4 {! %05The ... h4 breakthrough also proves possible with the white king at f2:} 2. f4 h3 (2... gxf4 {? %05of course, not} 3. gxh4 {, when only White can win}) 3. fxg5+ Kxg5 4. Kf3 c5 {, and Black wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/2p5/4k1pp/p1p5/P1P2PPK/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "17"] {The following position is also of interest.} 1... h4 {!} 2. gxh4 (2. f4+ { %05After} gxf4 3. gxh4 Ke4 {a position considered in the analysis of example ~3($41733)~ is reached.}) 2... gxh4 3. Kg4 c5 {! The reserve tempo again comes in useful. White is in zugzwang.} 4. f4+ Ke4 5. f5 h3 6. f6 h2 7. f7 h1=Q 8. f8=Q Qg2+ 9. Kh5 Kd3 {, and Black must win.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/2p5/5kpp/p1p5/P1P2PP1/6K1/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "3"] 1... h4 {! %05These two subsidiary positions allow us to find %05immediately the correct path in position ~3($41732)~ %05with Black to move:} 2. Kh2 (2. Kh3 {%05or} Ke5 {, and we have obtained position ~3 ($41735)~.}) 2... Kf6 {! , and we reach position ~3($41733)~ However, as we know, in position ~3( 732)~ it was White to move. In this case Black's task is rather more difficult, and some preliminary manoeuvring with the king is required.} * [Event "Nottingham (England)"] [Site "Nottingham (England)"] [Date "1936.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Fine Reuben (USA)"] [Black "Reshevsky Samuel H (USA)"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "5k2/5p1p/4p1p1/4P3/8/5PP1/4P2P/5K2 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "25"] [EventDate "1936.??.??"] {Black's king is threatening to go to d5 to attack the advanced white pawn, and the attempt to meet it with the white king does not succeed, since in this case it does not help its own pawns.} 1. h4 {%05The correct plan, combining the advance of the rook's pawn with manoeuvring by the king, was shown by Fine. Here is his analysis:} Ke7 2. Kg2 Kd7 3. h5 {!} Kc6 (3... gxh5 {%05Or} 4. Kh3 Kc6 5. Kh4 Kd5 6. f4 Ke4 7. Kxh5 Ke3 8. Kg5 Kxe2 9. g4 Kf3 10. f5 {and White wins.}) (3... g5 {%05No better is} 4. g4 Kc6 5. f4 {!} Kd5 6. Kf3 Kd4 7. h6 Kd5 8. e3 $18) 4. hxg6 fxg6 (4... hxg6 {%05after} 5. f4 Kd5 6. Kf3 {White's king reaches f6}) 5. f4 Kd5 6. Kf3 Kd4 {(by activating his king, Black complicates his opponent's task)} 7. g4 g5 (7... Kd5 {%05If} 8. Ke3 Kc5 {, then} 9. Kd3 { followed by 10. e4 and 11. f5}) (7... h6 {there follows %05while on} 8. e3+ Kd5 9. Ke2 Ke4 10. Kf2 g5 11. Kg3 {%04etc.}) 8. fxg5 {!} (8. e3+ {%05Also possible is} Kd5 9. e4+ (9. Kf2 {but not} Ke4 10. Kg3 h6 {!} 11. f5 Kxe5 12. fxe6 Kxe6 13. Kf3 Ke5 {! with a draw}) 9... Kd4 10. fxg5 Kxe5 11. Ke3 Kd6 12. Kf4 { , and White wins.}) 8... Kxe5 9. Ke3 Kd5 10. Kf4 Kd4 11. g6 {!} hxg6 12. Kg5 Ke3 13. Kxg6 {, and White wins.} * [Event "Hamburg (Germany)"] [Site "Hamburg (Germany)"] [Date "1910.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Alekhine Alexander A (RUS)"] [Black "Yates Frederick D (ENG)"] [Result "1-0"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/4k3/8/1p2Pp2/p7/P1K1P3/1P6/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] [EventDate "1910.??.??"] {We will now consider cases where one side already has a passed pawn or has the possibility of creating one, but where problems arise in supporting this pawn with his king. %212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ395} 1. Kd3 {! %05The win is achieved by the following instructive manoeuvre:} (1. Kd4 {is also unpromising due to %05 The attack by White on the opponent's pawns does not succeed, since Black in turn can capture the e5 and e3 pawns. The direct support of the passed pawn by} Ke6 { , when White is in zugzwang.}) 1... Kd7 2. e4 {!} f4 3. Ke2 Ke6 4. Kf2 {!} Kxe5 5. Kf3 $18 {Resigns.} 1-0 [Event "Moscow (Russia)"] [Site "Moscow (Russia)"] [Date "1967.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Botvinnik Mikhail M (RUS)"] [Black "Taimanov Mark E (RUS)"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p3pk2/6p1/8/6pP/4P3/P5K1/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "25"] [EventDate "1967.??.??"] 1... g5 {! %05But Black has a strong move, which reduces the play to "untouchable pawns":} (1... Kf6 {%05Black has an extra doubled pawn, but the attempt to defend it does not succeed:} 2. Kg3 Kf5 3. e4+ {!} Kxe4 4. Kxg4 e5 5. Kg5 {, and the pawns queen simultaneously.}) 2. h5 {, but then comes %05His best reply is} (2. Kg3 {%05Now it is completely bad for White to play} Kg6 3. Kxg4 gxh4 4. Kxh4 Kf5 5. Kg3 Ke4 6. Kf2 Kd3 7. Kf3 e5) 2... Kg7 3. Kg3 Kh6 ( 3... Kh7 {%05The game continuation was} 4. Kxg4 Kh6 {, similar to the previous ending. But here this subtlety is not essential, since even so Black does not have the tempi to create a zugzwang position, and all the same play reduces to the game continuation.}) 4. Kxg4 e6 {!} 5. a4 a5 6. e4 e5 7. Kf5 {(the only chance of complicating things)} Kxh5 8. Kxe5 g4 9. Kf4 (9. Kd4 {%05In the event of} g3 10. Ke3 Kg4 11. e5 (11. Ke2 Kh3) 11... Kh3 12. e6 g2 {Black again wins.}) 9... Kh4 10. e5 g3 11. e6 g2 12. e7 g1=Q 13. e8=Q Qf1+ {, and White loses his queen.} * [Event "Dresden (Germany)"] [Site "Dresden (Germany)"] [Date "1936.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Keres Paul (EST)"] [Black "Alekhine Alexander A (RUS)"] [Result "0-1"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p7/1p6/1P1P1k2/2P1p3/4K1p1/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] [EventDate "1936.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ395} 1... Kg4 { %05The protected passed pawn restricts the black king, but by} (1... Ke5 { %05 Grigoriev showed another, no less instructive way, by which Black undermines and eliminates the opponent's protected passed pawn:} 2. Ke2 Kd6 3. Ke3 Kc7 4. Ke2 Kb7 5. Ke3 a5 6. bxa6+ Kxa6 7. Ke2 Kb7 8. Ke3 Kc7 9. Ke2 Kd6 10. Ke3 b5 11. cxb5 Kxd5 $19 {%04etc.}) 2. d6 g2 3. Kf2 Kh3 4. d7 e3+ {! Alekhine attained a won queen ending:} 5. Kf3 g1=Q 6. d8=Q Qf2+ 7. Ke4 e2 $19 {, and Black won.} 0-1 [Event "Polanica Zdroj (Poland)"] [Site "Polanica Zdroj (Poland)"] [Date "1981.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Uhlmann Wolfgang (GER)"] [Black "Akesson Ralf (SWE)"] [Result "0-1"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5p2/p6p/1pP1k1pP/1P3pP1/P7/4K3/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "57"] [EventDate "1981.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ395} 1... Kd5 { %05Black's problem here is to prepare the transition into a favourable queen ending.} 2. Kf3 a5 {!} 3. Kg2 a4 4. Kf3 Ke5 5. Ke2 f5 6. gxf5 Kxf5 7. Kf3 g4+ 8. Kg2 f3+ 9. Kf2 (9. Kg3 Ke5 10. Kf2 Kf4 $19) 9... Kf4 {!} 10. c6 g3+ 11. Kf1 Ke3 12. c7 g2+ 13. Kg1 f2+ 14. Kxg2 Ke2 15. c8=Q f1=Q+ 16. Kg3 Qf3+ 17. Kh4 Qf4+ 18. Kh3 Qe3+ {!} 19. Kh2 (19. Kg4 Qg5+ $19) 19... Qe5+ {! (this subtle queen manoeuvre is the whole point: Black wins the h-pawn with check)} 20. Kg2 Qg5+ {!} 21. Kh3 Qxh5+ 22. Kg3 Qg5+ 23. Kh3 Kd2 {!} 24. Qc5 Kd3 25. Kh2 Qh4+ 26. Kg2 Qc4 {!} 27. Qd6+ Kc2 28. Qxh6 Kb2 29. Qe3 Qc2+ $19 {White resigns.} 0-1 [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1904.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Jacobi"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "2k5/1p6/1P2p2p/2KpP2P/PP6/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "23"] [EventDate "1904.??.??"] {We will now consider a number of examples where the stronger side is faced with the problem of how to penetrate into the enemy position.} 1. a5 {%05After} (1. b5 {is also possible}) 1... Kd7 2. b5 Kc8 3. a6 Kb8 {, in view of the threat of a6-a7 the black king has only the squares b8 and a8. It remains for White to penetrate into the enemy position, but for the moment this cannot be done due to ... d4.^013^010 To win, White must reach d6 when the black king is at a8 - hence he has to give his opponent the move. This is achieved by triangulation, on practically any squares. For example:} 4. Kb4 (4. Kd4 {%05or} Ka8 5. Kc3 Kb8 6. Kd3 Ka8 7. Kd4 Kb8 8. Kc5 {, and White wins.}) 4... Ka8 5. Ka5 Kb8 6. Ka4 Ka8 7. Kb4 Kb8 8. Kc5 Ka8 9. Kd6 {!} Kb8 (9... d4 10. Kc7) 10. Kxe6 d4 11. Kf7 d3 12. e6 $18 * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1936.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Bahr Peter (GER)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p7/2k1p1pp/1p1pPp2/1P3P2/3K2P1/P6P/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "37"] [EventDate "1936.??.??"] {In the following example it is Black's own passed pawn that prevents him from penetrating into the opponent's position.} 1... a6 {! (securing the Q-side) %05 In order to penetrate with his king, Black will be forced to sacrifice his d-pawn, and the whole question is whether or not White can defend all the invasion squares. But first White must be forced to use up his reserve tempi, which is very important for the creation of a zugzwang position.} 2. Kd4 Kd7 3. Kc5 Ke7 4. Kd4 Kf7 {Threatening to open lines by 5... g5. Therefore White's rely is forced, to be able to meet 5... g5 with 6. h5, blocking the king's path.} 5. h4 Ke7 6. Kc3 Kd7 7. Kd4 Kc6 8. Kd3 Kb6 9. Ke3 {!} (9. Kd4 {, allowing %05In a game played by Bahr his opponent went} a5 10. a3 axb4 11. axb4 {%04etc.}) 9... Kb7 (9... a5 {? comes %05But now on} 10. g4 {! , when Black cannot play} fxg4 11. h5 {!} gxh5 12. f5 {!} exf5 13. e6 Kc7 14. bxa5 {, when a white pawn is the first to queen, and meanwhile there is the threat of 11. h5 gh 12. g5. In defending against this threat, Black is forced by 10... h5 to waste his reserve tempo, after which there can be no question of a win.}) 10. Ke2 Kc6 11. Ke3 a5 {!} 12. a3 (12. g4 {? %05Black's king is one move closer to the e-file, and the breakthrough no longer works:} fxg4 {!} 13. h5 gxh5 14. bxa5 g3 15. f5 exf5 16. e6 d4+ 17. Kf3 d3 18. e7 Kd7 19. a6 d2 20. Ke2 g2 21. a7 d1=Q+ 22. Kxd1 g1=Q+ {and 23... Qa7$19}) (12. bxa5 b4 13. g4 h5) 12... axb4 13. axb4 Kb7 14. Kd4 Kb6 15. Kc3 d4+ {!} 16. Kd3 Kb7 17. Kxd4 Kc6 18. Kc3 Kd5 19. Kd3 h5 {, and Black wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1907.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Neustadtl"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5p2/4p1p1/3kP1Pp/p1p2P2/P1P1K3/1P5P/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "29"] [EventDate "1907.??.??"] {Sometimes, in order to penetrate into the opponent's position, one has to resort to very subtle manoeuvring, employing the theory of corresponding squares.} 1. Kf3 {%05In the first instance White must control the invasion point d4. This problem is easily solved by determining the corresponding squares. It is clear that the square corresponding to e3 is d5, to f3 - c6, and to e4 - c5. If after} Kc6 {White plays} 2. Kf2 {!} (2. Ke2 {%05or}) 2... Kc5 {, but after %05, Black replies} 3. Ke2 {! he has no good reply, and this means that he cannot maintain the correspondence.} Kc6 4. Kf3 {!} Kd5 5. Ke3 {! } Kc5 6. Ke4 h4 (6... Kc6 {%05Now Black loses immediately after} 7. Kd4 Kb5 8. h4 {, and therefore he has to advance his h-pawn.}) 7. Kf3 {!} Kd5 8. Ke3 {!} Kc5 9. Ke4 h3 (9... Kc6 10. Kd4 Kb5 11. h3 {is bad for Black}) (9... Kb5 { %05while after} 10. Kd4 {he is all the same forced to move his pawn.}) 10. Ke3 {Having forced the advance of the pawn, White makes for it with his king. But in doing so he must watch carefully that the opponent's king does not become too dangerous.} Kc6 11. Kf2 {! An essential finesse.} (11. Kf3 {, then %05If} Kd5 {, and after} 12. Kg3 Ke4 {Black has sufficient counter-play.}) 11... Kd5 12. Kf3 {!} Kc5 13. Kg3 {! (now this move is possible)} Kd5 14. Kxh3 Ke4 15. Kg4 $18 {~3($40745)~.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5p2/4p1p1/4P1P1/p1p1kPK1/P1P5/1P5P/8 b - - 0 15"] [PlyCount "14"] 15... Ke3 {%05 In this position, where White is now two pawns up, he either breaks through with his pawns or invades the opponent's position.^013^010 Three finishes are possible: the first two involve a pawn breakthrough, while the third is based on invading the enemy position.} (15... Kd3 16. Kf3 Kc2 17. h4 Kxb2 18. h5 gxh5 19. f5 exf5 20. g6 fxg6 21. e6 Kxa3 22. e7 Kb2 23. e8=Q a3 24. Qb5+ $18) (15... Kd5 16. Kf3 Kc6 17. Ke4 Kc5 18. h3 Kc6 19. Kd4 Kb5 20. h4 $18) 16. Kg3 Ke4 17. h4 Ke3 18. h5 gxh5 19. f5 {!} exf5 20. g6 {!} fxg6 21. e6 f4+ 22. Kh2 $18 {, and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1951.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Chekhover Vitaly A (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/4k3/6p1/2pPpP2/4P2P/6K1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "17"] [EventDate "1951.??.??"] 1. f5+ {! %05White wins by} (1. Kf2 {%05The immediate advance of the king towards the c-pawn %05does not promise success, e.g.} c3 2. Ke2 gxf4 3. exf4 Kd5 4. Ke3 {?} (4. f5 {%05Of course, stronger is} Kxd4 5. f6 e3 6. f7 c2 7. f8=Q c1=Q {, but even here there is no way that Black can lose.}) 4... Kc4 5. f5 Kb3 6. f6 c2 $19 {, and the pawn queens with check.}) 1... Kxf5 2. Kf1 {!!} (2. Kf2 {%05It is a mistake to play} g4 3. hxg4+ Kxg4 4. Ke2 c3 {! , when White is in zugzwang, and after} 5. Kd1 (5. d5 Kf5) 5... Kf3 6. d5 Kxe3 7. d6 Kf2 8. d7 e3 {the game ends in a draw.}) 2... c3 (2... g4 {, then %05If} 3. hxg4+ Kxg4 4. Kf2 {!} c3 5. Ke2 {, and it is Black who ends up in zugzwang.}) 3. Ke1 {!} g4 (3... Ke6 4. Kd1 Kd5 5. Kc1 {%04etc.}) 4. hxg4+ Kxg4 5. Ke2 {!} c2 6. Kd2 Kf3 7. d5 c1=Q+ 8. Kxc1 Kxe3 9. d6 {, and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1923.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Dawson"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1p3pp1/1p2p3/kP2P3/P3P3/1P3Pp1/2P5/K7 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] [EventDate "1923.??.??"] {The following study shows an exceptional situation.} 1. Kb2 Kb4 {%052. Ka3 with inevitable mate was threatened, so Black is forced to move his king out of the danger zone.} 2. c3+ Kc5 3. Kc2 f6 (3... g2 {, then %05a further tempo gained; if} 4. Kd3 {and 5. b4 mate}) 4. Kd3 fxe5 5. Ke2 {and by eliminating the g3 pawn White wins easily. In the examples considered, in spite of various difficulties, the stronger side normally succeeded in realizing his advantage. This is by no means always the case. We now wish to acquaint you with a whole series of positions in which the material advantage proves insufficient for a win. In each case we will try to establish what prevented the stronger side from winning.} * [Event "Kislovodsk (Russia)"] [Site "Kislovodsk (Russia)"] [Date "1982.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Kasparov Garry (RUS)"] [Black "Averbakh Yuri L (RUS)"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5p2/6kp/3p4/3P1P1P/4P1K1/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "2"] [EventDate "1982.??.??"] 1. Kf3 {%05How should White set up a passed pawn?} (1. h5+ {%05Little is also promised by the immediate sacrifice of a pawn, e.g.} Kxh5 2. e4 Kg6 {!} (2... dxe4 {%05but not} 3. d5 Kg6 4. d6 Kf6 5. f5 {!} h5 6. Kf4 {, when White wins.}) 3. exd5 Kf6 4. Kg4 Ke7 5. Kh5 Kd6 6. Kxh6 Kxd5 7. Kg7 Kxd4 {with a draw.}) 1... f5 {leads to an immediate draw, since the threat of 2... Kh5 with an attack on the h4 pawn restricts all his actions.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5p2/6k1/3p3p/3P1P1P/4P1K1/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] 1. Kf3 {%05Incidentally, if the black pawn were at h5, White would be able to win:} Kf5 (1... f5 {is too late due to} 2. Ke2 Kf6 3. Kd3 Ke6 4. Kc3 Kd6 5. Kb4 {, winning}) 2. e4+ dxe4+ 3. Ke3 Kg4 4. Kxe4 Kxh4 5. Kf3 {!$18 %04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/pp6/8/P2p1k1p/1P1P1P2/4P1K1/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "47"] 1... a6 {! is correct, depriving White of any reserve pawn moves, e.g. %05Chekhover reached this position (1936) when analyzing the 32nd game of the Capablanca - Alekhine World Championship match. White is a pawn up, but now is he to organize its advance? We should first remark that Black's defence requires a certain accuracy.} (1... Kg6 {? , for example, is bad: %05Thus} 2. Kh3 {!} Kf5 (2... b5 3. Kg3 Kf6 4. Kh4 Kg6 5. a6) 3. Kh4 Kg6 4. b5) 2. Kh4 Kg6 3. Kh3 Kf6 4. Kg3 Kf5 5. Kf3 h4 {!} 6. Kf2 Kg6 {! A precise retreat.} (6... Kg4 {%05Chekhover gave the variation} 7. Kg2 h3+ 8. Kh2 (8. Kf2 {! (instead of 8. Kh2) %05, but the king move to g4 is an obvious mistake, since after} Kh4 9. Kf3 {White wins.}) 8... Kh4) 7. Kg2 Kh6 {! (again the only reply which allows Black to maintain the balance)} 8. Kf3 Kh5 9. f5 (9. e4 {? %05There is nothing better. After} dxe4+ 10. Kxe4 Kg4 {it is Black who wins.}) 9... Kg5 10. f6 Kxf6 11. Kg4 h3 12. Kxh3 Kf5 13. Kg3 Ke4 14. Kf2 Kd3 15. Kf3 Kc4 16. Kf4 Kxb4 17. Ke5 Kxa5 18. Kxd5 b5 {!} 19. Kc5 b4 20. d5 b3 21. d6 b2 22. d7 b1=Q 23. d8=Q+ Ka4 24. Qd4+ Ka5 {Draw.} * [Event "Correspondence"] [Site "?"] [Date "1981.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Sapundzhiev"] [Black "Abramov"] [Result "1/2-1/2"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/6pp/5k2/2P1p3/5p2/5P1K/P7/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "31"] [EventDate "1981.??.??"] 1. a4 {! %05Here the white pawns divert Black's king to such an extent that it is quite unable to support his own pawn phalanx:} (1. Kg4 {, then %05White has to hurry. If} Ke6 2. a4 Kd5 3. Kf5 g6+ 4. Kf6 h5 $19 {, and Black wins.}) 1... Ke6 2. a5 Kd5 3. a6 Kc6 4. Kg4 g6 5. Kg5 h6+ {!} 6. Kh4 {!= Drawn.^013^010 Attempts by Black to win here look risky, e.g.} g5+ {?} (6... h5 7. Kg5 Kc7 8. Kh4 (8. Kf6 {?} e4 9. a7 Kb7 10. Ke7 e3 11. c6+ Kxa7 12. c7 e2 13. c8=Q e1=Q+ { , and the only chances are with Black}) 8... e4 {?} 9. fxe4 g5+ 10. Kh3 g4+ 11. Kg2 h4 12. Kg1 {!$18 , and White wins.}) 7. Kg4 Kc7 8. Kf5 e4 9. Kxe4 h5 10. Kd5 {!} g4 11. c6 Kb6 12. Kd6 gxf3 13. c7 f2 14. c8=Q f1=Q 15. Qb7+ Ka5 16. a7 $18 1/2-1/2 [Event "East Germany"] [Site "East Germany"] [Date "1946.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/6pp/5p2/p4P2/k5P1/3K4/7P/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1946.??.??"] {The saving procedure employed by White in the following example is characteristic of instances where the passed pawn is on a rook's file.} 1. Kc4 {! , so as not to allow the opponent's king out from in front of the pawn: %05White has in reserve three pawn tempi, and so he plays} Ka3 2. Kc3 a4 3. h3 {!} Ka2 4. Kc2 a3 5. h4 h6 6. h5 {Draw.} * [Event "Zandvoort (Netherlands)"] [Site "Zandvoort (Netherlands)"] [Date "1936.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Van Desburg"] [Black "Maroczy Geza (HUN)"] [Result "1/2-1/2"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/7p/p4pp1/8/4KPPP/k7/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "29"] [EventDate "1936.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ395} 1. f5 { ! %05Black's pawn looks threatening, but by a counter-attack on the opposite wing White succeeds in saving the game:} gxf5+ {(the threat was 2. fg hg 3. h5) } 2. Kxf5 a5 3. Kxf6 a4 4. Kg7 {! A necessary finesse:} (4. g5 {? %05White loses after} Kb4 5. h5 a3 6. g6 hxg6 7. hxg6 a2 8. g7 a1=Q+ $19) 4... Kb4 5. Kxh7 a3 6. g5 a2 7. g6 a1=Q 8. g7 {Owing to the fact that Black's king is a long way from the main battle sector, the queen is unable to demonstrate its superiority over the pawns,} Qa7 9. Kh8 Qd4 10. h5 Qf6 11. Kh7 Qf5+ 12. Kh6 { ! (the only move; all others lose)} Qf6+ (12... Qf7 13. g8=Q {!} Qxg8 {- stalemate!}) 13. Kh7 Qf7 14. h6 Kc5 15. Kh8 {= Drawn.} 1/2-1/2 [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1963.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Wotawa"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1p5p/8/3pk3/4p2p/2P5/1P2PK1P/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "10"] [EventDate "1963.??.??"] {The construction of a "fortress" - an impregnable position, into which the enemy pieces cannot penetrate - is one of the most important defensive procedures in any end-game. It is also applicable in pawn endings.} 1... d4 { ! White's position becomes critical: 2... b5 and then 3 ... Kd5 is threatened, when the king breaks through to the c3 pawn. %05After the natural} 2. c4 {!} ( 2. cxd4+ {, then %05If} Kxd4 3. h3 h6 4. Kf1 Ke3 5. Ke1 b5 {, and Black wins. Nevertheless White finds a surprising resource.}) 2... b5 {! 3. b4 was threatened, whereas now 3. c5 can be met by 3... b4, cutting of the pawn from the support of its b-pawn.} 3. c5 {!} (3. cxb5 {%05Bad is} Kd5 4. Ke1 Kc5 5. Kd2 Kxb5 6. Kc2 Kb4 7. h3 (7. b3 Ka3 8. h3 h6) 7... h6 8. Kb1 Kb3 9. Kc1 e3 { , when White can resign.}) 3... b4 {It only needs White to delay slightly, and after 4... Kd5 his position will become hopeless. But it is here that the subtlety of White's plan, involving the advance of the c-pawn, is revealed.} 4. e3 {!} d3 5. h3 {!} (5. b3 {, then %05Accuracy to the end! If first} h3 { , and the black king gains the opportunity to invade via g4.}) 5... Kd5 6. b3 { Now Black's king has no way of breaking into the opponent's position. draw. In conclusion, here two further examples from studies. The first position could hardly arise in a practical game, but the second is a perfectly natural one.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1930.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Lazard"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/pp1pppp1/3p2p1/PP2P1P1/K1P4P/8/k7/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "12"] [EventDate "1930.??.??"] 1. h5 {! %05Two pawns down, White's position looks completely hopeless. Only a miracle can save him, and that is what happens:} gxh5 2. g6 fxg6 3. e6 { (this would also have been the answer to 2... f6)} dxe6 4. c5 dxc5 5. a6 {!} bxa6 6. b6 {!!} axb6 {- stalemate!} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "1k6/8/1p6/1Pp4p/2p5/2P5/P7/1K6 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "8"] 1. Kb2 {! %05Black's passed pawn cannot be stopped, but in fact there is no need to do so. After} h4 2. Ka3 h3 3. Ka4 h2 4. a3 h1=Q {it transpires that White has stalemated himself. Draw!} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/6p1/1kp2p1p/5P1P/PK4P1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "16"] {~19. ENDINGS WITH SEVERAL PAWNS (positional advantage)~ In pawn endings the assessment of a position and the choice of plan are usually based on three factors: features of the pawn formation, the presence of reserve tempi, and the relative placing of the kings. These factors are linked to one another, are not permanent, and in the course of play their role may change sharply. And the influence of these factors on the assessment of a position is not identical. Sometimes it can be very difficult to establish which of them in the given situation is the most important, the most significant. In classifying the examples selected for this chapter, we have done things in the reverse order: after establishing beforehand which factor is the most distinctive, we have grouped examples on the basis of this indication. But the features of the pawn formation is too broad a concept, and we considered it expedient to expand it. Both the assessment of a position, and the plan of play, depend to a considerable extent on whether one of the sides possesses the following features of the pawn formation: (a) an outside passed pawn, or the possibility of creating one; (b) the more dangerous pawns, if both sides have passed pawns; (c) a protected passed pawn; (d) the possibility of a breakthrough; (e) organic weaknesses. These five basic features of the pawn formation have in fact been taken as the basis of our classification. To them we have added examples where one side possesses reserve tempi, and also positions where one of the kings is more actively placed. ~19.1 OUTSIDE PASSED PAWN~ If one side has an outside passed pawn or has the possibility of creating one, all other things being equal this normally constitutes a decisive positional advantage. The winning plan is to divert the opponent's king by the advance of this pawn, and then break through with one's own king into the enemy position. Here is a typical example.} 1. Kc2 {%05The outside passed a-pawn is much more dangerous than the c-pawn. White exchanges these pawns, as a result of which his king ends up closer to the remaining pawns, which leads to a decisive gain of material.} Ka3 (1... Kc5 {, after %05If Black stubbornly plays} 2. Kc3 Kb5 3. a3 Kc5 4. a4 Kd5 5. a5 Kc5 6. a6 { the exchange is forced in an even more unfavourable situation for him.}) 2. Kc3 Kxa2 3. Kxc4 Kb2 4. Kd4 Kc2 5. Ke4 Kd2 6. Kf5 Ke2 7. Kxg5 Kf2 8. Kxf4 Kxg2 { , and White wins. The winning method is usually based on the typical procedure of "transformation of advantages" - in return for the outside passed pawn the king is strongly activated.} * [Event "Hastings (England)"] [Site "Hastings (England)"] [Date "1964.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Gheorghiu Florin (ROM)"] [Black "Gligoric Svetozar (YUG)"] [Result "0-1"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/pp3p2/8/6kp/8/3K1PP1/PP6/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] [EventDate "1964.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ397 %212045826630=4HLJ399 As the following two practical examples show, in the majority of cases the realization of the advantage in such endings is of an elementary nature.} 1... f5 {! %05For the moment there is no outside passed pawn, but Black quickly obtains it:} 2. Ke3 f4+ {!} 3. Kf2 (3. gxf4+ Kf5 $19) 3... b5 {White resigns. After} 4. Kg2 b4 5. Kf2 fxg3+ 6. Kxg3 h4+ 7. Kh3 Kf4 8. Kxh4 Kxf3 $19 {the difference in the placing of the kings decides the game in Black's favour.} 0-1 [Event "USSR"] [Site "USSR"] [Date "1972.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Faibisovich Vadim Z (RUS)"] [Black "Gutman Lev (GER)"] [Result "1-0"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/7p/6p1/1p1kpp2/8/PP1K1P2/6PP/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "19"] [EventDate "1972.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ397 %212045826630=4HLJ399} 1. h4 (1. a4 {%05Of course, White could have played the immediate} bxa4 2. bxa4 Kc5 3. a5 Kb5 4. a6 Kxa6 5. Kc4 $18 {, but he wishes first to create weaknesses in the opponent's position.}) 1... h6 2. a4 b4 3. a5 Kc5 4. a6 Kb6 5. Kc4 Kxa6 6. Kd5 (6. Kxb4 {%05This is simpler than} Kb6 7. Kc4 Kc6 8. b4 $18 {, when White has to use this pawn to divert the king.}) 6... e4 7. fxe4 fxe4 8. Kxe4 Kb6 9. Kd4 Kb5 10. Kd5 $18 {, and White wins.} 1-0 [Event "Kislovodsk (Russia)"] [Site "Kislovodsk (Russia)"] [Date "1982.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Averbakh Yuri L (RUS)"] [Black "Tukmakov Vladimir B (UKR)"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1p6/p4kp1/P3pp2/7P/1P2K1P1/5P2/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "18"] [EventDate "1982.??.??"] {But sometimes the path to victory can be rather complicated, and can require accurate and subtle play.} 1... g5 {%05Therefore Black played} (1... Ke6 { %05The pawn structure here is such that White threatens to create an outside passed pawn by f2-f3, g3-g4 and h4-h5. For example:} 2. f3 Kd5 3. Kd3 Kc5 4. g4 {!} Kd6 (4... e4+ 5. Ke3 {!}) 5. gxf5 gxf5 6. h5 Ke6 7. Kc4 Kf6 8. Kd5 { , and White wins.}) 2. Kd3 {! , White could have won this ending, e.g. %05But by retaining his outside passed pawn with} (2. h5 {is not possible due to %05, exploiting the fact that} g4) (2. hxg5+ {%05The game concluded:} Kxg5 3. f3 Kf6 4. Kd3 Ke6 5. g4 e4+ {! The saving move.} (5... Kf6 {%05After} 6. gxf5 Kxf5 7. Kc4 Kf4 8. Kd5 Kf5 9. b4 Kf6 10. Kd6 Kf5 11. Ke7 Kf4 12. Ke6 e4 13. fxe4 Kxe4 14. Kd6 Kd4 15. Kc7 Kc3 16. Kxb7 Kxb4 17. Kxa6 {White would have won.}) 6. Ke3 exf3 7. g5 f2 {Drawn.}) 2... gxh4 3. gxh4 Kg6 4. Kc4 f4 5. h5+ {!} (5. Kd5 { %05Weaker is} Kf5 6. h5 e4 7. h6 (7. Kd4 {%05or} e3 8. fxe3 f3 9. Kd3 Kg4 10. h6 Kg3) 7... e3) (5. Kd3 {, then %05while if} Kf5 6. f3 e4+ {!} 7. fxe4+ Kg4 8. e5 f3 9. e6 Kg3 {, when Black queens with check and draws the queen ending.}) 5... Kxh5 6. Kd5 Kg4 7. Ke4 {! The only move which wins.} (7. Kxe5 {%05After} Kf3 {the game ends in a draw:} 8. b4 Kxf2 9. Kxf4 Ke2 10. Ke4 Kd2 11. Kd4 Kc2 12. Kc4 Kb2) 7... Kh3 (7... f3 {, then %05There is nothing better. If} 8. Kxe5 Kh3 9. Kf4 Kg2 10. Ke3) 8. Kxe5 Kg2 9. Kxf4 Kxf2 10. Ke5 {, and White wins by reaching the opponent's pawns first.} * [Event "Moscow (Russia)"] [Site "Moscow (Russia)"] [Date "1968.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Tal Mikhail N (LAT)"] [Black "Korchnoi Viktor (SUI)"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p4p2/1p2p3/2p2pkp/2P1P3/5KP1/PP3P1P/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1968.??.??"] 1. e5 {! White could have won. White's advantage here is determined by two main factors: he has the superior pawn formation and a greater number of pawn moves, which in a struggle for zugzwang should play a decisive role.^013^010 By 1. e5 White begins a plan which is typical of such positions: he intends to drive back the black king by h2-h4, occupy f4 with his king, and by f2-f3 and g3-g4 create an outside passed pawn on the h-file.^013^010 How can Black forestall this? %05 The diagram position was thoroughly analyzed by Smyslov, Furman and Averbakh, and in the end it was shown that by} (1. h3 {, and after %05White played} Kf6 2. Kf4 e5+ 3. Ke3 a6 4. b3 Ke6 5. exf5+ Kxf5 6. f3 Ke6 7. g4 f5 8. gxf5+ Kxf5 9. h4 Kf6 10. Ke4 Ke6 11. a3 b5 12. cxb5 axb5 13. Kd3 Kd6 { the game ended in a draw.}) 1... f6 {! he can create a tense situation, in which every tempo is vital. White makes the second step: %05Thus Black is not able to hinder the initial stage of the opponent's plan, but by} (1... h4 { It was convincingly shown by Smyslov that after %05Let us first try maintaining the king at g5, and to do this play} 2. h3 a6 3. a3 a5 4. a4 Kg6 5. Kf4 Kh5 6. b3 {Black ends up in zugzwang and is forced to retreat, and} Kh6 { is met by} (6... hxg3 {%05If instead Black plays} 7. fxg3 Kg6 {, White carries out his plan -} 8. g4 fxg4 9. Kxg4 {, and wins easily thanks to his outside passed pawn.}) 7. g4 Kg6 8. gxf5+ exf5 9. f3 {, winning.}) 2. h4+ Kg6 3. Kf4 a6 {! %05Black need not fear the breakthrough by f2-f3 and g3-g4, only if his king is at g6. His best plan of defence is} (3... Kf7 {%05Now passive tactics by the opponent allow White easily to achieve his aim:} 4. f3 Kg6 5. a3 a6 6. a4 {!} a5 7. b3 {(the battle for a tempo is won)} Kf7 8. g4 {!} fxg4 9. fxg4 fxe5+ 10. Kxe5 hxg4 11. Kf4 {, and the game is decided.}) 4. a3 {! , and if %05But White has the subtle reply} (4. f3 {comes %05Now on} b5 {!} 5. cxb5 (5. b3 b4) 5... axb5 6. a3 c4 {! , and in the struggle for a tempo it is Black who emerges the winner. The breakthrough} 7. g4 {even loses for White after} fxe5+ 8. Kxe5 fxg4 9. fxg4 hxg4 10. Kf4 Kh5) 4... b5 5. cxb5 axb5 6. b3 {! ~3($40762) ~.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/4ppk1/1pp1Pp1p/5K1P/PP4P1/5P2/8 b - - 0 6"] [PlyCount "21"] 6... fxe5+ {! %05 Unexpectedly White has acquired a new threat - that of creating an outside passed pawn... on the Q-side. True, the situation has become much sharper, since Black too has the possibility of creating a passed pawn.} 7. Ke3 {!! , found by Smyslov.^013^010 The threat of creating a passed pawn on the a-file is so strong that White can permit himself to give up a pawn. The subsequent events are extremely interesting, since Black has many ways of complicating matters. %05He wins by the subtle} (7. Kxe5 {comes %05What is White to do now? On the natural} Kf7 8. b4 c4 9. Kd4 e5+ 10. Kc3 Ke6 {with a draw.}) 7... Kf6 {(the king strives to enter the "square" of the a-pawn)} 8. a4 bxa4 {Forced.} (8... Ke7 {%05If} 9. axb5 Kd6 {, White makes a 180 turn -} 10. f3 Kc7 11. g4 {! , and nevertheless carries out his original plan.}) 9. bxa4 Ke7 10. Kd3 Kd6 11. Kc4 Kc6 12. a5 f4 13. gxf4 exf4 14. a6 f3 { ! The most tenacious defence.} (14... e5 15. a7 Kb7 16. Kxc5 e4 17. Kd4 e3 18. fxe3 fxe3 19. Kxe3 Kxa7 {results in the "tragedy of one tempo" - White wins, by outstripping his opponent by precisely one move:} 20. Kf4 Kb7 21. Kg5 Kc7 22. Kxh5 Kd8 23. Kg6 Ke8 24. Kg7 $18 {%04etc.}) 15. a7 Kb7 16. Kxc5 Kxa7 { ~3($41763)~.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/k7/4p3/2K4p/7P/5p2/5P2/8 w - - 0 17"] [PlyCount "23"] 17. Kd6 {! %05The only correct continuation is} (17. Kd4 {%05White has to decide - which pawn should he make for, f3 or e6? The correct path is easy to miss. After} Kb6 18. Ke3 Kc5 19. Kxf3 Kd4 20. Kf4 e5+ 21. Kg5 Ke4 22. Kxh5 Kf3 23. Kg5 Kxf2 24. Kf5 {it appears that White has succeeded, but the king makes a feint -} Kf3 {! , and after the forced} 25. Kxe5 Kg4 {it catches the pawn.}) 17... Kb6 18. Kxe6 Kc7 19. Kf5 Kd6 20. Kf4 {%05White should play} (20. Kg5 { %05 White again has a choice: should he go to the h5 pawn or the f3 pawn? It turns out that the immediate attempt to win the h5 pawn is incorrect:} Ke5 21. Kxh5 Kf5 22. Kh6 Kg4 23. h5 Kh3 24. Kg5 Kg2 25. h6 Kxf2 26. h7 Kg2 27. h8=Q f2 {, and the ending is a draw.}) 20... Ke6 21. Kxf3 Kf5 22. Ke3 {!} Kg4 23. f4 Kxh4 24. Kf3 {! The irony of fate! Black's king has at last eliminated the h-pawn, which has caused him so much trouble, but... it has ended up in a trap, and is now preventing its own pawn from advancing. The rest is simple:} Kh3 25. f5 h4 26. f6 Kh2 27. f7 h3 28. f8=Q {, and White wins. Difficulties over realizing an advantage can occur when: (a) for some reason or other it is difficult, or perhaps even impossible, to create an outside passed pawn; (b) the exchange of the pawn does not lead to the activation of the king, and does not enable it to penetrate into the enemy position; (c) both kings end up in the opposite camp, and the play leads to the mutual elimination of the pawns.} * [Event "Belgrade (Yugoslavia)"] [Site "Belgrade (Yugoslavia)"] [Date "1961.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Nedeljkovic Verica (YUG)"] [Black "Volpert Larisa (RUS)"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p4p1p/1k1pp1p1/8/PP1KP1P1/5P2/7P/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "19"] [EventDate "1961.??.??"] {White has an undisputed advantage, comprising a Q-side pawn majority, command of greater space, and, finally, a more active king position. but for the moment it is not apparent how he can create a passed pawn, and especially how he can penetrate with his king into the enemy position.} 1... g5 {! , not allowing White to advance his K-side pawns. How would the play have gone then? Let us consider some possible continuations: %05The opinion of the commentators was unanimous - the ending is won for White.^013^010 %05 But did Black exploit all his defensive resources? It appears that he did not. He could have hindered his opponent's task by} (1... Kc7 {%05The game continued} 2. g5 {!} Kb6 3. Kc4 a6 4. Kd4 Kc6 5. Kc4 Kc7 6. f4 {White embarked on active measures only after some harmless king manoeuvring, which here we will omit.} Kb6 7. Kd4 Kc6 8. Ke3 Kb6 9. f5 a5 {Black has to abandon his passive tactics.} (9... Kc6 {%05After} 10. f6 Kb6 11. Kd4 Kc6 12. Kc4 Kb6 13. a5+ Kc6 14. h3 { White wins very simply.}) 10. b5 Kc5 11. f6 Kb6 {Black is relying on the fact that the opponent's king will after all not be able to break into his position. } 12. Kf3 Kc5 13. Kg4 {Exploiting the fact that the black king is completely tied down by the protected passed b-pawn, White strengthens his position on the K-side to the maximum, by advancing his pawn to h6.} Kb6 14. h3 Kc5 15. h4 Kb6 16. h5 Kc5 17. h6 Kb6 18. Kf4 Kc5 19. Ke3 Kb6 20. Kd4 Kb7 21. e5 {! (now White's problem is to create an invasion point in the opponent's position)} d5 22. Kc5 Kc7 23. b6+ Kb7 24. Kd6 {! The culmination of White's plan! Although Black queens two moves earlier, he cannot prevent White from acquiring a new queen, and the resulting ending proves completely hopeless for him.} d4 25. Ke7 d3 26. Kxf7 d2 27. Kg8 d1=Q 28. f7 Qxa4 29. f8=Q Qb3 30. Kxh7 {Resigns.}) 2. Ke3 (2. Kc4 {(White tries first to fix the position on the Q-side)} a6 3. b5 ( 3. Kd4 {! (having provoked ... a6, White now proceeds to make the f3-f4 advance)} Kc7 {!} 4. Ke3 Kc6 {! An important finesse: with the opponent's king at e3, black's king must be at c6, to be able to make the timely counter-blow . .. d5.} 5. f4 gxf4+ 6. Kxf4 d5 {! with a draw.}) 3... axb5+ 4. axb5 f6 {!} 5. Kb4 {(5... Ka5 was threatened)} d5 6. exd5 exd5 7. h3 {!} h6 8. Ka4 d4 9. Kb4 d3 10. Kc3 Kxb5 11. Kxd3 Kc5 {, and we have reached example 521, where with accurate play Black gains a draw.}) 2... Kc6 {! (Black cannot remain passive, and must exploit any possibility of activating his forces)} 3. f4 gxf4+ 4. Kxf4 d5 {!} 5. Ke5 dxe4 6. Kxe4 f6 7. Kd4 Kb6 8. Kc4 a6 9. b5 axb5+ 10. axb5 e5 { , and it is not apparent how Black can lose. Thus by correctly exploiting his chance in the centre, it would seem that Black could have maintained the balance.} * [Event "Bucharest (Romania)"] [Site "Bucharest (Romania)"] [Date "1911.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Herland"] [Black "Johnson"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p7/1pp1k3/6p1/1PPPK3/8/P7/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "24"] [EventDate "1911.??.??"] {While the following ending migrated from book to book, its evaluation changed several times.} 1... Kf6 {%05 If Black sticks, for example, to waiting tactics, he is in %05no danger of losing:} (1... a5 {is possible. %05But if Black intends to play actively,} 2. c5 {%05After the correct} (2. a3 {is bad because of %05when} a4 {!}) 2... axb4 3. cxb6 Kd7 4. Kf5 Kc8 5. Kxg5 Kb7 6. Kf6 Kxb6 7. Ke6 Kb5 8. Kd6 {the game ends in a draw.}) (1... b5 {, when the game continued %05Therefore Black decided to make a breach on the opposite wing by} 2. c5 g4 3. d5+ (3. a3 {! , supporting the b4 pawn in advance. After %05However, it was correctly shown by Zinar (1974) that 3. d5 was an obvious mistake, throwing away the win, and that White should have played} g3 4. Kf3 Kd5 5. Kxg3 Kxd4 6. Kf4 {! Black is not saved by either} a5 (6... Kc4 {%05or} 7. Ke5 Kb3 8. Kd6 Kxa3 9. Kxc6 {, when White queens first.}) 7. bxa5 Kxc5 8. Ke5 {We can therefore agree with the opinion of Berger (1922), that 1... b5 was already the decisive mistake.}) 3... cxd5+ 4. Kf4 {, and... Black admitted defeat, thinking that he would be unable to cope with the protected passed pawn. ^013^010 Later Leick (1942) found that Black had been wrong to resign: after} d4 {!} 5. Kxg4 Kd5 6. Kf4 a6 7. a3 a5 {!} 8. Kf3 axb4 9. axb4 Ke5 {~3($41443)~ a draw is obvious.}) (1... g4 {%05 Here White's actively placed king completely neutralizes the outside passed pawn, and its diverting advance does not succeed, e.g.} 2. a4 g3 3. Kf3 Kf5 4. b5 {!} cxb5 5. axb5 {, and it is White who wins.}) 2. a4 a6 3. d5 cxd5+ 4. Kxd5 g4 5. Ke4 g3 6. Kf3 Ke5 7. Kxg3 Kd4 8. c5 bxc5 9. bxc5 Kxc5 10. Kf2 Kb4 11. Ke1 Kxa4 12. Kd1 Kb3 13. Kc1 { with a draw.^013^010 ^013^010 ^013^010 Thus if the passed pawn is not far from the opponent's king, and the latter is sufficiently active, the advantage may prove insufficient for a win.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/pp6/4k1pp/8/P3KPPP/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "30"] {In its time this position was the topic of a lively discussion in the chess press. It began in 1956 when Levenfish gave it as an example illustrating the strength of the outside passed pawn arising after 1... b6, 2... a6 and 3... b5. This was challenged by Romanovsky, who pointed out that the main factor in this position was in fact the active position of the white king, due to which Black's advantage was neutralized.} 1... h5 {! with the following continuation: %05Instead of 1... b6, Maizelis (1956) suggested} (1... b6 {%05After} 2. h5 gxh5 3. gxh5 a6 4. f5+ Kf6 (4... Kd6 5. f6 Ke6 6. f7) 5. Kd5 Kxf5 6. Kc6 b5 7. axb5 axb5 8. Kxb5 Kg5 9. Kc4 Kxh5 10. Kd3 {= the king reaches f1 in time.}) 2. f5+ gxf5+ 3. gxf5+ Kf6 4. a5 {! But even in this case, as he writes, "4... b6 or 4... b5 is futile in view of 5. a6!, and White is saved solely by the attack on the a7 pawn".} (4. Kd5 {?} Kxf5 5. Kd6 (5. a5 {%05or} Kg4 6. Kd6 b5 { !}) 5... a5 {!}) 4... b5 {%05This last variation is worth examining. Indeed, after} 5. a6 {!} b4 6. Kd4 Kxf5 7. Kc4 Ke5 {! %05But, as was shown by Botvinnik, Black can play more strongly:} (7... Kg4 8. Kxb4 Kxh4 9. Kc5 { White manages to capture on ay just in time:} Kg4 10. Kc6 h4 11. Kb7 h3 12. Kxa7 h2 13. Kb8 h1=Q 14. a7 {= with a draw.}) 8. Kxb4 Kd4 {! , forcing White to make a choice.} 9. Kb5 {! %05Botvinnik thought that even after the best move } (9. Kb3 {%05Bad, for example, is} Kc5 10. Ka4 Kb6 11. Kb4 Kxa6 {, and according to Bahr's rule White loses, since the black pawn has not moved from its initial square.}) 9... Kd5 10. Kb4 {!} Kc6 11. Kc4 Kb6 {Black would win, but in fact White is saved by a subtle king manoeuvre:} 12. Kd5 {!} Kxa6 13. Kc6 {! , when we reach a drawn position which could have^013^010 arisen in example ~3 ($40284)~. Without advancing his pawn^013^010 Black has no way of getting his king off the rook's file,^013^010 but then, according to Bahr's rule, it moves out of the^013^010 winning zone. For example:} Ka5 14. Kc5 {!} a6 15. Kc4 Kb6 16. Kb4 {= Draw.} * [Event "Correspondence"] [Site "?"] [Date "1978.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Poleshchuk Nikolai"] [Black "Nesis Gennadij (RUS)"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/p1p5/P3p1kp/1P6/3P1PK1/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "16"] [EventDate "1978.??.??"] {(variation from the game)} 1... h4+ {%05 Here the typical plan - exchanging the outside passed pawn with the aim of invading the opponent's position with the king - does not succeed for Black, since the white king in turn is able to attack the pawns. For example:} 2. Kh3 Kf4 (2... Kh5 {, then %05But due to the threat of a breakthrough, Black cannot win the necessary tempo even by manoeuvring. If} 3. f4 {!} (3. Kg2 {%05bad is} Kg6 4. Kh2 Kf5 5. Kh3 Kg5 { ! , when Black has gained the tempo needed}) 3... exf4 4. d4 f3 5. d5 {!} cxd5 6. b5 d4 7. bxa6 d3 8. a7 d2 9. a8=Q d1=Q 10. Qe8+ Kg5 11. Qe5+ {, with a draw by perpetual check.}) 3. Kxh4 Kxf3 4. Kg5 Ke3 (4... e4 5. dxe4 Kxe4 6. Kf6 { ! comes to the same thing}) 5. Kf5 Kxd3 6. Kxe5 Kc4 7. Kd6 Kxb4 8. Kxc6 Kxa5 9. Kc5 {Draw. Thus against correct defence, Black here is unable to realize his positional advantage.} * [Event "Buenos Aires (Argentina)"] [Site "Buenos Aires (Argentina)"] [Date "1978.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Nakagawa Emiko (JPN)"] [Black "Day"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5p1p/2k2p2/1p6/1K2PPPP/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "18"] [EventDate "1978.??.??"] {In the struggle against an outside passed pawn, the threat of a breakthrough is the most effective method of defence. The following example is highly instructive.} 1... Kb6 {was correct, but even then, by preparing the breakthrough with %05Of course,} (1... h6 {?? %05In this game, which constituted a "comedy of errors", after} 2. g5 {??} (2. h5 {! followed by 3. g5! would have won}) 2... fxg5 3. fxg5 h5 4. e5 Kd5 5. Kxb5 Kxe5 {Black won.}) 2. h5 {, White maintains the balance, e.g.} Kc6 3. h6 {!} Kb6 4. e5 {!} fxe5 5. fxe5 Kc6 6. e6 {!} Kd6 (6... fxe6 {?} 7. g5 {, and White wins}) 7. exf7 Ke7 8. Kxb5 Kxf7 9. Kc4 Kg6 10. Kd3 {, with a draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1983.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Averbakh Yuri L (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/p5k1/P1p1K1pp/8/1P1P1P2/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "17"] [EventDate "1983.??.??"] {Thanks to the active position of his king, White can draw in the following position.} 1. d4 {! %05His only chance is to try to set up a passed pawn -} (1. Ke4 {%05How is White to cope with the outside passed pawn? Bad is} h4 2. Ke3 Kf5 {, when he can resign.}) 1... h4 (1... cxd4 {%05If} 2. Kxd4 h4 {, then} 3. Ke3 {, and thanks to the threat of 4. b5 White is no longer in danger of losing.}) 2. dxc5 Kf7 3. Kd6 {!} (3. c6 {%05Everything else loses, e.g.} Ke7) ( 3. f4 {%05or} h3 4. c6 Ke8 5. Kd6 Kd8) 3... Ke8 4. Kc7 {!} h3 5. c6 h2 6. Kb8 h1=Q 7. c7 Qh2 8. Kb7 Qh7 9. Kb8 {, with a draw by repetition.} * [Event "Moscow (Russia)"] [Site "Moscow (Russia)"] [Date "1953.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Taimanov Mark E (RUS)"] [Black "Botvinnik Mikhail M (RUS)"] [Result "0-1"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "7k/7p/8/3pP3/1pp4P/5P2/P7/K7 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] [EventDate "1953.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ397 %212045826630=4HLJ401 ~19.2 MORE DANGEROUS PASSED PAWNS~ To this group we have assigned positions where both sides either have passed pawns, or can create them, which naturally leads to sharp situations. The question of which pawns are the more dangerous depends on the specific situation: how far advanced the pawns are, what part the kings are playing in the struggle with them, and so on. Positions of this type lend themselves least well to generalization. Here it often happens that the result depends on a single tempo.} 1... d4 {! %05If it were White's move, he would draw most easily by 1. a3, e.g. 1... ba (1... b3 is bad due to 2. Kb2 and 3. d4) 2. Ka2 d4 3. Ka3 d3 4. Kb2 d2 5. Kc2 c3 6. e6 Kg7 7. f4 and White's connected pawns are in no way inferior. However, also possible is 1. Kb2 d4 2. Kc2 d3 3. Kd2, when the pawns are stopped.^013^010 But in this position the right of the first move proves decisive, since Black is able to advance both his pawns to the 3rd rank, creating a zugzwang position.} 2. e6 Kg7 3. f4 Kf6 4. f5 d3 5. Kb2 h5 {White resigns. Indeed, after } 6. Kc1 b3 {!} 7. axb3 (7. a4 c3 8. a5 b2+ 9. Kb1 d2 $19 {does not help}) 7... cxb3 $19 {the white king is forced to allow one of the pawns to queen} 0-1 [Event "Hastings (England)"] [Site "Hastings (England)"] [Date "1895.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Pillsbury Harry N (USA)"] [Black "Gunsberg Isidor A (HUN)"] [Result "1-0"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/7p/2k1Pp2/pp1p2p1/3P2P1/4P3/P3K2P/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] [EventDate "1895.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ397 %212045826630=4HLJ401} 1. e4 {! he establishes contact with it: %05White's e6 pawn has broken away from his main forces, but by} dxe4 2. d5+ Kd6 3. Ke3 b4 4. Kxe4 a4 5. Kd4 h5 {A desperate attempt to set in motion his pawns on the opposite wing, which is quickly refuted.} (5... Ke7 {! would have been more tenacious, preparing the breakthrough under more favourable circumstances, e.g. %05Analysis showed that} 6. Kc4 b3 {!} 7. axb3 a3 8. Kc3 f5 {!} 9. gxf5 h5 { The situation has become incredibly sharp. Whose passed pawns will prove the more dangerous?} 10. b4 g4 11. b5 h4 12. b6 a2 13. Kb2 g3 14. d6+ Kxd6 15. b7 Kc7 16. e7 $18 {, and White outstrips his opponent by precisely one tempo, and wins.}) 6. gxh5 a3 7. Kc4 f5 8. h6 $18 {Resigns. Of particular interest is the question of the comparative strength of central and wing pawns. It is normally considered, for example, that if one of the players creates passed pawns simultaneously on both wings, these are stronger than a pair of connected pawns in the centre. Usually this is indeed the case.} 1-0 [Event "Bulgaria"] [Site "Bulgaria"] [Date "1972.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Shikova"] [Black "Krumova Velichka (BUL)"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/kp6/8/PP3p2/3Kpp1p/7P/5PP1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "32"] [EventDate "1972.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ397 %212045826630=4HLJ401} 1. Kc3 {! %05A difficult position to assess. White has the possibility of creating a passed pawn on the Q-side, but the king can neither support it, nor break through to the enemy pawns. White nevertheless shows that her pawns can become much more dangerous than the opponent's:} Kb8 { Where White's king is aiming for is as yet not clear, and its opponent goes to attack the Q-side pawns.} (1... e3 {? was bad due to} 2. Kd3 {!$18}) 2. Kd2 Kc7 3. Ke2 Kd6 4. Kf1 {! At last White's plan becomes clear: having taken up a frontal position with her king in front of the black pawns, she creates a passed pawn on the h-file, and uses her passed pawn on the Q-side to divert the opponent's king.} (4. g3 {? would have led to the loss: %05The immediate} fxg3 5. fxg3 hxg3 6. h4 f4 7. h5 f3+ 8. Ke3 g2 {, and the "self-propelled" pawns queen on their own -} 9. Kf2 e3+ 10. Kg1 e2 $19 {%04etc.}) 4... Kc5 5. a6 bxa6 6. bxa6 Kb6 7. g3 {!} fxg3 8. fxg3 hxg3 9. Kg2 {!} (9. h4 {??} e3 $19 { it is Black who wins}) 9... Kxa6 10. h4 {Black resigned, (?? )} e3 {! %05But after} (10... f4 {?} 11. h5 e3 12. Kf3 Kb5 13. h6 Kc4 14. h7 Kd3 15. h8=Q $18 { she is one tempo too late.}) 11. Kxg3 (11. Kf3 {%05or} Kb5 12. Kxe3 f4+ 13. Kf3 Kc4 14. h5 Kd3 15. h6 g2 16. Kxg2 Ke2 {=}) 11... f4+ 12. Kf3 Kb5 {!} 13. h5 Kc4 14. Ke2 (14. h6 Kd3 {=}) 14... Kd4 15. h6 f3+ 16. Kxf3 Kd3 {= with a draw If the connected pawns are close to the queening square and can be supported by the king the result of game will depend on the specific circumstances.} * [Event "Mar del Plata (Argentina)"] [Site "Mar del Plata (Argentina)"] [Date "1981.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Quinteros Miguel A (ARG)"] [Black "Andersson Ulf (SWE)"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/pp6/2p3kp/4P3/5P2/P7/1P6/3K4 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "29"] [EventDate "1981.??.??"] {But if the connected pawns are close to the queening square and can be supported by the king, the situation is significantly changed and the result will depend on the specific circumstances.} 1. e6 {! %05The black pawns are not yet advanced, and therefore White's king is able to support his pawns:} Kf6 2. f5 a5 3. Ke2 a4 4. Kf3 h5 5. Kg3 b5 6. Kh4 c5 7. Kxh5 b4 8. Kh6 {White's plan is to sacrifice his e-pawn and queen the f-pawn.} (8. axb4 {? %05From the viewpoint of the resulting queen ending, the preliminary} cxb4 9. Kh6 {, as occurred in the game, was weaker:} a3 10. e7 Kxe7 11. Kg7 axb2 12. f6+ Kd7 13. f7 b1=Q 14. f8=Q Qg1+ 15. Kh6 (15. Kh7 Qh2+ 16. Kg7 (16. Kg6 Qd6+ {!}) 16... Qe5+ {etc. would have been no better.}) 15... Qe3+ {! and White resigned, since the exchange of queens is inevitable.}) 8... c4 9. e7 Kxe7 10. Kg7 c3 11. bxc3 bxa3 12. f6+ Ke6 13. f7 a2 14. f8=Q a1=Q 15. Qf6+ {, and White gains a draw. The play in such positions is of an exceptionally concrete nature, and demands accuracy. The slightest delay of weakening of the position may prove fatal.} * [Event "Nuremberg (Germany)"] [Site "Nuremberg (Germany)"] [Date "1896.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Pillsbury Harry N (USA)"] [Black "Tarrasch Siegbert (GER)"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/pp4k1/6pp/3PP3/7P/8/P6K/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "22"] [EventDate "1896.??.??"] 1... b5 {%05 White's connected passed pawns are far advanced, but it is not apparent how he can support them with his king. Black's chances appear to be better} 2. h5 {! The point is that after %05But in 1941 Fine showed that after 1... b5 White can force a draw by} (2. Kg3 {%05but the game in fact ended in a win for White:} b4 (2... a5 {! would have been stronger, when after %05Later Tarrasch showed that} 3. Kf4 Kf7 4. h5 gxh5 5. Kf5 h4 6. d6 h3 7. e6+ Ke8 8. Kf6 h2 9. d7+ Kd8 10. Kf7 h1=Q 11. e7+ Kxd7 12. e8=Q+ Kd6 13. Qd8+ Kc5 { Black has every chance of winning the queen ending.}) 3. Kf4 g5+ 4. hxg5 hxg5+ 5. Kxg5 a5 6. d6 Kf7 7. Kf5 a4 8. e6+ Ke8 9. Kf6 b3 10. axb3 axb3 11. d7+ Kd8 { Resigns.}) 2... gxh5 {White advances his king to f7 not via f5, but via h5, eliminating the dangerous black pawn on the way. Here is a possible continuation:} 3. Kg3 a5 4. Kh4 b4 5. d6 Kf7 6. d7 Ke7 7. e6 a4 8. Kxh5 b3 9. axb3 axb3 10. Kg6 b2 11. d8=Q+ Kxd8 12. Kf7 {Draw.} * [Event "USSR"] [Site "USSR"] [Date "1975.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Polikarpov Arkady D (BLR)"] [Black "Yuferov Sergey N (RUS)"] [Result "0-1"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/ppp4p/3p4/3Pk3/2P1p1P1/4K2P/PP6/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] [EventDate "1975.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ397 %212045826630=4HLJ401 In the following example the connected pawns prove stronger than the isolated pawns on either wing.} 1... c6 {! %05Black has the more active king, and it is this factor that enables him to carry out a typical plan - of creating two connected passed pawns in the centre. The fact that they can be actively supported by the king decides the game in Black's favour.} 2. dxc6 (2. g5 {%05White does not manage to divert the opponent by the advance of his K-side pawns, e.g.} cxd5 3. cxd5 Kxd5 4. h4 Ke5 5. h5 d5 6. g6 d4+ $19 {, and Black wins.}) 2... bxc6 3. b4 {An attempt to develop play on both wings.} (3. g5 {, then %05If} d5 4. cxd5 cxd5 5. h4 d4+ 6. Ke2 Kf4 $19 { %04etc.}) 3... d5 4. c5 (4. cxd5 {%05No better is} cxd5 5. a4 d4+ 6. Ke2 d3+ 7. Ke3 Kd5 8. g5 Kc4 9. h4 Kc3 $19 {, and the c-pawn queens.}) 4... d4+ 5. Ke2 (5. Kd2 {%05 If the king is actively supporting its passed pawns, and both side queen a pawn, in certain cases this can lead to the creation of a mating attack. Here, for example, there could have followed:} e3+ 6. Kd3 Kf4 {!} 7. b5 Kf3 8. bxc6 e2 9. c7 e1=Q 10. c8=Q Qc3#) (5. Kf2 {%05or} d3 6. Ke3 Kd5 7. g5 Kc4 8. b5 Kc3 {!} 9. bxc6 d2 10. c7 d1=Q 11. c8=Q Qf3# {mate.}) 5... d3+ 6. Ke3 Kd5 7. g5 Kc4 8. h4 Kc3 $19 {White resigns. In endings of this type one normally has to reckon with the possibility of a queen ending arising. The correct assessment of such endings is extremely difficult. They require, firstly, deep penetration into the special features of the position, and secondly, mathematically precise calculation. The following Grigoriev study strikingly illustrates the diversity of procedures which have to be employed in playing these complicated endings.} 0-1 [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1938.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p1pp4/Pp6/8/7p/k6P/P4PP1/6K1 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "55"] [EventDate "1938.??.??"] {The first impression is that the black pawns are more dangerous, but the stipulation - White to play and win - signifies that in fact the opposite is true.} 1. f4 {%05 First White advances his f-pawn:} Kb4 2. g3 {! Now the second pawn joins in.} (2. g4 {? %05Now the second pawn joins in. Incidentally, it would be a mistake to play} Kc5 {, when Black is assured of a draw.}) 2... Kc5 {! %05Of course, instead of 2... hg, more tenacious is} (2... hxg3 3. h4 { Black's king is outside the "square" of this pawn, but he can advance his d-pawn.} d5 4. f5 Kc5 5. h5 d4 6. f6 Kd6 7. h6 d3 8. f7 Ke7 9. h7 d2 {, and now the familiar finish} 10. f8=Q+ Kxf8 11. h8=Q+ {, and White wins.}) 3. gxh4 Kd5 {, trying at all costs to stop the pawns with the king.} 4. h5 Ke6 5. h6 {! } Kf7 6. f5 b5 {Thus the white pawns have been stopped, and Black reveals his trumps... . It is now that some exceptionally subtle play begins.} 7. a3 {!} ( 7. Kf2 {%05The only move to win, whereas the immediate approach of the king does not succeed:} b4 {!} 8. Ke3 c5 9. Ke4 c4 10. Kd4 c3 11. Kd3 d5 {, and White is unable to break up the enemy pawn chain by} 12. a3 {? due to} bxa3 13. Kxc3 d4+ {, when it is Black who wins.}) 7... c5 8. Kf2 d5 9. Ke3 {! The only way.} (9. Kf3 {there would have followed %05On} c4 10. Ke3 c3 11. Kd3 d4 { , when White can no longer win.}) 9... Kf6 10. h4 Kf7 11. h7 {! (by this pawn sacrifice White further strengthens his position)} Kg7 12. f6+ Kxh7 13. h5 Kh6 (13... b4 {%05In the event of} 14. axb4 cxb4 15. Kd4) (13... c4 {%05or} 14. Kd4 ) (13... d4+ {%05or} 14. Ke4 {! , the king move to h6 is forced, which leads to variations considered below.}) 14. Kf4 {! This decisive manoeuvre is possible only if the black king is at h6. Now three variations are possible, all leading to a won queen ending:} b4 (14... c4 {(the most tenacious)} 15. Kf5 c3 16. f7 Kg7 17. Ke6 c2 18. h6+ Kg6 19. f8=Q c1=Q 20. Qf6+ {!} Kh5 21. h7 Qc6+ (21... Qc8+ {%05stronger than} 22. Kd6 {!} Qxa6+ (22... Qb8+ {%05or} 23. Kxd5 Qa8+ 24. Kd4) 23. Ke5) 22. Kf7 Qd7+ (22... Qc7+ {%05Or} 23. Qe7 Qf4+ 24. Kg7 Qg3+ 25. Kf8 Qc3 {! (this reply, overlooked by Grigoriev, was pointed out by Bondarevsky)} 26. Kf7 Qh8 (26... Qf3+ {, then %05there is nothing better; if} 27. Qf6) 27. Qe2+ Kg5 28. Qg2+ Kf4 29. Qg7 {, and White wins.}) 23. Qe7 Qf5+ 24. Kg7 Qg6+ (24... Qg4+ 25. Kf8 Qd4 26. Qe2+ Kg6 27. Qc2+ {!} Kg5 28. Qg2+ Kf4 29. Qh2+ {, winning}) 25. Kf8 Qh6+ 26. Ke8 Qc6+ {27. Qe5 was threatened} (26... Kg4 {%05and if} 27. Kd7 {! , when Black cannot avoid a check along the 8th rank with the promotion of the pawn, while in addition 28. Qe6 is threatened}) 27. Qd7 Qc3 (27... Qa8+ {%05if} 28. Kf7 Qh8 {, then} (28... Kh6 {%05or} 29. Qh3+) 29. Qf5+ {exchanging queens}) 28. Qf5+ Kh4 (28... Kh6 29. Qh3+ {!}) 29. Qf4+ $18 {, and against a check on the h-file there is no defence.}) (14... d4 {(the most harmless)} 15. Kf5 d3 16. f7 Kg7 17. Ke6 d2 18. h6+ Kg6 19. f8=Q d1=Q 20. Qg7+ Kh5 21. h7 Qb3+ 22. Kd6 Qd3+ 23. Kc7 {, and there are no more checks.}) 15. axb4 cxb4 16. Ke5 b3 17. f7 Kg7 18. Ke6 b2 19. h6+ Kg6 20. f8=Q b1=Q 21. Qg7+ Kh5 22. h7 Qb6+ 23. Kd7 Qb5+ 24. Kc8 {!} Qc6+ (24... Qe8+ { %05Grigoriev shows that other continuations are weaker:} 25. Kc7) (24... Qc4+ 25. Kb8 Qb5+ (25... Qb4+ 26. Ka8) 26. Qb7 Qe8+ 27. Qc8 Qb5+ 28. Ka8) (24... Qxa6+ {, then %05If instead} 25. Kb8 {, as in the main variation:} Qb6+ 26. Qb7 Qd6+ 27. Ka8 {%04etc.}) 25. Kb8 Qb6+ 26. Qb7 Qd6+ (26... Qf6 {, then %05if} 27. Qc8 {and 28. Ka8}) (26... Qd4 {%05or}) 27. Ka8 {, and the check at d8 or f8} Qd8+ (27... Qf6 28. Qc8 $18) 28. Qb8 $18 {%05is met by} * [Event "Moscow (Russia)"] [Site "Moscow (Russia)"] [Date "1954.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Ilyukhin"] [Black "Novopolsky"] [Result "0-1"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/pppp1k2/5Ppp/PPPPK3/7P/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "16"] [EventDate "1954.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ397 %212045826630=4HLJ401 Here are two further instructive examples, demonstrating the features of such endings.} 1. b5 {, creating the threat of a breakthrough. But Black can solve all his problems by the unexpected counter-blow %05White played} d5+ {! , with these possibilities:} (1... axb5 {? , then %05What should Black do now? If} 2. c5 {!} dxc5 3. dxc5 bxc5 (3... bxa4 4. cxb6 a3 5. b7 a2 6. b8=Q a1=Q 7. Qf8# {%04mate}) 4. a5 b4 5. a6 b3 6. Kd3 $18 {, and White wins.}) (1... cxb5 {%05No better is} 2. a5 {!} bxa5 3. c5 dxc5 4. dxc5 $18 {, since one of White's passed pawns quickly queens.}) 2. cxd5 (2. Kd3 dxc4+ 3. Kxc4 axb5+ 4. axb5 cxb5+ 5. Kxb5 g4 6. hxg4 hxg4 7. d5 g3 8. d6 g2 9. d7 Ke7 $19) (2. Ke3 cxb5 3. c5 bxc5 4. dxc5 Kxf5 $19 {, and Black wins.}) 2... cxd5+ 3. Kxd5 axb5 4. Kc6 (4. axb5 {%05totally bad is} g4 5. hxg4 hxg4 6. Ke4 g3 7. Kf3 Kxf5 8. Kxg3 Ke4) 4... g4 5. hxg4 h4 {! (this is the whole point - the h-pawn queens with check)} 6. d5 h3 7. d6 h2 8. d7 h1=Q+ $19 {After 1. b5 the game was sent for adjudication, and Black was awarded a win.} 0-1 [Event "Ch World (match)"] [Site "?"] [Date "1935.??.??"] [Round "24"] [White "Euwe Max (NED)"] [Black "Alekhine Alexander A (RUS)"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "5k2/p1p3p1/1p2p3/8/7P/5PP1/P4P2/6K1 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] [EventDate "1935.??.??"] {Black's pawns on the Q-side look very threatening, but without the help of their king they cannot promote. White's problem is to tie down the opponent's king by the threat of advancing his K-side pawns, but in such a way that they do not become easy booty. The following set-up would be ideal for White: pawns at f4, g5 and h5. Then the threat of h5-h6 would tie the black king to this part of the board.} 1... e5 {! %05Naturally, in the first instance Black prevents f3-f4:} 2. Kf1 (2. f4 exf4 3. gxf4 {is hopeless, since the black king deals with these pawns without difficulty. It is also bad to advance the pawns to g5 and h5, since they can be attacked from f5.}) 2... b5 3. Ke2 {Correct was } a5 {!} (3... c5 {? (this instructive mistake allows White to equalize; Black overlooks the opponent's threat to repair his pawn structure)} 4. Ke3 {! , and a draw was agreed, since the threat of 5. f4 cannot be parried.}) 4. Ke3 (4. Kd3 {, the play takes a standard course: %05If instead White plays} a4 5. Kc3 c5 6. g4 Ke7 7. Kd3 Ke6 8. Kc3 Kd5 9. a3 Ke6 10. Kd3 (10. h5 {%05 We have examined a continuation where in the main White manoeuvres with his king. If at any point he moves one of his pawns on the K-side, the black king immediately makes for there. For example:} Kf6 {!} 11. f4 (11. Kb2 Kg5 12. Kc3 e4 13. fxe4 Kxg4 14. e5 Kxh5 15. f4 g6 {, then 16... Kf5 and 17... g5, eliminating the K-side pawns}) 11... exf4 12. f3 Ke5 13. Kd3 b4 14. axb4 cxb4 15. Kc4 a3 16. Kb3 Kd4 17. Ka2 Kc3 {, and Black wins as in the previous variation (pointed out by Botvinnik).}) 10... Kd6 11. Kc3 Kd5 12. Kd3 b4 13. axb4 (13. Kc2 bxa3 14. Kc3 c4 15. Kc2 Kd4 16. h5 c3 {, winning}) 13... cxb4 14. Kc2 Kc4 15. Kb2 a3+ 16. Ka2 Kc3 {, and Black wins.}) 4... b4 {, when} 5. f4 { is decisively met by} exf4+ 6. Kxf4 a4 {, since the white king is outside the a-pawn's "square";} 7. Ke4 b3 8. axb3 a3 {%04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/pp6/6k1/3pPp2/3P4/1P6/P2K4/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] {~19.3 PROTECTED PASSED PAWN~ The possession of a protected passed pawn, or the possibility of creating one, is an important, and in many cases decisive positional advantage. If the king does not have to worry about this pawn, does not have to defend it, it can be directed into the enemy position to attack the opponent's pawns. In short, a protected passed pawn allows the king to become more active. And on the contrary, a protected passed pawn will restrict the opponent's king, which will be unable to move far away from this pawn. The following example can well be called typical.} 1. Ke3 {%05The greater manoeuvrability of White's king - a consequence of the fact that his e-pawn is protected and passed - enables him to win.} Kg5 2. Kf3 {! White's problem is to put his opponent in zugzwang. For this reason he should not be in a hurry to advance his pawns on the opposite wing: the tempi may later come in useful.} a5 (2... f4 {loses immediately, since White can employ a procedure which in such positions is standard - the exchange of pawns with the aim of penetrating into the enemy position on the critical squares of the opponent's pawn(s):} 3. e6 {!} Kf6 4. Kxf4 Kxe6 5. Kg5 {, and White wins the d-pawn.}) 3. Kg3 (3. a4 b6 4. Kg3 {is also possible}) 3... f4+ 4. Kh3 {!} b5 (4... Kh5 {since after %05This is the whole point. Now the black king cannot move to h5,} 5. e6 Kg6 6. Kg4 {White's king breaks into the opponent's position. And the advance of Black's pawns on the opposite wing can no longer change the zugzwang situation which has arisen.}) 5. a3 b4 6. a4 Kf5 7. Kh4 {! , and White wins.} * [Event "Moscow (Russia)"] [Site "Moscow (Russia)"] [Date "1964.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Averbakh Yuri L (RUS)"] [Black "Bebchuk Evgeni (RUS)"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1p4p1/3kPp1p/5P2/6PP/3K4/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1964.??.??"] {There is one further important advantage of a protected passed pawn: an enemy outside passed pawn is not usually dangerous, since, with o longer having to worry about its own pawn, the king can head off to deal with it. (variation from the game)} 1. Kc4 {%05The plan is simple: White attacks the outside passed pawn with his king.} Kc6 2. Kb4 Kd6 (2... b6 {%05no better is} 3. Kc4 Kd6 4. Kb5 Kc7 5. h5) 3. Kb5 Kc7 4. Kc5 Kd8 5. Kb6 Kc8 6. h5 {, and White wins. It should be noted that White won only because he had a reserve tempo. Without it all his winning attempts would have been in vain.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1921.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Lasker Emanuel (GER)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p7/k1p2p2/P1Pp1p1p/KP1PpP1P/4P3/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "17"] [EventDate "1921.??.??"] {In situations where the outside passed pawn cannot be eliminated "for free", an alternative method is sometimes possible: the protected passed pawn is exchanged for it, but in doing so the king penetrates into the enemy position. With this plan it is very important that there should be pawn weaknesses in the opponent's position. The following two examples show various aspects of the implementation of this plan.} 1. Kb3 {! %05Correct is} (1. b5+ {? %05The immediate creation of a protected passed pawn does not win here:} cxb5+ 2. Kb4 Kb7 3. Kxb5 a6+ {, and Black has set up a fortress into which the white king cannot penetrate.}) 1... Kb7 (1... Kb5 2. a6 {!} Kxa6 3. Ka4 {comes to the same thing}) 2. a6+ {!} Kxa6 (2... Kc7 {%05The attempt to set up barrier with pawns does not succeed:} 3. Ka4 Kd7 4. b5 Kc7 5. bxc6 Kc8 {!} 6. c7 {!} Kxc7 7. Kb5 Kd7 8. c6+ Kd6 9. c7 Kxc7 10. Kc5 {, and White wins.}) 3. Ka4 Kb7 4. b5 a6 (4... cxb5+ {%05Things are not improved by} 5. Kxb5 Kc7 6. Ka6 Kb8 7. c6 Ka8 {! } (7... Kc7 8. Kxa7 Kxc6 9. Ka6 {!}) 8. Kb5 {!} (8. c7 {?? leads to stalemate}) 8... Kb8 9. Kc5 $18) 5. bxc6+ Kxc6 6. Ka5 Kb7 7. c6+ Kxc6 8. Kxa6 Kc7 9. Kb5 { , and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1941.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Fine Reuben (USA)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p6p/2k3p1/4Pp2/2K2P1P/6P1/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "51"] [EventDate "1941.??.??"] 1. Kb4 {%05This position is given in Fine's book as an illustration of the strength of the protected passed pawn. In his opinion, the win does not present any difficulty:} Kb6 (1... h5 {, not allowing the breaking-up of his pawn chain, there can follow %05It only remains to add that, if on 1. Kb4 Black replies} 2. Ka5 Kb7 3. Kb5 Kc7 4. Ka6 Kb8 5. e6 Kc7 6. Kxa7 Kd6 7. Kb6 Kxe6 8. Kc6 {, and the opposition of the kings allows White soon to win the g6 pawn, e.g.} Ke7 9. Kc7 Ke6 10. Kd8 Kf7 (10... Kd5 11. Ke7 Ke4 12. Kf6 Kf3 13. Kxg6 Kxg3 14. Kg5 {!}) 11. Kd7 Kf6 12. Ke8 Kg7 13. Ke7 Kh7 14. Kf7 Kh6 15. Kg8 $18 {, and White wins.}) 2. Ka4 Kc6 $18 {%05Fine's analysis was later criticized by a number of theorists, who showed that Black's %05defence was by no means the best. Thus, instead of 2... a6, more tenacious is} (2... a6 3. Kb4 Kc6 4. Kc4 Kb6 {%00o^ Kb7 7.h5 gxh5 8.e6 Kc6 9.Kxa6 Kd6 10.Kb6 Kxe6 11.Kc6 $18 (~3(*)~}) ({Kd5 ! Kb7} 2... a5 {Kd6 ! %04etc.}) ({Kd6 Kc8 Kc6 , and after eliminating the a-pawn White wins easily.} 2... a5 3. h5 {!} gxh5 4. e6 Kc6 5. Kxa5 Kd6 6. Kb6 Kxe6 7. Kc6 $18 {~3(*)~}) 3. Ka5 Kc7 4. Ka6 Kb8 {, when the a-pawn can be won only by giving up the e-pawn. The correct plan is in fact to exchange these pawns and then invade with the king into the enemy position! But first, weaknesses must be created there. Therefore White plays} 5. h5 {!} gxh5 6. e6 Kc7 7. Kxa7 Kd6 8. Kb6 Kxe6 9. Kc6 {! %04 %04 Position ~3(*)~ %08DA} Kf7 {!} (9... Kf6 {%05This suggestion of Euwe and Hooper (1958) is stronger than Maizelis's} 10. Kd6 Kg6 11. Ke6 h4 12. gxh4 Kg7 {!} 13. Kxf5 Kf7 14. Ke5 Ke7 15. h5 {!} Kf7 16. Kd6 Kf6 17. h6 {! ($40304).}) 10. Kd7 {!} (10. Kd5 { ? Because then comes %05But why not} Ke7 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8) #C(8/401I02I01I1/303D103I2/301D02D3/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) ! , when White can no longer win. Black must try to ensure^013^010 that, when the f5 pawn is captured, his king is already at^013^010 f7. Then ... h4 followed by ... Ke7 is possible, and the^013^010 by-pass plan employed in examples ~3 ($41304)-($41305)~^013^010 does not succeed: White is short of a tempo. The^013^010 features of such positions are explained in detail in the^013^010 analysis of examples ~3 ($41304) -($41308).~^013^010 It is not hard to see that here we have a case of^013^010 corresponding squares: d5/e7(g7), e5/f7 and d6/f6.}) 10... Kf8 11. Kd6 {!!} (11. Ke6 {? %05The natural} Ke8 {!} 12. Kxf5 {leads to a draw after} (12. Kf6 {can be met by %05while} h4 {!} 13. gxh4 Kf8 {with the same result.}) 12... h4 13. gxh4 Ke7 {!}) 11... Kg7 (11... Kf7 12. Ke5 {!}) 12. Ke7 {!} Kg6 (12... Kg8 {%05No better is} 13. Ke6 {!} Kf8 14. Kf6 {!} h4 15. gxh4 Kg8 16. Kxf5 Kf7 {, when we reach a position from Maizelis's variation.}) 13. Ke6 {At last white wins the pawn without allowing the opponent's king to go to f7. But the struggle is not yet over: there is one last problem for White to solve.} h6 {! This defence was pointed out by E. Richter, who^013^010 thought that in this way Black could draw. But this is not^013^010 so ~3 ($41301).~} 14. Ke5 Kg7 15. Kxf5 Kf7 16. Ke5 Ke7 17. f5 Kf7 18. f6 Ke8 {!} 19. Kf4 {!} Kf8 20. Ke4 Ke8 21. Ke5 {!} Kf8 22. Ke6 Ke8 23. f7+ Kf8 24. Kf6 h4 25. gxh4 h5 26. Kg6 $18 {, and White wins.} * [Event "Nuremberg (Germany)"] [Site "Nuremberg (Germany)"] [Date "1896.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Tarrasch Siegbert (GER)"] [Black "Schiffers Emanuel S (RUS)"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "3k4/p6p/2KP2p1/8/4pP2/4P3/7P/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "21"] [EventDate "1896.??.??"] {In the following position, by creating a protected passed pawn, White managed to win the opponent's outside passed pawn. But had Black defended correctly, an undermining manoeuvre would have allowed him to neutralize White's threats. } 1... Kc8 {! First White has to advance his h-pawn" But he did not give any variations demonstrating the win.^013^010 Many analysts sought this demonstration, but each time came to the conclusion that a win is impossible. We give the most recent analysis by Botvinnik and Minev. %05In his commentary Tarrasch wrote: "As analysis after the game showed, the win would have been the most difficult after} (1... h6 {? , and after %05Black irreparably weakened his pawns by} 2. h4 {! the threat of 3. h5 forced him to play} h5 { , depriving him of the possible undermining move ... g5. The game continued} 3. Kd5 Kd7 4. Kxe4 Kxd6 5. Kd4 Kc6 6. e4 Kd6 7. Kc4 Kc6 8. Kb4 {Resigns. After} Kb6 {the attack on the outside passed pawn is decisive:} 9. Ka4 Kc6 (9... Kc5 { %05or} 10. Ka5 Kd4 11. e5 {The protected passed e-pawn proves to be the decisive factor.}) 10. Ka5 Kc7 11. Ka6 Kb8 12. e5) 2. h4 Kd8 3. h5 {!?} (3. Kd5 Kd7 4. Kxe4 Kxd6 5. Kd4 Ke6 6. e4 h6 7. Kc4 a5 8. Kb5 Kf6 9. Kxa5 g5) 3... Kc8 (3... gxh5 4. f5) 4. h6 a5 {! At just the right time! Only in this way can Black save the game.} (4... Kd8 {%05Bad is} 5. Kd5 Kd7 6. Kxe4 Kxd6 7. Kd4 Ke6 8. e4 Kd6 9. Kc4 Kc6 10. Kb4 Kb6 11. Ka4 Kc5 12. Ka5 Kd4 13. e5 Kd5 14. Ka6 Ke6 15. Kxa7 Kf5 16. Kb6 g5 17. fxg5 Kxg5 18. Kc6 {, and White wins.}) 5. Kb5 Kd7 6. Kxa5 Kxd6 7. Kb6 Ke6 8. Kc6 Kf5 9. Kd5 {!} g5 10. fxg5 Kxg5 11. Kxe4 Kxh6 { Draw. The undermining manoeuvre is an important way of battling against a protected passed pawn, and in such situations it must always be taken into account. A protected passed pawn may prove stronger even than two enemy passed pawns, provided, of course, that these pawns are not far advanced.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1953.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Krejcik"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "4k3/p1p3p1/1pP5/1P1P4/8/P6K/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "19"] [EventDate "1953.??.??"] 1. d6 {! %05The only way to win is by the sacrifice of a pawn, with the aim of creating a protected passed pawn:} (1. Kg4 {%05The attempt by White to break through to the c7 pawn with his king does not succeed:} Ke7 2. Kf5 Kd6 3. Kg6 ( 3. Ke4 {%05Defending the d-pawn, so as to gain time for a3-a4, also does not work:} g5 4. a4 g4 5. Kf4 Kxd5 6. Kxg4 Ke4 {!} 7. Kg5 Ke5 {, and Black's king completely neutralizes its opponent.}) 3... Kxd5 4. Kxg7 Kc4 5. a4 Kb4 6. Kf7 Kxa4 7. Ke7 Kxb5 8. Kd7 a5 9. Kxc7 a4 10. Kb7 a3 {, and the pawns queen simultaneously.}) 1... cxd6 2. Kg4 Kd8 3. Kf5 Ke7 4. a4 {! Black's misfortune is that he has no reserve tempo. He is forced to retreat his king.} Kd8 (4... g6+ {%05no better is} 5. Kxg6 Ke6 6. Kg5 d5 7. Kf4 Kd6 8. Kf5) 5. Ke6 Kc7 6. Kd5 g5 7. Ke4 Kd8 8. Kf5 Ke8 9. Kxg5 Ke7 10. Kf5 {, and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1952.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Bottlik"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/p1k5/1pPp1pp1/1P6/3K4/P5P1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "31"] [EventDate "1952.??.??"] {The following example is highly instructive.} 1. Kd4 {%05 White's positional advantage lies in his protected passed pawn and the active position of his king, enabling him easily to invade the opponent's position. In spite of Black's extra pawn, this proves sufficient for a win.} f4 2. Ke5 a5 {!} 3. a3 ( 3. bxa5 {? , then %05Black aims for counter-play. If, for example,} Kxc5 { , with equal chances.}) 3... a4 4. Kf5 d4 5. Ke4 d3 6. Kxd3 Kd5 7. g3 {! The only way to win. By undermining the pawns, White creates in the opponent's position a weak pawn which can then be successfully attacked by the king.} (7. Ke2 {? %05 By giving up a pawn, Black has returned the opponent's king to its initial position and has markedly activated his own. Now White's problem is to attack the K-side pawns with his king, but if Black succeeds in playing ... g4, this will be impossible, e.g.} g4 {!} 8. Kd3 Ke5 9. c6 Kd6 10. Ke4 Kxc6 11. Kxf4 Kd5 12. Kxg4 Kc4 {%04etc.}) 7... fxg3 (7... Ke5 {, then %05There is nothing better. If} 8. gxf4+ gxf4 9. Ke2 Kd5 10. Kf3 Ke5 11. c6 Kd6 12. Kxf4 Kxc6 13. Ke5 {, and White wins.}) 8. Ke2 (8. Ke3 g4 9. Ke2 {is also possible}) 8... Ke5 (8... g4 9. Kf1 Ke5 10. Kg2 {%04etc.}) 9. Kf3 Ke6 10. Kxg3 Kf5 11. Kf3 (11. c6 {? would be over-hasty:} Ke6 12. Kg4 Kd6 13. Kxg5 Kxc6 14. Kf5 Kd5 { , with a draw.}) 11... Ke5 12. Kg4 Kf6 13. c6 Ke6 14. Kxg5 Kd6 15. Kf5 Kxc6 16. Ke6 {, and White wins.} * [Event "Winnipeg (Canada)"] [Site "Winnipeg (Canada)"] [Date "1967.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Spassky Boris V (FRA)"] [Black "Yanofsky D A (CAN)"] [Result "1-0"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "1k6/6p1/1Pp1pp1p/2P5/7P/8/5PP1/6K1 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "19"] [EventDate "1967.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ397 %212045826630=4HLJ403 Problems over exploiting a protected passed pawn usually arise when it is difficult to penetrate with the king into the enemy position, and one then has to resort to various ruses in order to make a breach.} 1. h5 { ! he tied down Black's K-side pawns. Now %05White carried out a typical plan: by} Kb7 (1... e5 {is met by %05Now} 2. g4 $18) (1... f5 {%04by %05and} 2. f4 $18 {, when White's king penetrates into the opponent's position. It only remains to create a zugzwang situation, and this is easily done:}) 2. Kf1 Kc8 3. Ke2 Kd7 4. Kd3 Kc8 5. Kc4 Kb7 6. Kb4 Ka6 7. Ka4 Kb7 8. Ka5 Kb8 9. Ka6 e5 10. g4 $18 {Resigns. But what if it had been Black to move, when he himself could have played 1... h5, not allowing this plan to be carried out? The resulting position deserves special consideration.} 1-0 [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "1k6/6p1/1Pp1pp2/2P4p/7P/8/5PP1/6K1 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] 1. f4 {! , preparing to make a breach in Black's defences, a plan which he has no way of opposing. A possible continuation is %05Correct is} (1. Kf1 {%05Now little is achieved by taking the king to the Q-side, to create a zugzwang situation:} e5 2. Ke2 (2. f4 {! %05Incidentally, after 1. Kf1 e5, instead of the incorrect 2. Ke2? it is still possible to play} exf4 3. Kf2 g5 4. Kf3 Kb7 5. Ke4 Kb8 6. Kf5 {!} f3 7. gxf3 gxh4 8. Kf4 f5 9. Ke3 {, and White wins by eliminating the dangerous passed pawns on the h-file.}) 2... f5 3. Kd3 Ka8 4. Kc4 Kb8 5. Kb4 Ka8 6. Ka5 Kb7 7. g3 g6 8. f3 Kb8 {, and} 9. Ka6 {? is not possible due to} e4 10. fxe4 fxe4 11. b7 e3 12. Kb6 e2 {, when it is Black who wins.}) 1... Kb7 2. Kf2 Ka8 3. Kf3 Kb8 4. g4 {!} g6 5. g5 {!} f5 6. Ke3 { , and White's king penetrates via e5 into the enemy position.} * [Event "Baden-Baden (Germany)"] [Site "Baden-Baden (Germany)"] [Date "1925.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Thomas George A (ENG)"] [Black "Saemisch Friedrich (GER)"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "7k/2p3p1/1p1p3p/p2Pp3/2P3P1/8/PP4PP/5K2 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "27"] [EventDate "1925.??.??"] {Thus a player with a protected passed pawn should strive to penetrate with his king into the opponent's position. If this invasion can be prevented, the game usually ends in a draw. The following example illustrates well the various possibilities of defence against an invasion.} 1... Kh7 {%05Here Black not only has a protected passed pawn, but he is also essentially a pawn up, since on the K-side his two pawns successfully oppose the opponent's three pawns. The only problem is how to penetrate with his king into the enemy position.^013^010 %05 The game took the following course:} 2. Ke2 (2. b3 { %05However, as was correctly pointed out by Zinar, the safest move order for White is} Kg6 3. Kf2 {! , when} Kg5 {can be met by} (3... Kf6 {%04by %05and} 4. Kf3 {!}) 4. Kg3 {!}) 2... Kg6 3. Kf3 Kg5 4. Kg3 (4. b3 {! , and if %05 On the basis of this analysis, Sozin concluded that White could nevertheless have saved this ending, but he went wrong on the 4th move by playing 4. Kg3? He should have continued} Kf6 {, then} (4... e4+ {, then %05If Black answers 4. b3 with} 5. Ke3 {!} Kxg4 6. Kxe4 {, again with a draw.}) (4... Kh4 {comes into consideration. Black tries to invade his king on the opposite wing. The most precise defence is %05In reply to 4. b3, the move suggested by Zinar,} 5. a3 {! } (5. h3 {is bad due to %05Now} g6 6. a3 e4+ {!} 7. Kxe4 Kg3 8. b4 axb4 9. axb4 Kxg2 10. Kf4 Kxh3 11. g5 h5 12. Kf3 h4 13. b5 Kh2 14. Kf2 h3 {, and Black wins. }) 5... g6 6. b4 a4 {!} 7. b5 {, and only after} g5 8. h3 {! Now on} e4+ 9. Kxe4 Kg3 {White can play} 10. Kf5 {!} Kxg2 11. Ke6 {!} (11. Kg6 {?} Kxh3) 11... Kxh3 12. Kd7 Kxg4 13. Kxc7 {, when he cannot lose.}) 5. a3 Ke7 6. b4 {, as already considered in the note to White's 8th move.}) 4... g6 (4... Kf6 { ! %05 However, in this complicated ending Black too did not play the best. Instead of losing a tempo with 4... g6, it was correct, as shown by Sozin, to move his king immediately to the Q-side:} 5. Kf3 (5. b3 {is too late due to} b5 {!} 6. cxb5 e4 7. Kf4 e3 {!} 8. Kxe3 Ke5 9. a4 Kxd5 10. b4 axb4 11. a5 Kc5 12. a6 Kb6 13. Kd4 c5+ $19 {!}) 5... Ke7 6. b3 Kd7 7. a3 c6 {!} 8. b4 axb4 9. axb4 b5 {! , and Black must win.}) 5. b3 Kf6 6. Kf3 Ke7 7. a3 Kd7 8. Ke4 (8. b4 { ! White could have drawn, e.g. %05In 1929 Sozin subjected this ending to a thorough analysis, but this was published by Maizelis only in 1956. Sozin established that 8. Ke4? was the decisive mistake, and that by} axb4 9. axb4 b5 {! (otherwise after 10. b5! Black can no longer break thorough with his king)} 10. cxb5 Kc8 11. b6 {!} Kb7 12. bxc7 Kxc7 13. Ke4 Kb6 14. Kd3 Kb5 15. Kc3 e4 16. Kd4 Kxb4 17. Kxe4 Kc5 18. h4 Kc4 19. h5 g5 20. Kf5 {!} Kxd5 21. Kg6 Ke5 { The best plan. If Black plays to queen his d-pawn, only he can lose. He is saved by the fact that he can stop the white king moving off the h-file.} 22. Kxh6 Kf6 23. Kh7 Kf7 24. Kh6 Kf6 {with a draw.}) 8... c6 {!} 9. g5 (9. b4 { , then %05A desperate attempt to create play on the K-side. If} axb4 10. axb4 b5 {!} 11. cxb5 cxd5+ 12. Kxd5 Kc7 {, and Black wins easily.}) 9... hxg5 10. Kf3 b5 11. a4 bxa4 12. bxa4 cxd5 13. cxd5 Kc7 {(the breach in the defences has been made, and Black's king heads into the enemy position)} 14. Kg4 e4 { ! White resigns.} * [Event "Tbilisi (Georgia)"] [Site "Tbilisi (Georgia)"] [Date "1967.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Nikolaevsky Yuri V (RUS)"] [Black "Taimanov Mark E (RUS)"] [Result "1/2-1/2"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/p7/2pP2kp/1pP5/1P4K1/P7/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "17"] [EventDate "1967.??.??"] {In the following examples, due to certain features of the position which we can rightfully call exceptional, the protected passed pawn does not provide a win. Each time the opponent's king finds a stalemate shelter. %212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ397 %212045826630=4HLJ403} 1. Kh3 {%05The typical plan - the exchange of passed pawns and the breakthrough of the king into the enemy position - runs into an unexpected refutation:} Kf5 2. Kh4 Kg6 3. d6 Kf6 4. Kxh5 Ke6 5. Kg5 Kxd6 6. Kf5 Kc6 7. Ke5 Kb6 8. Kd5 Ka5 {! This, it turns out, is the point - after} 9. Kxc5 {= Black is stalemated! Therefore - draw.} 1/2-1/2 [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1956.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Chekhover Vitaly A (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "7k/p1p5/P2p4/2p5/2P4P/3K4/P7/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "30"] [EventDate "1956.??.??"] {The following study by Chekhover is extremely interesting, a stalemate finish arising as a result of subtle manoeuvring.} 1. Ke4 {%05At first sight White stands badly, since Black can create by force a protected passed pawn, and then set off with his king to eliminate the opponent's passed pawn...} c6 2. Kf5 d5 3. Ke5 d4 4. Ke4 Kg7 5. Kd3 {!} (5. Kf4 {? %05The attempt to hold on to the h-pawn leads to defeat:} Kg6 6. Kg4 Kh6 7. a3 Kg6 8. h5+ Kh6 9. a4 d3 {!} 10. Kf3 Kxh5 11. Ke3 Kg4 12. Kxd3 Kf3 {, and by penetrating into the opponent's position, Black wins.}) 5... Kg6 (5... Kh6 {%05Zinar (1979) established that Black can manoeuvre more cunningly:} 6. Kc2 Kg6 {! , setting White serious problems. White should play} 7. Kb2 {!!} (7. Kb3 {(or 7. a3) %05It is bad, for example, to play} Kh5 8. a3 (8. Ka4 d3 9. Ka5 (9. Kb3 {%05or} Kxh4 10. Kc3 Kg4 11. Kxd3 Kf3 {, and Black wins}) 9... d2 10. a4 Kg4 $19) 8... Kg6 {!} 9. Kb2 (9. h5+ Kh6 {!} 10. Kc2 Kxh5) 9... Kf5 {!} 10. Kb3 (10. h5 Kg5 11. Kb3 Kh6 {!}) (10. Kc2 {%05or} Kg4 {!} 11. Kb3 Kh5 {! %04etc.}) 10... Kf4 {! } 11. h5 Ke3 12. h6 d3 13. h7 d2 14. h8=Q d1=Q+ {, and Black easily wins this queen ending.}) 7... Kf5 8. h5 {!} (8. Kb3 {?} Kf4 {!} 9. h5 Ke3) 8... Kg5 9. Kb3 {!} Kh6 10. a3 Kxh5 11. Ka4 {!} d3 12. Ka5 d2 13. a4 d1=Q {- stalemate.}) 6. Kc2 Kf5 (6... Kh5 {%05If} 7. Kb3 Kxh4 {, White reveals his cards:} 8. Ka4 {! } d3 9. Ka5 {!} d2 10. a4 d1=Q {- stalemate. Therefore Black is not in a hurry to capture the pawn.}) 7. h5 {!} Kg5 8. Kb3 {!} (8. h6 {? , then %05If} Kxh6 9. Kb3 d3 {!} 10. Kc3 Kg5 11. Kxd3 Kf4 {, and Black wins.}) 8... Kh6 {!} 9. a3 {!! } (9. Kc2 {? %05of course, not} Kxh5) 9... Kg7 10. Kc2 (10. Kb2 {%05or}) 10... Kh7 11. Kb2 Kh6 12. Kb3 Kxh5 13. Ka4 {!} d3 14. Ka5 {!} d2 15. a4 d1=Q { - stalemate. Zinar's suggested improvement for Black improves the study significantly.} * [Event "Bulgaria"] [Site "Bulgaria"] [Date "1974.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Troyanska"] [Black "Nedelcheva"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/3kpp1p/1p4p1/p1pPP3/P7/1P3P1P/5KP1/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] [EventDate "1974.??.??"] {In certain cases the creation of a protected passed pawn can be a highly effective method of defence, neutralizing a positional or material advantage.} 1... b5 {!! %05Correct was} (1... f6 {%05 White's king is threatening to penetrate into the enemy position via c4 and b5. How can Black forestall this plan?^013^010 The game went} 2. f4 g5 3. g3 {!} h5 4. h4 gxf4 5. gxf4 fxe5 6. fxe5 e6 7. d6 {, and here Black risked a breakthrough:} b5 8. axb5 {!} c4 9. Ke3 cxb3 10. Kd3 a4 11. Kc3 Kd8 12. b6 Kc8 13. Kb2 {As a result, a familiar position ~3($40770)~ arose with^013^010 pawns on the sixth rank, in which Black inevitably ends up in zugzwang.}) 2. Ke3 (2. axb5 {%05now} c4 {!} 3. Ke3 cxb3 4. Kd3 {does not succeed, due to} Kc7 {!} 5. Kc3 a4 6. Kb2 Kb6 (6... Kd7 7. b6) 7. d6 exd6 8. exd6 Kb7 9. Ka3 Kb6) 2... c4 {!} 3. bxc4 b4 4. c5 e6 5. d6 Kc6 6. Kd4 Kd7 7. Kc4 Kc6 8. f4 Kd7 {with a draw (variation by Minev).} * [Event "Moscow (Russia)"] [Site "Moscow (Russia)"] [Date "1964.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Averbakh Yuri L (RUS)"] [Black "Bebchuk Evgeni (RUS)"] [Result "1-0"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1p4p1/5p1p/1k3P2/6PP/3KP3/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] [EventDate "1964.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ397 %212045826630=4HLJ405 ~19.4 BREAKTHROUGH~ The possibility of carrying out a pawn breakthrough - the sacrifice of one or several pawns, to create a passed pawn - is a highly important, and often decisive feature of a position. In the course of play it is very important to foresee the possibility of a breakthrough for oneself, and to forestall in time the threat of a breakthrough by the opponent. The following example is typical.} 1. e4 { %05Black has an outside passed pawn, and if his king were on the K-side or in the centre, the chances would be only on his side. But his king is at some distance from the main mass of pawns on the K-side, and this allows White to carry out a pawn breakthrough. True, it is a very close thing. Were the black king a move nearer to the pawns, say at c6, the breakthrough would not be dangerous.} Kc6 2. e5 {!} fxe5 (2... Kd7 {%05After} 3. e6+ $18 {White sets up a protected passed pawn, and then sendshis king over to the b7 pawn ~3($40459) ~.}) 3. g5 {!} hxg5 (3... Kd6 {%05No better is} 4. f6 Ke6 5. fxg7 Kf7 6. gxh6 b5 7. Ke4 b4 8. Kd3 {!$18 , when White manages to eliminate both pawns.}) 4. f6 {! Resigns: after} gxf6 5. h5 $18 {the lone white pawn cannot be prevented from queening.} 1-0 [Event "Leningrad (Russia)"] [Site "Leningrad (Russia)"] [Date "1925.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Zubarev Nikolay (RUS)"] [Black "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Result "0-1"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5K2/kp6/p1p5/P2p4/1P3P2/2P5/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "49"] [EventDate "1925.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ397 %212045826630=4HLJ405 Some curious subtleties associated with a breakthrough are shown in the following practical example.} 1... b5 {! %05After} 2. axb5+ { Black made the at first incomprehensible move} Kb6 {!! More tenacious was} ( 2... Kxb5 {? %05 But the explanation is quite simple: to carry out the breakthrough he will have to play 3... a4 (or 3... c4), and if his king is at b5 he will lose a second tempo. For example:} 3. Ke6 c4 4. bxc4+ Kxc4 5. f4 { = , and the queens appear simultaneously.}) 3. Ke7 {!} (3. Ke6 {%05 But after the move played, Black wins.} a4 {!} (3... c4 {%05but here this is wrong in view of} 4. bxc4 a4 5. Kd6 {!} a3 6. c5+ {with a draw}) 4. bxa4 c4 5. f4 d3 $19 {, and Black won quickly.}) (3. f4 {or 3. Kg8, %05had White played} c4 { would have been correct,}) 3... a4 4. bxa4 c4 5. f4 d3 6. cxd3 {, and if} cxd3 {, then} 7. a5+ {! In this case, as shown by Knyazev, the only correct move is} Kxa5 {!} (7... Kxb5 {? %05after} 8. a6 Kxa6 9. f5 d2 10. f6 d1=R 11. f7 { = it is a draw, since the black king is outside the winning zone}) 8. f5 d2 9. f6 d1=Q 10. f7 {, and thanks to his b5 pawn Black wins, e.g.} Qe2+ 11. Kd7 Qd3+ 12. Ke7 Qe4+ 13. Kd7 Qd5+ 14. Ke7 Qe5+ 15. Kd7 Qf6 16. Ke8 Qe6+ 17. Kf8 Qd7 {!} 18. b6 Qd8+ 19. Kg7 Qg5+ 20. Kh7 Qf6 21. Kg8 Qg6+ 22. Kf8 Kxb6 23. Ke7 Qg7 24. Ke8 Kc6 25. f8=Q Qd7# {mate. In the above examples a pawn majority on one wing has suggested the idea of a possible breakthrough. It may happen that there is no pawn majority, but the pawn formation itself allows a breakthrough to be made.} 0-1 [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/pppp4/8/PPPP4/8/7k/8/7K w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] {Here Black has no way of preventing the breakthrough.} 1. a6 {%05In this amusing position White wins by the advance of any his pawns: in each case one of the pawns breaks through to queen. For example:} (1. b6 axb6 (1... cxb6 2. a6 bxa6 3. c6) 2. c6 dxc6 3. dxc6 bxc6 4. a6 $18) (1. c6 dxc6 (1... bxc6 2. d6 cxd6 3. b6) 2. b6 axb6 3. axb6 cxb6 4. d6 $18) (1. d6 cxd6 (1... c6 2. a6) 2. a6 bxa6 3. b6 $18 (3. c6 {%05or})) 1... bxa6 (1... b6 2. d6) 2. d6 cxd6 3. b6 $18 (3. c6 {%05or}) * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1pp5/p2p4/P2P4/1PP5/7k/8/7K w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "1"] {Another form of pawn quartet is also pregnant with the threat of a breakthrough.} 1. b5 {(or 1. c5) is possible, then 2. c5 dc 3. b6 cb 4. d6, and the d-pawn queens. Incidentally, even if it is Black to move, he cannot avert the threat of a breakthrough. Therefore in such situations the black king cannot move outside the d-pawn's "square", which reflects strongly on its activity. %05Here} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1914.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Lasker Emanuel (GER)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/5k2/ppp1p3/3pP1K1/P2P4/1PP5/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "3"] [EventDate "1914.??.??"] {The following example is highly instructive.} 1... a4 {, creating the threat of a breakthrough, so that White cannot play %05Black to move continues} 2. Kh5 (2. Kf3 {%05He is forced to retreat:} Kg5 3. Ke2 c4 {!} 4. Kd2 Kf4 5. Ke2 c3 {! } 6. bxc3 dxc3 7. Kd1 b4 {!} 8. Kc1 b3 9. cxb3 axb3 10. a4 Ke3 $19 {, and Black wins.}) 2... c4 $19 (2... b4 $19 {%05or}) * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/5k2/ppp1p3/3pP1K1/P2P4/1PP5/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "2"] 1. b3 {, and after %05If White begins, he is able to avert the threat of a breakthrough by} (1. a4 {! he can attempt to play for a win. The correct continuation is %05But by} bxa4 {!} (1... b4 {? loses after %05Now} 2. Kh5 c4 3. b3 $18 {!}) 2. Kh5 Ke6 3. Kg6 Kd6 4. Kf6 c4 {!} 5. dxc4 Kc5 6. Kxe5 Kxc4 7. Kd6 d3 8. cxd3+ Kb3 9. e5 Kxb2 10. e6 a3 11. e7 a2 12. e8=Q a1=Q 13. Qe5+ Kb1 14. Qxa1+ Kxa1 15. Kc5 Kb2 16. Kb5 Kc3 {Draw.}) 1... Kg6 {the draw is obvious.} * [Event "Berlin (Germany)"] [Site "Berlin (Germany)"] [Date "1904.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Lasker Edward (GER)"] [Black "Mohle"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5ppp/8/5P1P/2k3P1/2p5/5P2/2K5 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] [EventDate "1904.??.??"] {Where there is the threat of a breakthrough, events must be watched very closely, since any inaccuracy may prove fatal.} 1... f6 {, and if %05The correct continuation was} (1... h6 {? and after %05This example is interesting for the mistakes made by both sides. White is threatening by g4-g5 to create the threat of a breakthrough, so Black played} 2. f4 {?} (2. f6 {! %05But the incorrect 1... h6 could have been met by} gxf6 3. f4 Kd4 4. g5 fxg5 5. fxg5 Ke5 6. gxh6 c2 {, when it is White who wins.}) 2... f6 3. g5 Kd4 {he went on to win.}) 2. h6 gxh6 3. f4 {, then} Kd5 $19 {%04etc.} * [Event "Lone Pine (USA)"] [Site "Lone Pine (USA)"] [Date "1977.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Weinstein Norman (USA)"] [Black "Rohde Michael A (USA)"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/1p1k4/5ppp/PPK1p3/6P1/5PP1/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] [EventDate "1977.??.??"] 1... f4 {!} (1... h4 {? %05 White has an active king and the possibility of creating an outside passed pawn. If Black does not find some way of countering this, he will lose. The game went} 2. gxh4 gxh4 3. Kd4 Ke6 4. a5 bxa5 5. bxa5 Kd6 6. a6 Kc6 7. Ke5 {, and the play took a standard course; after} Kb6 8. Kxf5 Kxa6 9. Kxe4 {Black resigned. And yet he could have won the game by a spectacular breakthrough!}) 2. gxf4 (2. Kd4 e3 {! comes to the same thing}) 2... gxf4 3. Kd4 e3 {!} 4. fxe3 (4. Kd3 {also fails to save the game:} f3 {!} 5. gxf3 h4 6. Ke2 h3 7. Kf1 e2+ $19 (7... h2 {%05or} 8. Kg2 exf2 $19)) 4... f3 {!} 5. gxf3 h4 {, and the black pawn cannot be stopped.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1pp5/1p1p4/1P1Pp1k1/P1P3P1/5K2/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] {A breakthrough is especially dangerous when a passed pawn is also present.} 1. c5 {! %05A protected passed pawn is normally stronger than an isolated one, but here the decisive factor is Black's defective pawn formation, which allows the possibility of a breakthrough.} dxc5 2. a5 {!} bxa5 3. b6 {!} cxb6 4. d6 { (by the sacrifice of three pawns, White has created another passed pawn)} Kf6 5. g5+ {(this gain of tempo is the whole point)} Ke6 6. g6 a4 7. g7 Kf7 8. d7 { , and wins. In the above positions one of the sides has possessed various advantages, but they have all faded before the threat of a breakthrough. Therefore it can rightfully be said that the breakthrough is perhaps the strongest tactical weapon in a pawn ending. Here are some further instances of a breakthrough, arising due to various defects in the pawn formation.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1927.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Barasz Zsigmond (HUN)"] [Black "Schonmann"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1p6/5pp1/kPP2p2/2K1pP2/6P1/7P/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1927.??.??"] 1. h4 {! White could have created the irresistible threat of a breakthrough, e. g. %05But by} (1. b6 {%05The game went:} Ka6 2. h3 {?} e3 3. Kd3 Kb5 4. Kxe3 Kxc5 5. h4 Kd5 6. Kd3 Kc5 7. g4 fxg4 8. f5 Kd6 9. fxg6 Ke6 10. h5 g3 11. Ke3 f5 {with a draw.}) 1... e3 2. Kd3 Kxb5 3. g4 {!} fxg4 4. f5 gxf5 5. Kxe3 Kxc5 6. h5 {, and the h-pawn queens.} * [Event "Correspondence"] [Site "?"] [Date "1971.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Kuznetsov"] [Black "Zelenskikh"] [Result "0-1"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/pPk3pp/2P1p3/1pK3P1/5PP1/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1971.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ397 %212045826630=4HLJ405} 1... g4 {!! it transpired that against the breakthrough on the K-side there was no defence. The game concluded: %05After the highly unexpected} (1... a4 {? , retaining the b3 pawn, White would have been able to reply %05But had Black played} 2. g4 {!} hxg4 3. g3 {= , when the threat of the breakthrough is eliminated.}) 2. Kxb3 h4 {!} 3. gxh4 g3 {!} 4. fxg3 e3 5. Kc2 e2 6. Kd2 a4 $19 {White resigns.} 0-1 [Event "Argentina"] [Site "Argentina"] [Date "1975.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Barrera"] [Black "Schatzle Mario (ARG)"] [Result "0-1"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/p3k1p1/1p2p2p/1P2K1PP/5P2/P7/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "31"] [EventDate "1975.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ397 %212045826630=4HLJ405} 1... g5 {!! , when the situation changed sharply: the advantage passed to Black, who created an outside passed pawn. %05But he had not anticipated the reply} (1... Kf6 {? %05White had just played 1. g4, assuming that after} 2. gxh5 gxh5 3. f4 exf4 4. Kxf4 $18 {he would easily win.} ) 2. hxg5 (2. gxh5 {%05Totally bad is} gxh4 3. f4 (3. h6 Kf7 $19) 3... h3 4. Kf3 e4+ $19) 2... h4 3. Ke3 Kf7 4. Kf2 Kg6 5. Kg2 Kxg5 6. Kh3 (6. a3 e4 $19) 6... Kf4 {!} 7. Kxh4 Kxf3 8. g5 e4 9. g6 e3 10. g7 e2 11. g8=Q e1=Q+ {Thanks to the fact that Black queens his pawn with check, he is able to exchange queens immediately:} 12. Kh5 Qh1+ 13. Kg6 Qg1+ 14. Kf7 Qxg8+ 15. Kxg8 Ke4 16. Kf7 Kd5 $19 {, and Black won.} 0-1 [Event "Olot (Spain)"] [Site "Olot (Spain)"] [Date "1974.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Pomar Salamanca Arturo (ESP)"] [Black "Cuadras Avellana Jorge (ESP)"] [Result "0-1"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/3K1k2/5p1p/4p1p1/4P1P1/5PP1/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] [EventDate "1974.??.??"] 1... f4 {! %05But like a bolt from the blue there followed} (1... Kg6 {? %05White's defective pawn formation should have^013^010 %05suggested to him the possibility of a breakthrough, but^013^010 %05he has just serenely played his king to d6, expecting to^013^010 %05win after} 2. Ke6 Kg5 3. Kf7 h4 {?} ( 3... Kh6 {! %05Even here the breakthrough is still possible:} 4. Kf6 f4 { [%eval 0,0] %00o^ hxg3 7.f3 (! fxe3 Kxg3}) 4. gxh4+ Kxh4 5. g3+ Kh3 6. Ke6 {!} (6. Kf6 {?} f4 {!} (6... Kg2 {?} 7. Kxf5 Kxf2 8. Kf4 $18 {!}) 7. gxf4 Kg2 8. Kg5 Kxf2 9. Kxg4 Kxe3 {=}) 6... f4 7. gxf4 Kg2 8. f5 Kxf2 9. f6 g3 10. f7 g2 11. f8=Q+ $18) 2. Kd5 (2. exf4 {%05totally bad is} h4 {!} 3. gxh4 g3 4. fxg3 e3 $19) 2... h4 {!} 3. Kxe4 (3. gxf4 {%04then %05there is no way of saving the game; if} h3) 3... f3 {!} (3... h3 {??} 4. gxh3 gxh3 5. Kf3 $18) 4. gxf3 h3 $19 {White resigns.^013^010 ^013^010} 0-1 [Event "Moscow (Russia)"] [Site "Moscow (Russia)"] [Date "1951.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Aronin Lev S (RUS)"] [Black "Smyslov Vassily (RUS)"] [Result "1/2-1/2"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p5k1/2p2p2/4p1p1/1p2P2p/1P5P/1PP2PP1/5K2 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "21"] [EventDate "1951.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ397 %212045826630=4HLJ405} 1. g4 {%05White forced the transition into this ending, intending by g2-g4 to block the K-side, and then to take his king across to Black's Q-side pawns. He had in mind the following variation:} Kf7 {?} (1... hxg3 {%05But the game went} 2. fxg3 g4 {!} 3. h4 {White has acquired a protected passed pawn, but the special feature of the position is that cannot move a long way across to the Q-side, due to the danger of the ... f5 breakthrough.} c5 4. Ke2 Kh7 5. Kd3 Kh6 {therefore after} 6. c3 (6. Kc4 { ? even loses: %05It transpires that now} f5 {!} 7. exf5 (7. Kd3 {%05bringing the king back no longer saves the game:} f4 8. gxf4 exf4 {, and the white pawns fall}) 7... e4 {!} 8. c3 a5 9. Kxc5 e3 $19 {%04etc.}) 6... a5 7. cxb4 axb4 {= the players agreed a draw.}) 2. Ke2 Ke6 3. Kd3 Kd6 4. Kc4 a5 5. f3 Kd7 6. Kc5 Kc7 7. c3 bxc3 8. bxc3 Kb7 9. Kd6 Kb6 10. c4 Kb7 11. c5 $18 1/2-1/2 [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1941.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Post Ehrhardt (GER)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/kp6/3p2p1/p1p5/P1P1P2K/5P2/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "21"] [EventDate "1941.??.??"] {In conclusion, an example where the entire play is based on the avertion of a breakthrough.} 1. Kg5 {! , creating an unusual zugzwang position: Black has no useful move. There only remains %051... b5 2. cb c4 is threatened, so White must take his king inside the "square" of the c-pawn. At the same time he must think how he can exploit his winning chances, resulting from the creation of an outside passed pawn by f3-f4-f5 (and, in addition, this pawn must not prevent its king from covering the breakthrough of the black c-pawn).^013^010 But how should White continue - 1. Kg4 or 1. Kg5? White wins by} (1. Kg4 { %05Let us consider the first continuation:} Kb8 {!} 2. f4 Kc7 3. f5 (3. Kg5 b5 {!}) 3... gxf5+ 4. exf5 Kd7 5. f6 {! %05Now the simplest way to draw is} (5. Kg5 {%05Also possible is} d5 {!} 6. cxd5 c4 7. Kf4 b5 {!} 8. f6 {!} (8. axb5 { ? %05but not} a4 9. b6 c3 10. Ke3 a3 11. f6 c2 {!} 12. Kd2 a2 $19 {^013^010}) 8... bxa4 9. Kf5 a3 10. f7 a2 11. f8=Q a1=Q 12. Qf7+ {=}) 5... Ke6 6. Kg5 Kf7 7. Kf5 b6 {! (thanks to this tempo, Black nevertheless succeeds in making his breakthrough)} 8. Kg5 d5 {!} 9. cxd5 c4 10. d6 c3 11. d7 c2 12. d8=Q c1=Q+ { = Draw.}) 1... b6 {, but then Black loses the reserve tempo which was so necessary to him in the previous variation. There can follow:} (1... Kb8 { , then %05Indeed, if} 2. f4 {, and the pawn queens with check}) (1... Ka6 { , then again %05and if} 2. f4 {, and on} b5 {comes} 3. cxb5+ {, gaining a decisive tempo.}) 2. Kg4 {!} Kb7 3. f4 Kc7 4. f5 gxf5+ 5. exf5 Kd7 (5... d5 6. f6 Kd6 7. cxd5 $18) 6. f6 Ke6 7. Kg5 Kf7 8. Kf5 Kf8 (8... d5 9. cxd5 c4 10. d6 c3 11. d7 $18 {, and the new queen mates}) 9. Ke6 Ke8 10. f7+ Kf8 11. Kf6 $18 { , and the game ends in mate.^013^010 ^013^010} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1940.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Euwe Max (NED)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "4k3/1pp2ppp/p1p5/8/4P3/8/PPP2PPP/4K3 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "45"] [EventDate "1940.??.??"] {~19.5 DEFECTS IN THE PAWN FORMATION~ Defects in the pawn formation can be of various types: (a) backward or doubled pawns; (b) isolated or breakaway pawns, which, on becoming weaknesses, require defending; (c)"holes" - weak squares, which have to be defended by the king against invasion by the opponent.} 1. Ke2 {%05This instructional example is an attempt to demonstrate that, in the Exchange Variation of the Ruy Lopez, Black's poor Q-side pawn formation (doubled pawns) leads to a loss, if White should succeed in exchanging all the pieces. Although the demonstration reduces to only a sample variation, it is unlikely that Black can do anything to oppose White's standard plan, which is to create a passed pawn on the K-side, advance it, and then invade the enemy position with the king.} Ke7 2. Ke3 Ke6 3. f4 c5 {(to deprive the white king of the d4 square)} 4. c4 {!} c6 5. a4 b5 6. b3 {! Of course, it would be absurd to exchange on b5, relieving Black of his main defect - his doubled pawns.} f6 7. a5 b4 8. g4 g5 (8... h6 {would have been no better due to %05It may seem that 8... g5 accelerated Black's defeat, but} 9. f5+ Ke5 10. h3 Kd6 11. Kf4 {followed by 12. e5}) (8... g6 {due to %05nor} 9. f5+ gxf5 (9... Kf7 10. fxg6+ hxg6 11. h4) 10. exf5+ Ke5 11. h3 h6 12. h4 Kd6 13. Kf4 {and 14. g5}) 9. e5 {! A typical procedure: by sacrificing a pawn, White creates an outside passed pawn, which is then sacrificed to divert the enemy king and clear the way for his own king into the opponent's position.} gxf4+ 10. Kxf4 fxe5+ 11. Ke4 h6 12. h4 Kf6 13. g5+ {!} hxg5 14. hxg5+ Kxg5 (14... Ke6 15. g6) 15. Kxe5 Kg4 16. Kd6 Kf4 17. Kxc6 Ke4 18. Kxc5 Kd3 19. Kxb4 Kd4 20. Ka3 (20. c5 {?} Kd5 {=}) 20... Kc5 21. Ka4 Kd4 22. Kb4 Ke5 23. Kc5 {, and White wins without difficulty.} * [Event "Randers (Denmark)"] [Site "Randers (Denmark)"] [Date "1925.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Hansen"] [Black "Nimzowitsch Aaron"] [Result "0-1"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/2pk4/3p2p1/1p1P2P1/3K4/P1P5/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] [EventDate "1925.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ397 %212045826630=4HLJ407 It should be pointed out that, if a king is forced to defend weaknesses, it begins playing a passive role, loses its activity, and nay quickly end up in a zugzwang position. The following example is typical.} 1... Kc7 {%05White has not only weak pawns at a2 and d4, but also another highly significant weakness - the invasion square c4, which also has to be defended.} 2. c3 (2. c4 {can be met by %05Good advice here is hard to come by.} Kb6 3. cxd5 cxd5 4. Kc2 Ka5 {!} 5. Kb2 (5. Kb3 {%05or} Kb5 $19) 5... Ka4 $19 { , when Black wins.}) 2... Kb6 {!} 3. cxb4 (3. c4 {, then %05if} Ka6 4. cxd5 cxd5 5. Kd2 Kb5 $19 {%04etc.}) 3... Kb5 4. Kc3 Ka4 $19 {The king has broken through onto the critical squares, and so White resigned.} 0-1 [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1913.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Sackmann"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/2p5/k1p1K3/p1P5/P7/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1913.??.??"] {Sometimes the struggle for the invasion squares may become very complicated, and to find the solution it may be necessary to resort to the theory of corresponding squares. %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (06I03IXA03D06D03D2/05I02IXA02D05D02D2/04I01I101D04D01D2/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8)} 1. Kf5 {! will be decisive, since, irrespective of where the black king goes, White seizes the correspondence. %05Here the key squares will be c7 and c8 - to win, White must occupy them.^013^010 %05 The diagram indicates the corresponding squares. The square corresponding to d6 is b6, and we will mark them by the number "1", d7-b7 ("2"), and d8-b8 ("3"). Continuing the analysis, we find series of corresponding squares: e6-a6 ("4"), e7-a7 ("5") and e8-a8 ("6").^013^010 %05 By analogy we can also establish certain subsidiary squares: f6-b6 ("1"), f7-b7 ("2") and f8-b8 ("3").^013^010 %05 On its next move, the black king will have to step onto one of the squares on the 6th rank ("4" or "1"). On noticing this, it is not hard to guess that the simple waiting move %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(06I03IXA03D06D03D2/ 05I02IXA02D05D02D2/04I01I101D04D01D2/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kb6 { %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(06I03IXA03D06D03D2/ 05I02IXA02D05D02D2/04I01I101D04D01D2/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (1... Ka6 {%15 N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(06I03IXA03D06D03D2/ 05I02IXA02D05D02D2/04I01I101D04D01D2/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Ke6 { ! %15 N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(06I03IXA03D06D03D2/ 05I02IXA02D05D02D2/04I01I101D04D01D2/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)}) 2. Kf6 { ! %15 N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(06I03IXA03D06D03D2/ 05I02IXA02D05D02D2/04I01I101D04D01D2/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kb7 { %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(06I03IXA03D06D03D2/ 05I02IXA02D05D02D2/04I01I101D04D01D2/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kf7 { ! Now, depending on the side to which the opponent's king moves, White embarks on a by-pass. %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (06I03IXA03D06D03D2/05I02IXA02D05D02D2/04I01I101D04D01D2/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8)} Kb8 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (06I03IXA03D06D03D2/05I02IXA02D05D02D2/04I01I101D04D01D2/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8)} (3... Kb6 {there would have followed %05on %15 N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(06I03IXA03D06D03D2/05I02IXA02D05D02D2/04I01I101D04D01D2/ 8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Ke8 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8) #C(06I03IXA03D06D03D2/05I02IXA02D05D02D2/04I01I101D04D01D2/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)}) 4. Ke6 {! %15 N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(06I03IXA03D06D03D2/05I02IXA02D05D02D2/04I01I101D04D01D2/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8)} Kb7 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (06I03IXA03D06D03D2/05I02IXA02D05D02D2/04I01I101D04D01D2/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8)} 5. Kd7 {! %15 N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (06I03IXA03D06D03D2/05I02IXA02D05D02D2/04I01I101D04D01D2/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8)} Kb6 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (06I03IXA03D06D03D2/05I02IXA02D05D02D2/04I01I101D04D01D2/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8)} 6. Kc8 {, and White wins. %15 N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8) #C(06I03IXA03D06D03D2/05I02IXA02D05D02D2/04I01I101D04D01D2/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1939.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Botvinnik Mikhail M (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1k6/p7/p2p2K1/P2P4/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "17"] [EventDate "1939.??.??"] {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(106I03IXA03D06D03D1/ 202IXA02D05D02D1/104I01IXA01D04D01D1/402D05D2/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kf5 {! %05This position is curious for the fact that the plausible attack on the d5 pawn leads only to a draw: %15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(106I03IXA03D06D03D1/202IXA02D05D02D1/104I01IXA01D04D01D1/402D05D2/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (1. Kh5 {fails to win. After %05It should be noted that} Kc6 2. Kg6 Kd6 3. Kf6 Kd7 4. Kf7 Kd6 5. Ke8 {Black can play} Ke6 {, launching an attack on the d4 pawn.}) 1... Kb6 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(106I03IXA03D06D03D1/202IXA02D05D02D1/104I01IXA01D04D01D1/402D05D2/8/8/ 8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kf6 {! %15 N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8) #C(106I03IXA03D06D03D1/202IXA02D05D02D1/104I01IXA01D04D01D1/402D05D2/8/8/8/ 8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (2. Ke5 {%15 N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(106I03IXA03D06D03D1/202IXA02D05D02D1/104I01IXA01D04D01D1/402D05D2/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) ?} Kc7 {! %15 N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (106I03IXA03D06D03D1/202IXA02D05D02D1/104I01IXA01D04D01D1/402D05D2/8/8/8/8) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kxd5 Kd7 4. Kc5 Kc7 5. d5 Kd7 {, and while White is eliminating the a6 and a5 pawns, the black king has time to reach c8.^013^010 It turns out that, to win, White must first capture the a6 pawn, and such a deep raid into the black position requires very subtle manoeuvring with the king, using the attack on the d5 pawn only as a subsidiary threat.^013^010 The diagram again indicates both the key squares, and the corresponding squares. And it immediately becomes apparent that by 1. Kf5 White seizes the correspondence.}) 2... Kb7 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (106I03IXA03D06D03D1/202IXA02D05D02D1/104I01IXA01D04D01D1/402D05D2/8/8/8/8) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kf7 {! %15 N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (106I03IXA03D06D03D1/202IXA02D05D02D1/104I01IXA01D04D01D1/402D05D2/8/8/8/8) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kb8 {%15N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (106I03IXA03D06D03D1/202IXA02D05D02D1/104I01IXA01D04D01D1/402D05D2/8/8/8/8) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Ke6 {(the by-pass can be commenced) %15 N #B(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(106I03IXA03D06D03D1/202IXA02D05D02D1/ 104I01IXA01D04D01D1/402D05D2/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc7 {%15N #B(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(106I03IXA03D06D03D1/202IXA02D05D02D1/ 104I01IXA01D04D01D1/402D05D2/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Ke7 {! %15 N #B (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(106I03IXA03D06D03D1/202IXA02D05D02D1/ 104I01IXA01D04D01D1/402D05D2/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc6 {%15N #B(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(106I03IXA03D06D03D1/202IXA02D05D02D1/ 104I01IXA01D04D01D1/402D05D2/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Kd8 {!} Kd6 7. Kc8 Kc6 8. Kb8 Kb6 9. Ka8 {! , and White wins. The use of corresponding squares in the playing of complex pawn endings is covered in more detail in chapter 10.} * [Event "St. Petersburg (Russia)"] [Site "St. Petersburg (Russia)"] [Date "1909.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Cohn Erich (GER)"] [Black "Rubinstein Akiba K (POL)"] [Result "0-1"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/pp2kppp/4p3/8/1P6/P3PP2/5P1P/2K5 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "27"] [EventDate "1909.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ397 %212045826630=4HLJ407 White's pawns are weakened on both wings, and this allows Black to carry out a clear-cut winning plan. He breaks through with his king to the h2 pawn, ties down the opponent's king to the defence of this pawn, then exchanging them, clears the way for his king to White's weakened pawns on the opposite wing.} 1... Kf6 2. Kd2 Kg5 3. Ke2 {The counter-attack on the Q-side is too slow: Black has time to pick up the h2 pawn and queen his own h-pawn. Only, in countering this plan it is important to be able to meet Kc7 with ... b5.} Kh4 4. Kf1 Kh3 5. Kg1 e5 6. Kh1 (6. a4 {%05White simplifies somewhat his opponent's task. Of course,} b6 7. b5 {would have been more tenacious, although Black again wins by advancing his pawns:} f5 8. Kh1 g5 9. Kg1 h5 10. Kh1 h4 11. Kg1 e4 12. fxe4 fxe4 13. Kh1 (13. f3 {%05or} exf3 14. e4 g4 15. e5 g3 {%04etc.}) 13... Kg4 14. Kg2 h3+ 15. Kg1 Kf3 16. Kf1 g4 $19 { %04etc.}) 6... b5 {(now Black also has an extra tempo, which may prove useful)} 7. Kg1 f5 8. Kh1 g5 9. Kg1 h5 10. Kh1 g4 11. e4 (11. fxg4 {, the simplest is %05If now} fxg4 (11... hxg4 {%05Black's task is made more complicated by} 12. Kg1 f4 13. exf4 exf4 14. Kh1 {, when Maizelis's recommendation of} g3 {?} ( 14... f3 {! %05Instead of 14 ... g3, Speelman has shown that Black still wins after} 15. Kg1 Kh4 {- thanks precisely to the additional tempo! For example:} 16. Kh1 (16. Kf1 {%05If the white king heads to the centre, the play develops more simply:} Kh5 {!} 17. Ke1 Kg5 18. Kf1 (18. Kd2 Kh4) 18... Kf4 19. Ke1 Ke4 20. Kd2 Kd4 21. Kc2 Kc4 22. Kd2 Kb3 23. Ke3 Kxa3 24. Kf4 Kxb4 25. Kxg4 a5 $19 { , and Black wins.}) 16... Kg5 17. h3 gxh3 18. Kh2 Kg4 19. Kg1 Kf4 20. Kh2 Ke4 21. Kxh3 (21. Kg3 h2 {!$19}) 21... Kd3 22. Kg4 Ke2 23. Kg3 a6 $19) 15. fxg3 fxg3 16. hxg3 Kxg3 {leads to a draw after} 17. Kg1 {!} Kf3 18. Kf1 Ke3 19. Ke1 Kd3 20. Kd1 Kc3 21. a4 {!=}) 12. Kg1 e4 $19 {followed by 13... h4 and 14... g3. }) 11... fxe4 {!} 12. fxe4 (12. fxg4 {%05or} hxg4 13. Kg1 e3 14. fxe3 e4 15. Kh1 g3 $19) 12... h4 13. Kg1 g3 14. hxg3 hxg3 $19 {White resigns. We have already establish that, if the opponent has weaknesses, the basic plan is to invade the king. But this takes the king away from its own pawns, and a careful watch must be kept on the possibility of a breakthrough.} 0-1 [Event "Skopje (Yugoslavia)"] [Site "Skopje (Yugoslavia)"] [Date "1972.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Liebert Heinz (GER)"] [Black "Onat Ilhan (TUR)"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2k5/4p1p1/2K1p2p/4P2P/6P1/5P2/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "28"] [EventDate "1972.??.??"] {Black's pawn formation is compromised, White's king is ready to break into the opponent's position, and in addition he has reserve tempi. All this adds up to a big positional advantage for White.} 1. f3 {%05The game took the following course:} Kd7 2. f4 (2. Kb6 {! %05But it turns out that the entire plan with 2. f4, allowing Black to make a breakthrough, was wrong. Correct was} Kd6 3. g4 {!} Kd7 4. Kb7 Kd6 5. Kc8 {! , and by carrying out a by-passing manoeuvre, White invades the opponent's position with decisive success, e.g.} Kc5 (5... Kc6 6. Kd8 Kd6 7. Ke8) 6. gxh5 gxh5 7. Kd7 Kd4 8. Kxe6 Ke3 9. Kxe5 Kxf3 10. Kf5 $18 {, and White wins.}) 2... exf4 3. gxf4 e5 {! (Black finds a way of creating counter-play)} 4. fxe5 g5 {?!} (4... Ke7 {! %05And instead of 4... g5, stronger was} 5. Kd5 {, and only now} g5 {! , e.g.} 6. hxg5 h4 7. g6 h3 8. g7 Kf7 9. e6+ Kxg7 10. Kd6 h2 11. e7 h1=Q 12. e8=Q {= , when White's chances are altogether insignificant.^013^010 ~5 (RR) According to the tablebases, Black draws here.~}) 5. hxg5 h4 6. g6 Ke7 7. g7 Kf7 8. e6+ Kxg7 9. Kd6 h3 10. e7 h2 11. e8=Q h1=Q 12. Qe5+ Kf8 {?} (12... Kg6 {%05Thus instead of 12... Kf8, more accurate was} 13. Qf5+ Kg7 {, when White has only practical chances of success.}) 13. Ke6 {! , and White managed to win this ending. Botvinnik showed that Black could have played better on at least two occasions. } Z0 {Z0 Qh6+ %05~5(RR) Here too, Black could have drawn by} 14. Qf6+ Kg8 { != ~5(Nalimov tablebases)~^013^010 ^013^010} * [Event "Hungary"] [Site "Hungary"] [Date "1973.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Englisch Berthold (AUT)"] [Black "Ertel"] [Result "0-1"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5pp1/4p2p/3k3P/1p1P2P1/1P1K1P2/1P6/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] [EventDate "1973.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ397 %212045826630=4HLJ407 The following two examples show the drawbacks to isolated pawns.} 1... g5 {! Black not only deprives the opponent's pawns of their mobility, but also prepares to create a zugzwang position. %05By the precise move} 2. Ke3 (2. hxg6 {%05Bad now is} fxg6 {, since after ... h5 Black's passed pawn is decisive.}) (2. f4 {%05The attempt at a breakthrough also proves unsuccessful:} f6 {!} 3. fxg5 fxg5 4. Ke3 e5 {!} 5. dxe5 Kxe5 6. Kd3 Kf4 7. Kc4 Kxg4 8. Kxb4 Kf3 $19 {, and Black's pawn queens first.}) 2... f5 3. gxf5 (3. Kd3 f4 $19) 3... exf5 4. Kd3 f4 $19 {White resigns. In this example White had no possibility at all of creating counter-play, since his king was severely restricted, and Black's task turned out to be very simple. The following practical example is much more complicated.} 0-1 [Event "Budapest (Hungary)"] [Site "Budapest (Hungary)"] [Date "1952.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Barcza Gedeon (HUN)"] [Black "Golombek Harry (ENG)"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1pk3pp/p7/3p1p2/8/3K2P1/PP2PP1P/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "60"] [EventDate "1952.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ397 %212045826630=4HLJ407} 1. Kd4 {%05White has a clear positional advantage, since the opponent has to defend not only the isolated d-pawn, but also the invasion squares e5 and c5. The question is only one of tempi, and also of whether or not Black can create counter-play.^013^010 The game continued:} (1. Ke3 {! , threatening an immediate invasion by 2. Kf4. Black then has two main continuations (analysis by Bondarevsky): %05As was shown by Bondarevsky (1966), instead of 1. Kd4? White should first have played} g5 (1... Kd6 2. Kf4 Ke6 3. Kg5 Ke5 (3... d4 {there could have followed %05On} 4. f4 g6 5. Kh6 Kd5 6. Kxh7 Ke4 7. Kxg6 Ke3 8. h4 Kxe2 9. h5 d3 10. h6 d2 11. h7 d1=Q 12. h8=Q $18 { , with a won queen ending.}) 4. a3 b5 5. b4 Ke4 6. h4 d4 (6... Ke5 {, then %05If} 7. h5 {, e.g.} Ke4 (7... d4 {%05or} 8. f3 h6+ 9. Kg6 f4 10. g4 $18) ( 7... Ke6 {%05or finally,} 8. e3 (8. f4 {%05but not} d4) 8... Ke5 9. f3 $18 { %04etc.}) 8. h6 $18) 7. h5 h6+ 8. Kg6 f4 9. gxf4 Kxf4 10. Kxg7 Kg5 11. f3 {!} Kf4 (11... Kxh5 12. Kf6 Kh4 13. Ke5 $18 {%04etc.}) 12. Kxh6 Ke3 13. Kg6 Kxe2 14. h6 d3 15. h7 d2 16. h8=Q d1=Q 17. Qe5+ Kf2 18. f4 $18 {, and White must win this ending.}) 2. h4 h6 (2... gxh4 {%05weaker is} 3. gxh4 Kd6 4. Kf4 Ke6 5. Kg5 $18 {, when the king heads for the h7 pawn;}) (2... f4+ {%05no better is} 3. gxf4 (3. Kf3 $18 {%05or immediately}) 3... gxh4 4. Kf3) 3. hxg5 hxg5 4. f4 g4 5. Kd4 {Now that Black has been given another weakness - the f5 pawn, the attack on the d5 pawn can be begun.} Kd6 6. b4 b6 7. a4 $18 {, and Black has no satisfactory defence.}) 1... Kd6 2. b4 b6 3. h4 h5 4. a4 a5 {! Black aims for counter-play. 5. a5 cannot be allowed, and besides, at a5 the black pawn is closer to the queening square.} 5. bxa5 bxa5 6. f4 g6 7. e3 {White has attained a zugzwang situation, and now Black must allow the opponent's king into his position. But the struggle is far from over.} Kc6 8. Ke5 Kc5 9. Kf6 Kc4 {! Here it is, the desired counter-play! The king makes not for the a4 pawn, to obtain a passed pawn on the d-file as quickly as possible.} 10. Kxg6 Kd3 11. Kxf5 Kxe3 12. Kg5 d4 13. f5 d3 14. f6 d2 15. f7 d1=Q 16. f8=Q Qxa4 { Now the question is: who will be the first to obtain a second queen?} 17. Qf5 Qb4 18. Kxh5 a4 19. g4 a3 20. g5 Qb2 21. g6 a2 22. Qg5+ Ke4 23. Qg4+ Ke3 24. Qg5+ Ke4 25. g7 a1=Q 26. Qg6+ Kf4 27. g8=Q {There are four queens on the board! } Qh8+ 28. Qh6+ (28. Qxh8 {%05or} Qxh8+ 29. Qh6+ Qxh6+ 30. Kxh6 Kf5 {= with a draw}) 28... Qxh6+ 29. Kxh6 Qf6+ 30. Kh5 Ke5 {= , and a draw was agreed.} * [Event "London (England)"] [Site "London (England)"] [Date "1883.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Mason James (ENG)"] [Black "Englisch Berthold (AUT)"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/7p/k1p2p2/4pp2/1PP5/4KPP1/7P/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1883.??.??"] 1. h3 {! would have won, e.g. %05But White's first move, giving Black a protected passed %05pawn, was also not the best. As was shown by %05Pavlovichev,} (1. g4 {, and the continuation was: %05 The defects in Black's pawn formation and the remoteness of his king from the main battlefield allow White to hope for success. He immediately began active play by} f4+ (1... fxg4 {! %05Later analysis showed that 1... f4? was a decisive mistake. Correct was} 2. fxg4 h6 3. h4 Kb6 4. Ke4 Kc7 5. g5 fxg5 6. hxg5 hxg5 7. Kxe5 g4 8. Kf4 Kd6 9. Kxg4 Ke5 {= with a draw.}) 2. Ke4 h6 3. h4 Kb6 4. g5 fxg5 5. hxg5 hxg5 6. Kxe5 g4 7. Kxf4 gxf3 8. Kxf3 Kc7 9. Ke4 Kd6 10. Kf5 $18 { , and White won.}) 1... Kb6 (1... h5 {, a breakthrough follows: %05If instead} 2. h4 Kb6 3. g4 {!} fxg4 4. fxg4 hxg4 5. h5 $18 {%04etc.}) 2. g4 fxg4 (2... f4+ 3. Ke4 h6 4. h4 Kc7 5. g5 fxg5 6. hxg5 hxg5 7. Kxe5 $18) 3. hxg4 Kc7 4. Ke4 Kd6 5. Kf5 Ke7 6. b5 $18 {etc.^013^010 %04} * [Event "London (England)"] [Site "London (England)"] [Date "1932.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Tartakower Saviely G (RUS)"] [Black "Flohr Salomon M (CZE)"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2p2k1p/ppPp1p2/5Pp1/2P1K1P1/7P/PP6/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "33"] [EventDate "1932.??.??"] {In order to realize his advantage, White must open lines on the Q-side and penetrate with his king into the opponent's position.} 1. Kd5 {%05In the game, events developed as follows:} (1. Kd4 {! , e.g. %05But, as shown by Maizelis (1962), a clearly won position can be attained much more simply, by playing} Ke7 (1... Ke8 {%05If Black avoids e7 before the white king goes to c3, the play can develop as follows:} 2. b3 Kd8 3. a4 {!} a5 4. Kc3 {!} Ke7 5. b4 axb4+ (5... Kf7 {%05incidentally, this is stronger than} 6. bxa5 {, as occurred in the game}) 6. Kxb4 d5 {! the most tenacious;} (6... Kd8 {, then %05if} 7. a5 Kc8 {!} 8. Kb5 bxa5 9. Kxa5 Kb8 10. Kb4 {!} Ka7 11. Kb5 Kb8 12. c5 {, and White wins}) 7. c5 {!} d4 8. cxb6 cxb6 9. Kb5 {!} d3 (9... Kd8 {is weaker:} 10. Kxb6 Kc8 11. a5) 10. Kxb6 d2 11. c7 d1=Q 12. c8=Q Qb3+ {%05But even after the better} (12... Qxa4 {is of course bad because of %05In the resulting queen ending} 13. Qe6+ Kf8 14. Qxf6+ Kg8 15. Qe6+ {with the inevitable exchange of queens.}) 13. Kc7 Qc4+ 14. Kb8 Qxa4 15. Qe6+ {and 16. Qf6 White must gradually be able to win.}) 2. b4 {!} b5 {! (otherwise 3. a4 and 4. c5)} 3. Kc3 h6 4. a3 (4. Kb3 {, then %05if} d5 {!} 5. cxb5 axb5 6. a4 bxa4+ 7. Kxa4 Kd6 {, and Black has sufficient counter-chances}) 4... Kf7 5. Kb3 {!} Ke7 6. a4 {, and White wins.}) 1... Ke7 2. a4 a5 3. Kd4 Kf7 4. Kc3 (4. b3 {! %05Instead of the incorrect 4. Kc3, White could have won by} Ke7 5. Ke4 Kf7 6. Kd3 Ke7 (6... d5 { is not dangerous:} 7. Kd4 dxc4 8. bxc4 {!}) 7. Kd4 h6 {(now White again has to gain a tempo)} 8. Ke4 Kf7 9. Kd3 Ke7 10. Kd4 Kf7 {, and only now} 11. Kc3 { , and if} d5 12. Kd4) 4... Ke7 (4... d5 {! with an immediate draw, e.g. %05 After the publication of this ending in the first Russian edition of this book, Pavlovichev (1958) drew attention to the inaccurate play of both sides. Thus, after 4. Kc3 the correct was} 5. cxd5 Ke7 6. Kc4 Kd6 7. Kd4 Ke7 {, and the white king has no way of breaking through.}) 5. b4 Kf7 6. bxa5 bxa5 7. Kd4 Ke8 8. Kd5 Kf7 {, and Black conceded defeat. Indeed, after} 9. c5 dxc5 10. Kxc5 Ke7 11. Kd5 (11. Kb5 {%05of course, this is the simplest, but} Kd6 12. Kxa5 Kxc6 13. Ka6 {! was also possible}) 11... Kf7 12. Kc4 Ke7 13. Kc5 h6 14. Kd5 Kf7 15. Kc4 Ke7 16. Kc5 Kf7 17. Kb5 {White wins.} * [Event "Brno (Czech Republic)"] [Site "Brno (Czech Republic)"] [Date "1929.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Schweda"] [Black "Sika"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1p5p/p4k2/8/4Pp2/7P/PP2K3/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] [EventDate "1929.??.??"] {~19.6 RESERVE TEMPI~ In pawn endings it is hard to overestimate the importance of extra tempi. As a rule, they should be preserved, and not used without necessity, since they can have a great influence of the course of events. Tempi allow a king to occupy invasion squares and penetrate into the enemy position, and in critical situations, in zugzwang positions, each tempo is in general worth its weight in gold. In a struggle for critical or key squares, even one extra tempo may prove decisive. We have already seen several times that the struggle for tempi - or "tempo" play, in other words - occurs in all forms of pawn ending. Here we will be considering examples where the entire content of the play, the entire strategic struggle, is determined by the presence or absence of reserve tempi. We will begin with some positions where the familiar "untouchable" pawns are present.} 1. Kf3 {! %05In such situations it is important to make an accurate count of the two sides' tempi. At first sight it appears that this number is equal: on the Q-side Black has a tempo less, but on the K-side he has one more. But this is not so. Whichever player begins, he is able to repair the position on the "unfavourable" wing, and his extra tempo on the opposite wing brings victory.^013^010 Suppose White begins:} Ke5 2. h4 {!} a5 (2... h5 3. b4 b5 4. a3) 3. h5 a4 4. h6 {!} b6 5. b4 {!} axb3 6. axb3 b5 7. b4 {, and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1p5p/p4k2/8/4Pp2/7P/PP2K3/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] 1... Ke5 {! %05With Black to move:} 2. Kf3 a5 {!} 3. b3 (3. h4 {, then %05if} a4 4. h5 h6) 3... b5 {!} 4. a3 {(4... b4 was threatened)} a4 5. bxa4 bxa4 6. h4 h5 $19 {%04etc.} * [Event "Vienna (Austria)"] [Site "Vienna (Austria)"] [Date "1950.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Paoli Enrico (ITA)"] [Black "Michel Pablo (ARG)"] [Result "1-0"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/pp6/4k1pp/3pP3/3K2P1/P7/1P5P/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] [EventDate "1950.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ397 %212045826630=4HLJ409 Here are some further examples of pure "tempo" play in positions with "untouchable" pawns.} 1. a4 {! Only in this way is White able to win the battle for the tempi. %05On the K-side White has an extra tempo, therefore his problem is to stabilize the position on the Q-side:} (1. h4 { ? , for example, is bad because of} a6) (1. h3 {%05as is} g5 2. b3 (2. a4 a5 $19) (2. b4 {%05or} b5 $19) 2... b5 3. a4 bxa4 4. bxa4 a5 $19 {, when Black wins.}) (1. b3 {%05No better is} g5 {!} 2. h3 a6 3. a4 a5 $19 {with the same result.}) 1... b6 (1... a5 {is met by} 2. h4 $18) (1... h5 {%04by %05and} 2. gxh5 gxh5 3. b4 h4 4. h3 $18) 2. b4 a6 3. h4 a5 4. b5 {!} h5 5. g5 $18 { Resigns.} 1-0 [Event "Albena (Bulgaria)"] [Site "Albena (Bulgaria)"] [Date "1978.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Popov N"] [Black "Dankov"] [Result "1-0"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/pp4p1/7p/3k4/PP1Pp3/4K1P1/6P1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1978.??.??"] 1. g4 {! %05 1... h5 is threatened, so that White's first move is simply forced, but at the same time it immediately puts everything in its place.} a6 ( 1... g5 {, then %05There is no satisfactory defence. If, for example,} 2. g3) ( 1... b6 {, then %05while if} 2. b5 g6 3. g5 {!} hxg5 4. g4 $18) 2. a5 g6 3. g5 {!} hxg5 4. g4 Kd6 5. Kxe4 Ke6 6. d5+ {Resigns.} 1-0 [Event "Moscow (Russia)"] [Site "Moscow (Russia)"] [Date "1920.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Ilyin-Zhenevsky Alexander F (R"] [Black "Alekhine Alexander A (RUS)"] [Result "1/2-1/2"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1p6/p1pp4/6k1/4PpPp/2P2P1K/PP6/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] [EventDate "1920.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ397 %212045826630=4HLJ409 If there pawns on one or two files, counting the reserve tempi is not too difficult a business. But if there are pawns on three files, this complicates the problem.} 1... a5 {! , and the game continued %05 In this position the game was adjourned, and Alekhine sealed his next move. In order to determine correctly whether the black king can be maintained at g5, accurate calculation is required.^013^010 Alekhine sealed the correct move} ( 1... d5 {? %05It is immediately apparent that it is bad to play} 2. exd5 cxd5 3. b4 $18) (1... c5 {? %05Analysis shows that Black also loses after} 2. a4 {!} b5 3. axb5 axb5 4. b3 {!} c4 5. b4) (1... b6 {? %05or} 2. a4 b5 3. a5 {!} c5 4. b3 $18) (1... b5 {? %05or} 2. b4 {!} (2. b3 {? %05but not} a5 3. a4 bxa4 4. bxa4 d5 {= %04etc.}) 2... c5 3. e5 {!$18}) 2. c4 (2. b4 {??} axb4 3. cxb4 d5 $19 {, and it is White who loses}) (2. a4 {%05while after} b5 3. b3 bxa4 4. bxa4 d5 {it is a draw.}) 2... b5 (2... a4 3. b4 axb3 4. axb3 c5 {= is also possible}) 3. cxb5 cxb5 {= Drawn.} 1/2-1/2 [Event "Budapest (Hungary)"] [Site "Budapest (Hungary)"] [Date "1977.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Bronstein David I (RUS)"] [Black "Rajna George (ISR)"] [Result "1-0"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5p1p/p3kp2/1pp5/2P1P3/4K3/PP4PP/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "17"] [EventDate "1977.??.??"] {We will now consider several instances of the struggle for critical squares. %212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ397 %212045826630=4HLJ409} 1. Kf4 {%05After} bxc4 2. g4 {! it becomes obvious that Black is bound to lose the battle for the f5 square, since White has a large store of reserve tempi.} a5 3. a4 h6 4. h3 f5 (4... c3 {%05desperation, but} 5. bxc3 c4 {was no better due to} 6. h4 Kd6 7. Kf5 Ke7 8. h5 $18) 5. gxf5+ Kd6 6. f6 Ke6 7. e5 Kd5 8. Kf5 h5 9. h4 {Resigns.} 1-0 [Event "Sofia (Bulgaria)"] [Site "Sofia (Bulgaria)"] [Date "1957.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Filip Miroslav (CZE)"] [Black "Barcza Gedeon (HUN)"] [Result "0-1"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5p1p/pk1p2p1/2pP4/2P2P2/3K3P/1P4P1/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "17"] [EventDate "1957.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ397 %212045826630=4HLJ409 In many cases even one reserve tempo may be sufficient to win the game.} 1... Ka5 {%05Black's king breaks into the enemy position -} 2. Kc3 Ka4 {, and a zugzwang position arises. Black has the reserve tempo ... a5, and he must now stabilize the position on the opposite wing, not allowing the opponent to obtain there even one reserve tempo.} 3. g3 (3. g4 {it would be a blunder to play %05To} f5 {?} (3... h5 {! %05Correct is} 4. gxh5 (4. g5 h4 ) 4... gxh5 5. f5 f6 6. h4 a5 $19 {, when Black wins.}) 4. g5 {= , when White avoids defeat.}) 3... f5 4. g4 h5 5. gxf5 gxf5 6. h4 a5 7. b3+ Ka3 8. Kc2 Ka2 9. Kc3 Kb1 $19 {White resigns. These two examples were, of course, ideal ones: the winning plan was carried out without any difficulty. This is by no means always the case. Sometimes the "tempo" play demands mathematical precision.} 0-1 [Event "Prague (Czech Republic)"] [Site "Prague (Czech Republic)"] [Date "1942.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Opocensky Karel (CZE)"] [Black "Prokop Frantisek Josef (CZE)"] [Result "1-0"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p3k1pp/2p5/4K3/8/P1P5/6PP/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "21"] [EventDate "1942.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ397 %212045826630=4HLJ409 Since the black c-pawn cannot move, it means that in this position White has at least two extra tempi (moves with his c-pawn). His problem is to exploit these tempi favourably.} 1. g4 {%05The game concluded as follows:} Kd7 (1... h6 {! , nipping in the bud White's plan involving the seizure of the f6 square. In the Yugoslav Encyclopedia of Chess Endings, Botvinnik suggests in this case %05As we see, White fulfilled his task fairly easily, but it appears that Black did not exploit all his chances. Instead of 1... Kd7, more tenacious was} 2. h4 (2. h3 {Let us check: %05But perhaps the correct path lies in the cunning move ?} Kd7 3. h4 Ke7 4. a4 Kd7 (4... a5 { ! , e.g. %05But here too Black's defence can be improved: instead of 4... Kd7 he should continue} 5. g5 (5. Kd4 {%05 The attempt to break through with the king on the Q-side -} Kd6 6. Kc4 {is also unsuccessful, since Black has the strong reply} Ke5 7. Kc5 Kf4 8. Kxc6 Kxg4 9. c4 Kxh4 10. c5 g5 {, when the pawns queen simultaneously.}) 5... hxg5 6. hxg5 Kd7 {!} 7. c4 Ke7 {, when White has not achieved anything.}) 5. a5 Ke7 (5... a6 6. g5 hxg5 7. hxg5 Ke7 8. c4) 6. a6 Kd7 7. g5 hxg5 8. hxg5 Ke7 9. c4 Kd7 10. Kf5 Ke7 11. Kg6 Kf8 12. Kh7 Kf7 13. c5 {, and we reach a decisive zugzwang position.}) (2. a4 {! If Black plays %05So, does this mean that White cannot win? No, it turns out that he nevertheless can! The truth lies in a precise order of moves. The "tempo" play should be begun with the advance of the a-pawn -} Kd7 {, then} (2... a5 { he has the correspondingly decisive %05while on} 3. h4 {!} Kd7 4. g5 hxg5 5. hxg5 Ke7 6. c4) 3. a5 {!} Ke7 4. h3 {!} Kd7 5. h4 Ke7 6. a6 Kd7 7. g5 hxg5 8. hxg5 Ke7 9. c4 $18 {and White wins}) 2... g6 (2... Kd7 {for the moment adhering to waiting tactics. Then on %05but 2... g6 is a blunder, and correct is} 3. g5 {comes} hxg5 4. hxg5 Ke7 5. a4 Kd7 {!} (5... a5 {loses:} 6. c4 Kd7 7. Kf5 Ke7 8. Kg6 Kf8 9. Kh7 Kf7 10. c5 {, and White attains a decisive zugzwang position}) 6. a5 (6. Kf5 {%05now} Ke7 7. Kg6 Kf8 8. Kh7 {? does not succeed: after} Kf7 9. c4 c5 10. a5 a6 {it is White who is in zugzwang}) 6... Ke7 7. a6 Kd7 8. c4 Ke7 9. c5 Kd7 {= , and White has not made any particular achievements: he has used up all his tempi, and not obtained any advantage from them.}) 3. g5) 2. g5 {White's plan is perfectly clear: by the advance of his h-pawn he intends to make a breach in Black's K-side defences, and then, exploiting his extra tempi, create a zugzwang position.} Ke7 3. h4 Kd7 (3... g6 4. a4 a5 5. c4 $18 {, and White wins}) 4. h5 Kc7 5. a4 a5 (5... a6 6. a5 Kd7 7. c4 Ke7 8. h6 $18 {%04etc.}) 6. c4 Kd7 7. h6 g6 (7... gxh6 8. gxh6 Ke7 9. c5 $18 ) 8. Kf6 Kd6 9. Kg7 {Resigns. If} Ke7 10. Kxh7 Kf7 {, then} 11. c5 $18 { The "tempo" method of play, employed here by White after 1... h6, is typical of such endings. White stabilizes the position in the place where he has no advantage in tempi, and where he has reserve tempi he varies them, so that each time a decisive zugzwang position arises.} 1-0 [Event "Hamburg (Germany)"] [Site "Hamburg (Germany)"] [Date "1910.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Leonhardt Paul S (GER)"] [Black "Marshall Frank J (USA)"] [Result "1-0"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "1k6/1p5p/pK4p1/8/1P6/8/P5PP/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] [EventDate "1910.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ397 %212045826630=4HLJ409} 1. h4 {%05Here White has one extra tempo on the K-side, and two on the Q-side. A zugzwang position could have most simply been created as follows:} (1. a3 {In the Yugoslav Encyclopedia of Chess Endings an exclamation mark is attached to this move, and it is suggested that 1. a4 does not succeed due to 1... Kc8 %05In the game, events developed rather differently:} Kc8 2. a4 g5 {(Black's position is completely hopeless, and this desperate move does not spoil anything)} 3. h3 Kb8 4. g3 Kc8 5. h4 gxh4 6. gxh4 Kb8 {As a result of the opponent's indecisive manoeuvring, Black has managed to prolong the resistance, but the win is still there, since White has much the more active king.} 7. Kc5 Kc7 8. Kd5 Kd7 (8... h5 {would have set his opponent more problems. Correct is %05Objectively speaking, Black's 8th move was not the best, and} 9. Ke6 {!} (9. a5 {?} Kd7 10. Ke5 Kc6 11. Kf5 Kb5 12. Kg5 Kxb4 13. Kxh5 Kxa5 14. Kg5 b5 {= , and the pawns queen simultaneously.}) ( 9. Ke5 {?} Kc6 10. Ke6 (10. Kf5 b5 {!} 11. a5 Kd5 12. Kg5 Kc4 13. Kxh5 Kxb4 { = does not promise White anything.}) 10... b6 {!} (10... a5 {, then %05if} 11. b5+ {!} Kc5 12. Kd7 {!} Kb4 13. Kc7 Kxa4 14. b6 $18 {, and White wins.}) (10... b5 {, then} 11. a5 $18 {leads to a win}) 11. Ke5 {!} a5 12. bxa5 bxa5 13. Kf5 Kd5 {!} (13... Kc5 {?} 14. Kg5 Kb4 15. Kxh5 Kxa4 16. Kg5 {, and White's pawn queens first}) 14. Kg5 Ke5 15. Kxh5 Kf5 {= with a draw}) 9... Kc6 10. Ke5 { %00o^ b5 (%00o^ Kd6 (%00o^ Kc4 (%00o^ Ka3 (%00o^ b3 (%00o^ ( 9...Ke7 (he has the decisive %05White still has a tempo in reserve, and on} a5) 9. h5 a5 (9... b5 10. a5 $18) 10. bxa5 {Kc5} h6 {Kb4 Kf6 Resigns.}) (1. a4 Kc8 2. b5 (2. Ka7 { ! %05But White also wins after 1. a4 Kc8, by continuing} Kc7 3. b5 {, when the extra tempo on the K-side is decisive.}) 2... axb5 3. axb5 Kb8 4. g3 h5 5. h4 Kc8 {=}) 1... Kc8 (1... h5 {, then %05If} 2. g3 Kc8 3. Ka7 Kc7 4. a3 {!} Kc6 5. a4 Kc7 6. b5 {!} a5 (6... axb5 7. axb5 Kc8 8. b6) 7. Ka8 Kb6 8. Kb8 $18) (1... h6 {%05or} 2. g4 Kc8 3. Ka7 Kc7 4. a3 Kc6 5. a4 Kc7 6. b5 $18 {%04etc.}) 2. Ka7 Kc7 3. a3 {!} Kc6 4. a4 Kc7 5. b5 axb5 6. axb5 h6 7. g4 g5 8. h5 $18 {, and White wins.^013^010 Note that the winning plan is identical to that carried out^013^010 by White in example ~3($40824)~ after 1... h6. It is curious that, although this ending has many times been published, the commentators have failed to notice all of its nuances.} 1-0 [Event "Nice (France)"] [Site "Nice (France)"] [Date "1930.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Thomas George A (ENG)"] [Black "Maroczy Geza (HUN)"] [Result "1-0"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/3k2pp/1p3p2/2p2K2/P4P2/8/1P4PP/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "25"] [EventDate "1930.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ397 %212045826630=4HLJ409 How an advantage in tempi can be created is strikingly shown by the following example.} 1. h4 {! %05White obtains the tempi needed on the K-side, by advancing his h-pawn:} (1. Ke4 {%05To win, White must break through with his king at b5. But to do this he needs at least two reserve tempi, since the direct} Kd6 2. Kd3 Kd5 3. b3 {= does not succeed.}) 1... Ke7 2. h5 Kf7 3. Ke4 Ke6 4. f5+ Kd6 5. Kd3 {, and Black conceded defeat. Play could have concluded:} Kd5 6. b3 h6 7. g3 Kd6 8. Kc4 Kc6 9. g4 Kc7 {(the problem has been solved - the white king reaches b5)} 10. Kb5 Kb7 11. a5 bxa5 12. Kxc5 Ka6 13. Kc6 $18 {, and the rest is clear.} 1-0 [Event "Amsterdam (Netherlands)"] [Site "Amsterdam (Netherlands)"] [Date "1919.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Loman Rudolf J (NED)"] [Black "Van Gelder"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/6pp/8/1pk1p3/4P3/P1K3P1/7P/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1919.??.??"] 1. g4 {! , e.g. %05But White could have saved the game, by correcting his position on the "unfavourable" wing with} (1. Kd3 {, then after %05 This position contains a highly interesting "tempo" struggle. Black has to attain a zugzwang position, in which his extra tempo will bring him success. If, for example, the white king moves to d3} b4 {!} 2. a4 Kb6 3. Kc4 Ka6 4. Kb3 g6 ( 4... h5 {%05or} 5. h3 g5 {Black immediately decides the game in his favour.})) (1. Kb3 {%05The attempt to transpose into a queen ending also loses in interesting fashion:} Kd4 2. Kb4 Kxe4 3. Kxb5 Kd4 4. a4 e4 5. a5 e3 6. a6 e2 7. a7 e1=Q 8. a8=Q Qb1+ {, and by exchanging queens, Black wins.}) (1. h3 { %05The game continued as follows:} Kc6 {! Having a tempo in reserve, Black aims to reach a5 with his king. In this case the position Ka5/Kb3 will be one of zugzwang, and Black's extra tempo will enable him to penetrate to a4 and win.} (1... Kb6 {%05Weaker was} 2. Kb4 {, when Black is forced to return a tempo.}) 2. Kb3 {!} (2. Kb4 Kb6) 2... Kb7 {!} 3. Kc3 (3. a4 Kb6 {!}) 3... Ka6 4. Kb2 Ka5 5. Kb3 g5 {(now the game is decided)} 6. g4 (6. h4 {, then %05if} gxh4 7. gxh4 h5) 6... h6 7. Kc3 Ka4 8. Kb2 b4 9. axb4 Kxb4 {, and Black won.}) 1... g5 {(2. g5 was threatened)} (1... h6 {, then %05and if} 2. h4 {!} Kc6 3. h5) 2. Kd3 {! (now this is possible)} Kb6 (2... b4 {%05if} 3. a4 {, when} Kb6 { in fact loses} (3... b3 {%05, but a draw is given by} 4. Kc3 b2)) 3. Kc3 Ka6 4. Kb2 Ka5 5. Kb3 h6 6. h3 {, with a draw.} * [Event "Yugoslavia"] [Site "Yugoslavia"] [Date "1965.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Jovicic Milos (YUG)"] [Black "Vukovic Milosav (YUG)"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/3Pk3/1p6/pPp1pK2/2P5/8/1P6/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "23"] [EventDate "1965.??.??"] {There is also some original play in the following position.} 1... Kd8 { ! %05But Black is not obliged to take the pawn, and he finds a splendid possibility of avoiding zugzwang.} (1... Kxd7 {, then %05Black's position looks critical. If} 2. Kxe5 Ke7 3. Kd5 Kd7 4. b3 {, and White wins.}) 2. Ke4 { ! A fully worthy reply.} (2. Kxe5 {could now have been met by} Kxd7 3. Kd5 a4 { , with a draw.}) 2... Ke7 3. Kd5 Kd8 {It appears that all resources have been exhausted and that a draw can be agreed, but White finds an interesting possibility of continuing the struggle.} 4. Kc6 {!} e4 5. Kxb6 e3 6. Ka7 {!} e2 7. b6 e1=Q 8. b7 Kxd7 9. b8=Q Qb4 {! , exploiting the fact that the exchange %05But Black could have saved the game by} (9... Qf2 10. Qb5+ Kd6 (10... Ke6 { %05Of course, instead of 10... Kd6, more tenacious is} 11. Kb6 Qd4 {, but even then after} 12. Kxa5 {White has good winning chances.}) 11. Kb6 Ke6 {, and here White could have decided the game in his favour by} 12. Qe8+ {, since} Kd6 13. Qc6+ {leads to the exchange of queens.}) 10. Qxb4 (10. Qb5+ {%05while} Kd6 11. b3 {can be met by} Ke5 {!} 12. Kb6 Kd4 13. Qxb4 axb4 14. Kb5 Kc3 {with the same result. =}) 10... cxb4 11. Kb7 a4 12. c5 a3 {leads to a draw} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/K3p3/3p1p1p/3P1P1P/k3P3/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] {~19.7 BETTER KING POSITION~ In pawn endings the king is the main piece, in both the direct and the figurative sense, with a great diversity of tasks it, the king is the "jack of all trades". It has to battle with the enemy king for invasion squares, and for the key and critical squares. It "personally" prevents the advance of enemy pawns and itself attacks them, defends its own pawns and assists their advance... In many of the examples considered, when exploiting this or that positional factor, the degree of activity of the king was also extremely important. In the present chapter we will be mainly considering examples where the difference in activity of the kings determines the character of the struggle and the final result. Thus in the following instructional example a quite insignificant difference in the position of the kings (just a single tempo) decides the game in favour of one side or other. The winner is the side that begins, since he is the first to attack the opponent's pawns.} 1. Kb6 {%05With White to move:} Kb3 2. Kc6 Kc3 3. Kd6 Kd3 4. Kxe6 Kxe3 5. Ke5 {! This last move is very important, and is the one which decides the fate of the game. Now} Kd3 {is met by} (5... Kf3 {%04by %05and} 6. Kxf5 {, winning.}) 6. Kxd5 * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/K3p3/3p1p1p/3P1P1P/k3P3/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] 1... Kb3 {%05If Black begins, the situation is repeated liberally in a mirror reflection:} 2. Kb6 Kc3 3. Kc6 Kd3 4. Kd6 Kxe3 5. Kxe6 Ke4 {! , and it is Black who wins.} * [Event "Vienna (Austria)"] [Site "Vienna (Austria)"] [Date "1908.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Alapin Semyon Z (LTU)"] [Black "Reti Richard (CZE)"] [Result "1-0"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1pk5/3p4/1K1Pp1p1/4P1Pp/P6P/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "25"] [EventDate "1908.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ397 %212045826630=4HLJ411 This example demonstrates a procedure which is sometimes called "widening the bridgehead". A pawn storm is undertaken with the aim of eliminating certain enemy pawns, so as to penetrate onto the critical squares of others.} 1. a4 {%05With his king more active, White has the possibility of making a breach in the enemy position by the advance of his rook's pawn. ^013^010 %05 The winning path is not difficult:} Kc8 2. Kb6 Kb8 3. a5 Kc8 4. a6 Kb8 5. a7+ (5. axb7 {? would have led to stalemate %05Of course,}) (5. Ka5 { ! %05but simpler was} Ka7 6. axb7 Kxb7 (6... Kb8 7. Ka6) 7. Kb5 $18 {, when Black can resign.}) 5... Ka8 6. Kc7 b5 7. Kxd6 b4 8. Kc6 {!} b3 9. d6 b2 10. d7 b1=Q 11. d8=Q+ Kxa7 12. Qa5+ Kb8 13. Qb6+ $40 {Resigns. A similar procedure is used in example ~3( 832)~, but the penetration of the king onto the critical squares becomes possible due to the reaching of a zugzwang position.} 1-0 [Event "Podebrady (Czech Republic)"] [Site "Podebrady (Czech Republic)"] [Date "1936.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Eliskases Erich G (AUT)"] [Black "Skalicka Karel"] [Result "0-1"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/pp2k1pp/2p5/2P1p3/2P1P2P/6P1/P7/2K5 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "17"] [EventDate "1936.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ397 %212045826630=4HLJ411 Were it White to move, he would block the enemy king's path into his position by 1. g4, and the game would end in a draw. But it is Black to move, and he succeeds in opening lines on the K-side.} 1... g5 {!} 2. Kd2 (2. h5 g4 $19) 2... Kf6 3. Ke3 Kg6 (3... gxh4 {? %05of course, not} 4. gxh4 Kg6 5. Kf3 Kh5 6. Kg3 {= with a draw}) 4. Kf2 Kh5 5. hxg5 Kxg5 6. Kf3 h5 7. a3 h4 8. a4 hxg3 9. Kxg3 a5 $19 {(zugzwang) White resigns.} 0-1 [Event "Leningrad (Russia)"] [Site "Leningrad (Russia)"] [Date "1974.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Kriukovskich"] [Black "Bishard Ekaterina (RUS)"] [Result "1-0"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1p6/p1p5/P1Pp2pp/1P1P1p1k/5P1P/6PK/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] [EventDate "1974.??.??"] {In certain cases a poor king position may become the cause of defeat. %212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ397 %212045826630=4HLJ411} 1. g3+ {%05The black king has penetrated into the opponent's position, but due to the absence of reserve tempi it has become trapped. By a temporary pawn sacrifice White creates a zugzwang position, and gains a decisive material advantage.} fxg3+ 2. Kg2 g4 3. hxg4 Kg5 {desperation} (3... hxg4 {, then %05if} 4. f4 Kh5 5. Kxg3 $18 {%04etc.}) 4. gxh5 {Resigns.} 1-0 [Event "Venice (Italy)"] [Site "Venice (Italy)"] [Date "1950.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Stalda Giuseppe"] [Black "Vukovic Vladimir (YUG)"] [Result "0-1"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5p1p/4pkp1/8/8/K3P1P1/5P1P/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "21"] [EventDate "1950.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ397 %212045826630=4HLJ411 In the following example, where White's king is a long way from his remaining forces, the difference in the kings' position is especially marked. Nevertheless the path to victory is not simple, and consists in breaking up the pawn barrier which arises in the path of the black king, and then penetrating into the opponent's position. This must be done quickly, before White has time to bring up his king.} 1... Ke5 {!} (1... Kf5 { %05In striving to invade the opponent's position, Black must play accurately. Thus only a draw results from} 2. f3 g5 3. h3 (3. g4+ Ke5 4. Kb4 f5 5. gxf5 { is also possible}) 3... h5 4. g4+ hxg4 5. hxg4+ Ke5 6. Kb4 f5 7. gxf5 exf5 8. Kc3 {=}) 2. f3 g5 3. Kb4 (3. h3 {, Black would still have won: %05Had White prevented ... g4 by} f5 {!} 4. Kb4 h5 {! The only move.} (4... f4 {, then %05If } 5. gxf4+ gxf4 6. exf4+ Kxf4 7. Kc5 Kxf3 8. Kd6 {=}) (4... g4 {, then %05while if} 5. hxg4 fxg4 6. fxg4 Ke4 7. Kc5 Kxe3 8. Kd6 Kf3 9. Kxe6 {, with a draw.}) 5. Kc3 (5. Kc5 {comes %05there is nothing better; on} g4 6. hxg4 fxg4 7. fxg4 hxg4 $19 {, winning}) 5... g4 6. fxg4 fxg4 7. hxg4 hxg4 8. Kd3 Kd5 {!} 9. e4+ Kc5 10. Kc3 e5 $19 {, and Black wins.}) 3... g4 4. f4+ Kd5 {!} (4... Ke4 {! After %05or} 5. Kc5 Kf3 {!} (5... Kxe3 {%05But not} 6. Kd6 Kf3 7. Ke7 Kg2 8. Kxf7 Kxh2 9. Kxe6 Kxg3 10. f5 {= White would have gained a draw.}) 6. Kd6 Kg2 7. Ke7 Kxh2 8. Kxf7 h5 9. e4 h4 $19) 5. Kb5 (5. Kc3 Ke4 $19) 5... h5 {!} 6. Kb6 Ke4 7. Kc6 Kxe3 8. Kd6 h4 {!} 9. gxh4 (9. Ke7 {%05if} hxg3 10. hxg3 {, then} Kf3 {winning}) 9... Kxf4 10. Ke7 e5 11. Kf6 e4 {White resigns.} 0-1 [Event "Russia"] [Site "Russia"] [Date "1958.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Voloshin"] [Black "Aronin Lev S (RUS)"] [Result "0-1"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5p2/4p2p/3p1p2/3P1P2/k3P1P1/2K4P/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "35"] [EventDate "1958.??.??"] {We have already mentioned that, when taking the king into the opponent's position, one should watch carefully for threats of a pawn breakthrough. This is especially important in positions with a defective pawn structure.} 1... Ka2 2. h3 h5 3. h4 f6 {White has used up all his reserve tempi, and is now forced to allow the opponent's king into his position.} 4. Kc3 Kb1 5. Kd3 (5. Kb4 { %05The attempt at a counter-attack is too slow. After} Kc2 6. Kc5 Kd3 7. Kd6 Kxe3 8. Kxe6 Kxd4 9. Kxf5 Ke3 {Black is the first to queen a pawn:} 10. Kxf6 d4 11. f5 d3 12. Ke7 d2 13. f6 d1=Q 14. f7 {True, it immediately has to be exchanged, but after} Qd4 15. f8=Q Qc5+ 16. Kf7 Qxf8+ 17. Kxf8 Kf3 18. Kf7 Kxg3 19. Kg6 Kxh4 20. Kf5 Kg3 {Black wins.}) 5... Kc1 6. Ke2 Kc2 {The opponent's king has made deep inroads into White's position, so he now tries to effect a breakthrough.} 7. e4 fxe4 (7... dxe4 8. g4 hxg4 9. h5 g3 10. h6 g2 11. Kf2 e3+ 12. Kxg2 e2 {was also possible, but Black has no way of avoiding the breakthrough.}) (7... Kc3 {? , then if instead} 8. g4 Kxd4 (8... fxg4 9. f5 exf5 10. exd5) 9. g5 fxg5 10. hxg5 h4 11. g6 h3 12. Kf2 {, and it is White who wins.}) 8. g4 hxg4 9. h5 g3 10. h6 g2 11. Kf2 e3+ 12. Kxg2 e2 13. h7 e1=Q 14. h8=Q Qe4+ 15. Kg3 Qxd4 {(the queen ending is easily won for Black)} 16. Qa8 ( 16. Qc8+ Kd2 17. Qxe6 Qe3+) 16... Qe3+ 17. Kg4 e5 18. Qc6+ Kd2 {White resigns. In this case the breakthrough allowed White to prolong the struggle somewhat, but did not affect the result. It more often happens that a breakthrough sharply changes the pawn formation, has a marked effect on the activity of the kings, and tells decisively on the result.} 0-1 [Event "Kiev (Ukraine)"] [Site "Kiev (Ukraine)"] [Date "1978.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Ree Hans (NED)"] [Black "Ftacnik Lubomir (SVK)"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/1p3pp1/4k2p/p3P2P/P3K1P1/1P6/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "42"] [EventDate "1978.??.??"] 1... g5 {%05Black's position is better, since he has the more active king and a reserve tempo (... b5). He played} (1... f5 {! %05Of course, the plan involving ... g5 was wrong. As was shown by Vinokurov (Kiev), correct was} 2. exf5 Kxf5 3. Kf3 g5 {!} 4. hxg5 Kxg5 $19 {~3($41837)~, aiming to obtain a position in which the^013^010 extra^013^010 tempo could be of decisive significance. In this case,^013^010 thanks to his active king, Black does indeed win.}) 2. g4 {! %05But this was met by the unforeseen} (2. Kf3 {%05, expecting the following continuation, favourable for him:} gxh4 3. gxh4 f5 4. exf5 Kxf5 {%04etc.}) 2... hxg4 3. h5 {, and thanks to the breakthrough the situation changed sharply - White acquired a dangerous outside passed pawn. The black king had to set off to deal with it:} Ke6 4. Kf2 Kf7 5. Kg3 Kg7 6. Kxg4 Kh6 7. Kf5 Kxh5 {Now both sides queens pawns, then they are exchanged by force, after which the more active position of White's king decides the game in his favour.} (7... Kg7 {was no better due to} 8. e5 {!} fxe5 9. Kxg5 { ! , when again White has an outside passed pawn.}) (7... b5 {%05It is true that, in the event of} 8. Kxf6 g4 {White queens his pawn without check -} 9. e5 g3 10. e6 g2 11. e7 g1=Q 12. e8=Q {, but in view of the threat of 13. Qg6, the right to move is of little consolation to Black, e.g.} Qg5+ 13. Ke6 Qe3+ 14. Kd7 {, and White must win the queen ending.}) 8. Kxf6 g4 9. e5 g3 10. e6 g2 11. e7 g1=Q 12. e8=Q+ Kh4 13. Qh8+ Kg3 14. Qg7+ Kf2 15. Qxg1+ Kxg1 16. Ke5 Kf2 17. Kd5 Ke3 18. Kc6 Kd2 19. Kxb6 Kc2 20. Ka5 Kxb2 21. Kxa4 Kc3 22. Kb5 $18 { Resigns.^013^010 We have already met a similar breakthrough^013^010 ~3($40803) ~, but it would be of interest to establish this:^013^010 how^013^010 should Black have played?} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/1p6/6kp/p7/P4KP1/1P6/8 w - - 0 5"] [PlyCount "16"] 5. Kf2 {!} (5. Kg2 {%05This is more tenacious than} Kg4 6. Kf2 Kh3 7. Kf3 b5 {! } 8. Kf2 (8. Kf4 {%05no better is} Kg2 9. g4 hxg4 10. Kxg4 Kf2) 8... Kh2 9. Kf3 Kg1 10. Kf4 Kf2 $19 {%04etc.}) 5... Kf5 {!} (5... Kg4 {%05Nothing is achieved by} 6. Kg2 b5 7. Kf2 {, and bad is} Kh3 8. Kf3 Kh2 9. g4 {! , when it is White who wins.}) 6. Kf3 (6. Ke3 Kg4 7. Kf2 Kh3 8. Kf3 b5) 6... Ke5 7. Ke3 b5 {!} 8. Kd3 (8. Kf3 {%05White fails to save the game after} Kd4 9. Kf4 Kc4 10. Kg5 Kb3 11. Kxh5 Kxb2 12. g4 b4 $19) 8... Kd5 9. Kc3 Ke4 10. Kb4 Kf3 11. Kxb5 Kxg3 12. Kxa4 h4 {, and Black wins.} * [Event "Correspondence"] [Site "?"] [Date "1927.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Schwarz"] [Black "Haas"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p7/4k1p1/6Pp/p2K3P/P7/5P2/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1927.??.??"] {Certain subtleties, involving king manoeuvring inside the enemy position, are shown by the following example.} 1. Kc5 {! %05The correct plan is to exploit the more active position of the king and to invade the opponent's position:} ( 1. Ke4 {%05In this situation the standard plan of creating a passed pawn on the K-side does not win, e.g.} Kd6 2. f3 {!} a6 3. f4 Ke6 4. f5+ gxf5+ 5. Kf4 a5 {(here the strength of doubled pawns is once again revealed; while not dangerous from the viewpoint of obtaining a new queen, they provide extremely important reserve tempi)} 6. g6 Kf6 7. g7 Kxg7 8. Kxf5 Kf7 9. Kg5 Ke6 10. Kxh5 Kf5 11. Kh6 Kf6 12. h5 Kf7 13. Kg5 Kg7 14. Kf5 Kh6 {, and, according to Bahr's rule (209), Black gains a draw.}) 1... Ke5 {The best defence.} (1... Kf5 { leads by force to mate: %05The seemingly dangerous} 2. Kd6 Kg4 3. Ke5 Kxh4 4. Kf6 Kg4 5. Kxg6 h4 6. Kf6 h3 7. g6 h2 8. g7 h1=Q 9. g8=Q+ Kf4 (9... Kf3 10. Qa8+) 10. Qb8+ {!} Kg4 11. Qg3+ Kh5 12. Qg5# {mate.}) (1... a6 {, possible is %05If instead Black plays} 2. f4 (2. Kd4 {%05but not} Kf5 {!} (2... Kd6 3. Ke4 Ke6 4. f4 a5 5. f5+) 3. Ke3 Kg4 4. f4 Kxh4 5. Kf3 a5) 2... Kf5 3. Kd6 Kg4 4. Ke6 Kxh4 5. f5 {!}) 2. Kc6 Ke6 (2... Kd4 {%05the attack on the a3 pawn is too slow:} 3. Kd6 Kc3 4. f4 Kb3 5. f5) 3. Kc7 Ke7 4. f3 {!} a6 5. Kc8 (5. f4 {!} a5 6. Kb6 {etc. was even simpler}) 5... Ke8 6. Kb7 {, and White won} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1843.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2k3pp/p4p2/1pK5/1P2PP2/P7/7P/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "16"] [EventDate "1843.??.??"] {We will now examine a number of positions in which, despite one side having the advantage of a better king position, against correct defence it cannot be realized.} 1. e5 {%05This position, from the 1st edition of Bilguer's Handbuch, was for a long time considered drawn. As a demonstration of this, Novotny later (in the 4th edition) gave the following variations:} (1. h4 {%05or} g6 {! } 2. Kd5 Kd7 3. e5 fxe5 4. Kxe5 Ke7 {etc. with a draw.}) (1. Kd5 {%05Fine (1941) tried to show a win here by} Kd7 2. e5 {But, as was shown by readers of the magazine Shakhmaty v SSSR, against correct defence White's plan is unrealizable. By} g5 {! Black obtains essential counter-play and forces a draw, e.g.} (2... fxe5 {%05e.g.} 3. Kxe5 Ke7 4. Kd5 Kd7 (4... Kf6 {, then %05if} 5. Kc6 Kf5 6. Kb6 Kxf4 7. Kxa6 g5 8. Kxb5 h5 9. Ka6 g4 10. b5 {, winning}) 5. Kc5 Kc7 6. f5 {!} h6 7. h3 h5 8. h4 Kd7 9. Kb6 Kd6 10. Kxa6 Ke5 11. Kxb5 Kxf5 12. a4 g5 13. a5 g4 14. a6 g3 15. a7 g2 16. a8=Q g1=Q 17. Qd5+ Kf6 18. Qxh5 Qf1+ 19. Kb6 Qf2+ 20. Ka6 Qa2+ 21. Kb5 {, and White should realize his advantage.}) 3. e6+ (3. exf6 gxf4 4. Ke4 Ke6) 3... Ke7 4. f5 (4. fxg5 fxg5 5. Ke5 h5 6. Kf5 g4 {%04etc.}) 4... h5 5. Kc6 h4 {!} 6. Kd5 Ke8 7. Ke4 Kf8 8. Kf3 Kg7 9. Kg4 Kf8 10. Kh5 Kg7 11. h3 Kf8 {!} 12. Kg6 Ke7 {Draw.}) 1... fxe5 2. fxe5 Kd7 3. Kd5 g5 4. e6+ Ke7 5. Ke5 h5 6. Kf5 g4 7. Kg5 Kxe6 8. Kxh5 Kf5 {= The construction of a "fortress" is the most effective way of countering an active enemy king. In fact, if the king cannot penetrate into the opponent's position, all its activity proves quite useless.} * [Event "Coburg (Germany)"] [Site "Coburg (Germany)"] [Date "1904.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Mieses Jacques (GER)"] [Black "Schlechter Carl (AUT)"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/6p1/2p1k2p/1p3p2/1P3P1P/PpPK4/6P1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "21"] [EventDate "1904.??.??"] 1. h5 {%05Here everything depends on whether the black king can invade the enemy position, using the b3 pawn for diversionary means.} Kd5 2. a4 {! This sacrifice is the whole point. Black has to reply} bxa4 {But then} (2... b2 { %05Since nothing is promised by} 3. Kc2 bxa4 4. Kxb2 Kc4 5. Ka3 Kxc3 6. Kxa4 { , when} Kb2 {is strongly met by} (6... Kd4 {%05the same pawn advance follows on } 7. Ka5 c5 8. b5) 7. b5) 3. c4+ {drives back the king, and closes all its paths to the white pawns. After} Kd6 4. Kc3 Kc7 5. Kb2 Kb6 6. Ka3 {Black can try to open lines by} c5 {, but} 7. b5 Ka5 8. Kb2 {is not dangerous for White. Bad, for example, is} (8. g3 {, Black can gain the necessary tempo by "triangulation", by returning his king to b7, a7 and b6. %05if}) 8... Kb4 9. b6 a3+ 10. Kb1 Kc3 11. b7 {, when it is White who wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1964.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Kozlov Vladimir N (RUS)"] [Black "Nyevmerzhitsky"] [Result "1/2-1/2"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "1k6/6p1/2p4p/p1p2P2/2Pp2P1/8/PP5P/K7 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1964.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ397 %212045826630=4HLJ411 The following example is much more complicated.} 1. a4 { !! %05White's position looks hopeless: Black has a protected passed pawn, and his king has the open b8-h2 diagonal to the opponent's K-side pawns. And yet White manages to save the game.} (1. a3 {? %05All other moves are simply bad, e.g.} Kc7 2. b4 cxb4 3. axb4 d3 {!} 4. Kb2 a4 {!} 5. h4 d2 6. Kc2 a3 $19) (1. Kb1 {? %05or} Kc7 2. Kc2 Kd6 3. Kd3 Ke5 4. a3 h5 $19) (1. h4 {%05Black is also able to forestall the threat of a breakthrough:} Kc7 2. g5 hxg5 3. hxg5 (3. f6 gxf6 4. h5 g4 $19) 3... Kd6 4. f6 gxf6 5. g6 Ke7 $19 {%04etc.}) 1... Kc7 2. b4 {!!} cxb4 3. c5 {!} Kd7 4. h4 Ke7 5. g5 hxg5 6. hxg5 {= Drawn.} 1/2-1/2 [Event "Amsterdam (Netherlands)"] [Site "Amsterdam (Netherlands)"] [Date "1910.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Esser Johannes F (NED)"] [Black "Davidson"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/6p1/7p/5p2/4p2P/4PkP1/5P2/4K3 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] [EventDate "1910.??.??"] {It is useful to know that the penetration of the king into the enemy position by no means always brings success. The king must be able to make an effective attack on the enemy weaknesses.} 1... f4 {%05The black king is very strongly placed, and its opponent has not managed to occupy its best square at f1. This is therefore the most favourable moment for a breakthrough:} 2. gxf4 (2. exf4 { ? , since after %05White cannot play} e3 3. fxe3 Kxe3 {his g-pawn cannot be defended.}) 2... Kg4 3. Ke2 (3. Kf1 {! White could have gained a draw. For example: %05In 1926 Reti showed that 3. Ke2 was a mistake, and that by} Kxh4 ( 3... h5 {? %05while after} 4. Kg2 {Black himself is too late with the advance of his pawn:} g6 (4... Kxh4 5. f3) 5. f3+ exf3+ 6. Kf2 Kxh4 7. Kxf3 g5 8. e4 { ! , and it is White who wins.}) 4. f3 {!} exf3 5. e4 Kg4 6. e5 Kf5 7. Kf2 { %04etc. =}) 3... h5 {!} (3... Kxh4 {because of %05not immediately} 4. f3 { , with a draw}) 4. Kf1 (4. f3+ {, then %05if} exf3+ 5. Kf2 g6) 4... Kxh4 5. Kg2 Kg4 6. Kh2 Kf3 7. Kg1 h4 {, and thanks to his passed pawn, Black won.} * [Event "Budapest (Hungary)"] [Site "Budapest (Hungary)"] [Date "1934.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Havasi Kornel (HUN)"] [Black "Stahlberg Gideon (SWE)"] [Result "1/2-1/2"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/6p1/p5k1/1p6/1P2p2P/P7/5P2/6K1 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "27"] [EventDate "1934.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ397 %212045826630=4HLJ411 In the following example Black's king penetrates into the opponent's position, but fails to make an effective attack on the weak pawn, since, by successfully manoeuvring with his king, White creates counter-threats.} 1. Kf1 {! %05The correct plan of defence is a counter-attack on the e-pawn:} (1. Kg2 {? %05The attempt to defend the h-pawn leads to defeat: } Kf5 {!} 2. Kg3 g6 $19) 1... Kh5 (1... Kf5 {%05But perhaps Black should have immediately sent his king to the support of his e-pawn:} 2. Ke2 Kf4 {? In this case White is rescued by} 3. h5 {! , and if} e3 {, then} 4. f3 {! , not allowing the creation of an outside passed pawn. For example:} Kg5 5. Kxe3 Kxh5 6. Kf2 Kg5 7. Kg3 Kf5 8. f4 Ke4 9. Kg4 g6 {(there is nothing better)} 10. Kg3 { !} Ke3 11. Kg4 Kf2 12. Kh4 {!} Kf3 13. Kg5 {, with a draw.}) 2. Ke2 Kxh4 3. Ke3 Kh3 4. Kxe4 Kg2 5. Ke3 {! , when White is able to maintain the balance, e.g. %05However, White too played inaccurately. Correct, as established by Knyazev, was} (5. f4 {? %05The game now continued:} Kf2 {?} (5... Kg3 {! %05Later Canal showed that, instead of the inaccurate 5... Kf2, Black could have won by} 6. f5 (6. Ke3 g6 7. Ke4 Kf2 $19) 6... Kg4 7. Ke5 Kf3 $19 {%04etc.}) 6. f5 {!} Kg2 7. Kf4 Kf2 8. Ke4 Kg2 {= , and the players agreed a draw.}) 5... Kf1 (5... g5 { achieves nothing due to} 6. f4 {!=}) 6. Kf3 {!} Ke1 (6... g5 7. Kg3 Ke2 8. f3 Ke3 9. Kg2 Ke2 10. Kg3 Kf1 11. Kh3 {!} Kf2 12. Kg4 {= , and} Kg2 {? is bad due to} 13. f4 {!$18}) 7. Kg3 Ke2 8. f4 Kd3 9. f5 Ke3 10. Kg4 Ke4 11. Kg5 Kf3 12. Kh5 {! This flank manoeuvre by the king saves the game, as in the variation with 6... g5 just examined (cf. 11. Kh3!)} Kf4 13. Kg6 Ke4 (13... Kg4 {? is still bad in view of} 14. f6 {!$18}) 14. Kg5 {= with a draw.} 1/2-1/2 [Event "Gori (Georgia)"] [Site "Gori (Georgia)"] [Date "1971.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Savon Vladimir A (UKR)"] [Black "Furman Semyen A (RUS)"] [Result "1/2-1/2"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/1p1k2p1/p1p2p1p/2P2P2/1P4PP/PK6/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "20"] [EventDate "1971.??.??"] {%212045826630=4HLJ121 %212045826630=4HLJ316 %212045826630=4HLJ397 %212045826630=4HLJ411 In the event of the king penetrating, one of the methods of defence is to block it in, i.e. restrict the king to a limited space, usually in the corner of the board.} 1. Ka3 {he intends to invade the opponent's position with his king. But there is a way to save the game: %05White has three reserve tempi, and by} g5 {! (the threat of a breakthrough forces White to use up one tempo, but it is his most precious one)} (1... Kc7 { %05Passive waiting is fatal for Black, e.g.} 2. Ka4 Kc6 3. a3 Kc7 4. Kb5 Kb7 5. h4 Kc7 6. Ka6 Kc6 7. a4 Kc7 8. Ka7 Kc6 9. Kb8 $18 {%04etc.}) 2. h4 (2. fxg5 h4 3. g6 Ke6 $19) 2... gxf4 3. gxf4 Kc7 4. Ka4 Kc6 5. a3 Kc7 6. Kb5 Kb7 7. a4 Kc7 8. Ka6 Kc6 9. Ka7 Kc7 10. Ka8 Kc8 {= Drawn.} 1/2-1/2 [Event "Ch World (match)"] [Site "?"] [Date "1929.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Alekhine Alexander A (RUS)"] [Black "Bogoljubow Efim D (UKR)"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "5k2/p7/P4p2/1K4p1/4Pp1p/5P1P/6P1/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] [EventDate "1929.??.??"] 1... Kf7 {!! A precise move. %05 The white king has broken into the opponent's position, and Back is bound to lose his a-pawn. But this leads only to a draw, since the king finds itself shut in the corner. True, the play is not without subtleties, since Black also has to reckon with the e4-e5 break.} (1... Ke7 { %05Bad is} 2. Kc5 Kd7 (2... Ke6 3. Kc6) 3. Kd5 Ke7 4. e5 {, when White wins.}) 2. Kc5 Ke7 {!} 3. Kc6 (3. Kd5 {%05Now} Kd7 4. e5 fxe5 5. Kxe5 {does not hold any special promise due to} Kc6 {, e.g.} 6. Kf5 Kb6 7. Kxg5 Kxa6 8. Kxf4 Kb5 9. Kg5 (9. Ke3 Kc4 10. Kd2 Kd4 11. Kc2 a5 12. Kb3 Ke3 13. Ka4 Kf4 {!} 14. Kxa5 Kg3 15. Kb5 Kxg2 16. f4 Kxh3) 9... Kc5 {!} 10. f4 Kd6 11. Kg6 Ke7 12. Kg7 Ke6 { , with a draw.}) 3... Ke6 4. Kc7 Ke7 {!} 5. Kc8 Ke8 6. Kb8 Kd8 {!} (6... Kd7 { ? is bad due to %05a necessary finesse:} 7. Kb7 Kd6 8. Kc8 {!}) 7. Ka8 Kc8 8. Kxa7 Kc7 {Draw (analysis by Grigoriev).} * [Event "Philadelphia (USA)"] [Site "Philadelphia (USA)"] [Date "1936.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Horowitz Israel A (USA)"] [Black "Denker Arnold S (USA)"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "5k2/6p1/p2p2Kp/P1pPp3/2P1P3/2P5/6PP/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "21"] [EventDate "1936.??.??"] {Interesting drawing possibilities are shown by the following practical example, all the subtleties of which were revealed only very recently.} 1. h4 { %05Positions of this type (~3($40824)~ and~3 ($40825)~), %05in which^013^010 %05the king has already invaded the enemy position, have^013^010 %05already been considered in the section on extra tempi.^013^010 %05But we have included this example here, on account of^013^010 %05the special features of the pawn formation which create^013^010 %05drawing possibilities.} Kg8 2. g4 Kf8 3. g5 { ! %05 But does this mean that the ending is drawn? Of course not. It turns out that the plan chosen by White was wrong.^013^010 The correct continuation was} (3. Kh7 {%05The game took the following course:} Kf7 (3... h5 {! , e.g. %05Zinar (1974) found that after 3. Kh7 Black could have forced a draw by} 4. gxh5 (4. g5 {%05or} Kf7 5. Kh8 (5. g6+ {does not win, in view of %05In this last variation} Kf6 6. Kg8 Kxg6 7. Kf8 Kf6 8. Ke8 g5 9. hxg5+ Kxg5 10. Ke7 h4 11. Kxd6 h3 12. Kc7 h2 13. d6 h1=Q 14. d7 Qh7 15. Kc8 Qh3 {%04etc.}) 5... Kg6 { ! with stalemate.}) 4... Kf7 5. h6 g6 {!} 6. Kh8 Kf8 {, and the white king is imprisoned}) 4. Kh8 {%04with %05Black answered} (4. g5 {? This move does not win, on account of the unexpected %05But why not the standard} h5 {!} 5. Kh8 Kg6 {!} 6. Kg8 {- stalemate.}) (4. h5 {! %05The correct continuation was} Kf6 ( 4... Kf8 5. Kg6 Kg8 6. Kf5 Kf7 7. g5 {leads to variations already studied}) 5. Kg8 g6 (5... g5 6. Kh7) 6. Kf8 {!} gxh5 7. gxh5 Kg5 8. Ke7 Kxh5 9. Kxd6 Kg4 10. Kxe5 {, winning.}) 4... Kf8 {, but after} (4... h5 {! %05And now a few further improvements found by Zinar. Instead of the incorrect 4... Kf8 there was still a draw by} 5. gxh5 (5. g5 {%05or} Kg6 6. Kg8 {, with stalemate.}) 5... Kf8) ( 4... Kg6 {%05Finally, Black also fails to save the game by} 5. Kg8 Kf6 6. h5 g6 7. Kf8 {! , when White transposes into the continuation just considered.}) 5. g5 {he resigned.}) 3... hxg5 4. Kxg5 Kf7 5. h5 Ke7 6. Kg6 Kf8 {, although the wining path is difficult and requires deep calculation.} 7. h6 {! By exchanging the K-side pawns, White aims to approach his opponent's main weakness - the d6 pawn. But Black finds an unexpected resource.} Kg8 {!} (7... gxh6 {%05If now} 8. Kxh6 Kf7 {, then} 9. Kh7 Kf6 10. Kg8 {!} Kg5 11. Kf7 Kf4 12. Ke7 Kxe4 13. Kxd6 Kf4 14. Kxc5 e4 15. d6 e3 16. d7 e2 17. d8=Q e1=Q 18. Qf6+ Kg4 19. Kc6 {, and White easily realizes his material advantage.}) 8. Kh5 {!} (8. hxg7 {with stalemate %05Of course, not}) (8. h7+ {%05but possible is} Kh8 9. Kf5 Kxh7 10. Ke6 g5 11. Kxd6 g4 12. Kc7 g3 13. d6 g2 14. d7 g1=Q 15. d8=Q {with winning chances. Nevertheless 8. Kh5! is stronger, since it transposes into a continuation already examined.}) 8... gxh6 (8... Kh7 { , then %05There is nothing better. If} 9. hxg7 Kxg7 10. Kg5 Kf7 11. Kf5 { , and White wins very easily.}) 9. Kxh6 Kf7 10. Kh7 Kf6 11. Kg8 {! , and White wins very easily. As we see, in this example White wins not by the standard method of creating a zugzwang position, but by exchanging all the K-side pawns followed by penetrating to Black's main weakness - the d6 pawn. In conclusion, here is a position with a slightly different pawn configuration.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "5k2/2p3p1/2Pp2Kp/3Pp3/4P1PP/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "25"] {Here Black's weakness at c7 is rather further away than in example ~3 ( 846)~. } 1. Kh7 {%05But nevertheless White can obtain winning chances, by again changing plan:} (1. h5 {%05 Let us try employing the plan of widening the^013^010 %05bridgehead. In this case the play can take the following^013^010 %05course:} Kg8 2. g5 hxg5 3. Kxg5 Kf7 4. Kf5 Ke7 5. Kg6 Kf8 6. h6 gxh6 7. Kxh6 Kf7 8. Kh7 {, and the simplest way to draw is by} Kf8 (8... Kf6 {%05However, a counter-attack is also possible:} 9. Kg8 Kg5 10. Kf7 Kf4 11. Ke6 Kxe4 12. Kd7 Kxd5 13. Kxc7 e4 14. Kd7 e3 15. c7 e2 16. c8=Q e1=Q 17. Qc6+ { = with a draw.}) 9. Kg6 Kg8 10. Kf6 Kf8 11. Ke6 Ke8 {=}) 1... Kf7 2. g5 h5 {!} 3. g6+ {!} (3. Kh8 Kg6 {!= with a draw}) 3... Kf6 4. Kg8 Kxg6 5. Kf8 Kf6 6. Ke8 g5 7. hxg5+ Kxg5 8. Kd7 h4 9. Kxc7 h3 10. Kxd6 h2 11. c7 h1=Q 12. c8=Q Qxe4 { (in view of the threat of 13. Qf5, it is unlikely that Black has anything better)} 13. Qh8 {!$18 , and it would appear that Black is unable to save this ending. Thus various nuances in the pawn formation can significantly affect both the choice of plan, and the final result.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1892.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Locock"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "6k1/3p4/3p4/3P4/4P1p1/6P1/8/K7 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] [EventDate "1892.??.??"] {%15N #B(8/5I1I1I1/5I1I1I1/6I1I1/2D1D14/2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8) #C(501I107I/504I05I06I/501I03I07I/602I08I/101D04D01D4/103D05D03D02D3/ 107D06D07D08D3/103D05D03D02D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) ~110. THE THEORY OF CORRESPONDING SQUARE SYSTEMS~ In the preceding chapters the reader will on many occasions have encountered positions of varying complexity, in which the correct path could be found by using corresponding squares. We have met some of the most common instances of corresponding squares (for example, such as "triangulation"), but other systems are also known, as will be described in the present chapter. The author of it is chess composer M. Zinar, a major specialist in the field of pawn endings. It is worth recalling that the theory of corresponding squares began to be developed only in the 20th century. The basis of it was a well known publication by Emanuel Lasker (1901). Much attention has been paid to this question by Grigoriev, Bianchetti, Ebersz, Halberstadt, Duchamp, Bahr, Maizelis, and also a number of other theorists. It has been established that, in spite of the great variety of examples, the number of different corresponding square systems is comparatively small, and in each individual case the manoeuvring of the kings is of a definite nature, typical of the given system. In this chapter an attempt is made to generalize everything of value that has been devised in the theory of corresponding square systems, so as to give practical players appropriate recommendations, which should help them to find their way in certain complex pawn endgame positions. Therefore the present chapter is intended mainly for players of high standard. What is required for the correct handling of pawn endings with extensive zones of corresponding squares? Firstly, one must be able to determine quickly the system of corresponding squares; secondly, it is essential to understand its structure, and thirdly, one must be able to find one's bearings in the given system. We should mention that, while the second and third questions have been studied more or less fully by theorists, the first question, the most important one for practical players, has until now remained practically untouched. In the present work the author will attempt, at least partially, to fill this gap. On examining a position with a complicated system of corresponding squares, an experienced player will immediately pick out the front-line corresponding squares, if the struggle is for adjoining critical and key squares, or the shortest paths, if the play revolves around two invasion points. It is from the front line or the shortest path that we will proceed. We will first introduce the concept of base squares - this is the name we will give or two adjoining, strictly unambiguous squares of the front line or the shortest path, which without fail are adjacent of the base squares, there may be either one, or two, such rear squares. If there is one such square linking the base squares, we will have a base triangle, if there are two, we will have a 2x2 base square. Using these three concepts we have introduced, it is easy to determine what will be the system of corresponding squares. ~110.1 EIGHT-SQUARE SYSTEM~ If the base triangles can be amplified to a 3x3 square, we have in operation an eight-square system.} 1. Kb1 {%15N #B(8/5I1I1I1/5I1I1I1/6I1I1/2D1D14/2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8) #C(501I107I/504I05I06I/501I03I07I/602I08I/101D04D01D4/103D05D03D02D3/ 107D06D07D08D3/103D05D03D02D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) ! (occupying a "3" square, and approaching the base square "2") %05In view of the threat of e4-e5, the first position of mutual zugwang is Kd4/Kf6, the^013^010 %05second, Ke3/Kg5, arises from the struggle for the key f4 square. We thus have two^013^010 %05strictly unambiguous front-line squares. They are linked by one rear square: d3 for White^013^010 %05and g6 for Black. The base triangles d4-e3-d3 and f6-g5-g6 can be amplified for each^013^010 %05side to a 3x3 square (with the e4 square inaccessible for White, and f5 for Black).^013^010 %05 We thus come to the conclusion that we have here an eight-square system.^013^010 %05 We will designate the base squares by the numbers "1" and "2" respectively, and the^013^010 %05linking square by "3". On the sides of the base triangle we successively fill in the^013^010 %05numbers from "4" to "8" (we write "4" alongside "1"). As a result we obtain the main zone^013^010 %05of the eight-square system. The main zone is needed to reduce the designations to a^013^010 %05minimum.^013^010 %05 Rear squares receive the same designations as those squares of the main zone which^013^010 %05are one square away horizontally (or vertically). Corresponding squares are marked until^013^010 %05an obstruction or counter-play appears. The correspondence does not extend forward^013^010 %05beyond the sides of the base triangle. Downwards squares are marked as far as the^013^010 %05edge of the board, and to the left - as far as, and including, the b-file. The a-file is^013^010 %05excluded due to the possibility of counter-play by Black. Incidentally, every case, where^013^010 %05the opponent has counter-play, requires specific checking by the calculation of^013^010 %05variations.^013^010 %05 To draw, the defender's king must occupy a square of the same designation as that^013^010 %05occupied by the opponent's king. If the stronger side's king is to the rear, the defender^013^010 %05can occupy a square of equivalent designation either in the rear, or in the main zone. But^013^010 %05if the stronger side's king is in the main zone, the opponent's king must also be there.^013^010 %05 To win, on each move one must occupy a square of equivalent designation, or a square^013^010 %05left unattended, endeavouring at the same time to approach the base squares. If this is^013^010 %05not possible, one must continue manoeuvring, at least not moving away from the base^013^010 %05squares. ^013^010 %05The solution of the position is as follows:} Kg7 {%15N #B(8/ 5I1I1I1/5I1I1I1/6I1I1/2D1D14/2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (501I107I/504I05I06I/501I03I07I/602I08I/101D04D01D4/103D05D03D02D3/ 107D06D07D08D3/103D05D03D02D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kc1 {(also to a "5", approaching "2") %15 N #B(8/5I1I1I1/5I1I1I1/6I1I1/2D1D14/2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(501I107I/504I05I06I/501I03I07I/602I08I/101D04D01D4/ 103D05D03D02D3/107D06D07D08D3/103D05D03D02D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kg6 { %15N #B(8/5I1I1I1/5I1I1I1/6I1I1/2D1D14/2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(501I107I/504I05I06I/501I03I07I/602I08I/101D04D01D4/103D05D03D02D3/ 107D06D07D08D3/103D05D03D02D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kd1 {! It is not possible to approach the base squares, so White continues manoeuvring, at least not moving away from them.^013^010 You must never return to a square where you have already been! For this reason White does not play his king to b1, although it too is designated with a number "3". %15N #B(8/5I1I1I1/5I1I1I1/ 6I1I1/2D1D14/2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(501I107I/504I05I06I/ 501I03I07I/602I08I/101D04D01D4/103D05D03D02D3/107D06D07D08D3/103D05D03D02D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kg5 {%15N #B(8/5I1I1I1/5I1I1I1/6I1I1/2D1D14/2D1D1D13/ 2D1D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(501I107I/504I05I06I/501I03I07I/602I08I/ 101D04D01D4/103D05D03D02D3/107D06D07D08D3/103D05D03D02D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kc2 {! Here White had a choice: should he occupy a "2" square (4. Ke1), or move to a "6" square, which has been left unattended by the black king? In the event of 4. Ke1 White does not approach the base squares, whereas with 4. Kc2 he approaches the base square "1". This means that 4. Kc2! is correct. %15N #B (8/5I1I1I1/5I1I1I1/6I1I1/2D1D14/2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (501I107I/504I05I06I/501I03I07I/602I08I/101D04D01D4/103D05D03D02D3/ 107D06D07D08D3/103D05D03D02D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kh5 {%15N #B(8/5I1I1I1/ 5I1I1I1/6I1I1/2D1D14/2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(501I107I/ 504I05I06I/501I03I07I/602I08I/101D04D01D4/103D05D03D02D3/107D06D07D08D3/ 103D05D03D02D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kc3 {White cannot occupy an "8" square, but he goes to a "5" square which has been left unattended, while approaching the base square "1". %15 N #B(8/5I1I1I1/5I1I1I1/6I1I1/2D1D14/2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/ 8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(501I107I/504I05I06I/501I03I07I/602I08I/101D04D01D4/ 103D05D03D02D3/107D06D07D08D3/103D05D03D02D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kg5 { %15N #B(8/5I1I1I1/5I1I1I1/6I1I1/2D1D14/2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(501I107I/504I05I06I/501I03I07I/602I08I/101D04D01D4/103D05D03D02D3/ 107D06D07D08D3/103D05D03D02D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Kc4 {White cannot approach any closer to the base squares, so he continues his king manoeuvre, by not moving away from them, and places it on a "4" square which has been left unattended. %15N #B(8/5I1I1I1/5I1I1I1/6I1I1/2D1D14/2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(501I107I/504I05I06I/501I03I07I/602I08I/101D04D01D4/ 103D05D03D02D3/107D06D07D08D3/103D05D03D02D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kg6 { %15N #B(8/5I1I1I1/5I1I1I1/6I1I1/2D1D14/2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(501I107I/504I05I06I/501I03I07I/602I08I/101D04D01D4/103D05D03D02D3/ 107D06D07D08D3/103D05D03D02D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 7. Kd3 {(also to "3", approaching the base square "2"), and now %15N #B(8/5I1I1I1/5I1I1I1/6I1I1/ 2D1D14/2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(501I107I/504I05I06I/ 501I03I07I/602I08I/101D04D01D4/103D05D03D02D3/107D06D07D08D3/103D05D03D02D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kg5 {%15N #B(8/5I1I1I1/5I1I1I1/6I1I1/2D1D14/2D1D1D13/ 2D1D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(501I107I/504I05I06I/501I03I07I/602I08I/ 101D04D01D4/103D05D03D02D3/107D06D07D08D3/103D05D03D02D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) is decisively met by} (7... Kf6 {%04by %05and} 8. Kd4 $18) 8. Ke3 $18 {%15 N #B(8/5I1I1I1/5I1I1I1/6I1I1/2D1D14/2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (501I107I/504I05I06I/501I03I07I/602I08I/101D04D01D4/103D05D03D02D3/ 107D06D07D08D3/103D05D03D02D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1936.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Bahr Peter (GER)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "7k/2p5/2p5/2P4p/3P1p1p/5P1P/8/K7 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] [EventDate "1936.??.??"] {%15N #B(8/4I1I1I11/4I1I1I11/5I1I11/1D1D15/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(401I03I07I1/404I05I06I05I/401I03I07I03I/502I08I1/01D04D01D5/ 03D05D03D02D4/07D06D07D08D4/105D03D02D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kb1 {%15N #B (8/4I1I1I11/4I1I1I11/5I1I11/1D1D15/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (401I03I07I1/404I05I06I05I/401I03I07I03I/502I08I1/01D04D01D5/03D05D03D02D4/ 07D06D07D08D4/105D03D02D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) ! %05This is a similar position to ~3($40848)~, but moved to %05the left. It is of interest for the fact that, due to the %05obstruction on the h-file, Black loses the %05correspondence.} Kh7 {%15N #B(8/4I1I1I11/4I1I1I11/5I1I11/1D1D15/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8) #C(401I03I07I1/404I05I06I05I/401I03I07I03I/502I08I1/01D04D01D5/ 03D05D03D02D4/07D06D07D08D4/105D03D02D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kc1 {%15N #B (8/4I1I1I11/4I1I1I11/5I1I11/1D1D15/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (401I03I07I1/404I05I06I05I/401I03I07I03I/502I08I1/01D04D01D5/03D05D03D02D4/ 07D06D07D08D4/105D03D02D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kh6 {%15N #B(8/4I1I1I11/ 4I1I1I11/5I1I11/1D1D15/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(401I03I07I1/ 404I05I06I05I/401I03I07I03I/502I08I1/01D04D01D5/03D05D03D02D4/07D06D07D08D4/ 105D03D02D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kd1 {(the h5 square is inaccessible, and Black cannot defend the "7" and "8" squares) %15N #B(8/4I1I1I11/4I1I1I11/ 5I1I11/1D1D15/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(401I03I07I1/ 404I05I06I05I/401I03I07I03I/502I08I1/01D04D01D5/03D05D03D02D4/07D06D07D08D4/ 105D03D02D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kh7 {%15N #B(8/4I1I1I11/4I1I1I11/5I1I11/ 1D1D15/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(401I03I07I1/404I05I06I05I/ 401I03I07I03I/502I08I1/01D04D01D5/03D05D03D02D4/07D06D07D08D4/105D03D02D4) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kd2 {%15N #B(8/4I1I1I11/4I1I1I11/5I1I11/1D1D15/1D1D1D14/ 1D1D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(401I03I07I1/404I05I06I05I/401I03I07I03I/ 502I08I1/01D04D01D5/03D05D03D02D4/07D06D07D08D4/105D03D02D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8)} Kg6 {%15N #B(8/4I1I1I11/4I1I1I11/5I1I11/1D1D15/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14/8) #S(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(401I03I07I1/404I05I06I05I/401I03I07I03I/502I08I1/01D04D01D5/ 03D05D03D02D4/07D06D07D08D4/105D03D02D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kc2 {%15N #B (8/4I1I1I11/4I1I1I11/5I1I11/1D1D15/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (401I03I07I1/404I05I06I05I/401I03I07I03I/502I08I1/01D04D01D5/03D05D03D02D4/ 07D06D07D08D4/105D03D02D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kg5 {%15N #B(8/4I1I1I11/ 4I1I1I11/5I1I11/1D1D15/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(401I03I07I1/ 404I05I06I05I/401I03I07I03I/502I08I1/01D04D01D5/03D05D03D02D4/07D06D07D08D4/ 105D03D02D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Kb3 {%15N #B(8/4I1I1I11/4I1I1I11/5I1I11/ 1D1D15/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(401I03I07I1/404I05I06I05I/ 401I03I07I03I/502I08I1/01D04D01D5/03D05D03D02D4/07D06D07D08D4/105D03D02D4) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf5 {%15N #B(8/4I1I1I11/4I1I1I11/5I1I11/1D1D15/1D1D1D14/ 1D1D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(401I03I07I1/404I05I06I05I/401I03I07I03I/ 502I08I1/01D04D01D5/03D05D03D02D4/07D06D07D08D4/105D03D02D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8)} 7. Kb4 {%15N #B(8/4I1I1I11/4I1I1I11/5I1I11/1D1D15/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14/8) #S (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(401I03I07I1/404I05I06I05I/401I03I07I03I/502I08I1/ 01D04D01D5/03D05D03D02D4/07D06D07D08D4/105D03D02D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf6 { %15N #B(8/4I1I1I11/4I1I1I11/5I1I11/1D1D15/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(401I03I07I1/404I05I06I05I/401I03I07I03I/502I08I1/01D04D01D5/ 03D05D03D02D4/07D06D07D08D4/105D03D02D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 8. Kc3 {, and White wins. %15 N #B(8/4I1I1I11/4I1I1I11/5I1I11/1D1D15/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14/8) #S (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(401I03I07I1/404I05I06I05I/401I03I07I03I/502I08I1/ 01D04D01D5/03D05D03D02D4/07D06D07D08D4/105D03D02D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1925.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Bianchetti"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "7k/1p6/1P2p3/1P2P3/4P1p1/6P1/8/K7 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] [EventDate "1925.??.??"] {%15N #B(5I1I1I1/5I1I1I1/6I1I1/8/2D1D14/2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8) #C(504I05I1/501I03I07I/602I08I/8/04D01D04D01D4/05D03D05D03D02D3/ 06D07D06D07D08D3/103D05D03D02D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Ka2 {! %05Here one end of he shortest path is Kc5/Ke7, while the other is Kf4/Kh5. The shortest path consists of 4 squares.^013^010 %05 Which two squares should be taken as the base pair? Not the e3-f4 pair: there is no linking square. If one takes c5-d4 as the base squares with one linking square, in reply Black will have the e7-f7 pair with two linking squares, i.e. White will have a base triangle, and Black a 2x2 base square.^013^010 %05 A 2x2 base square gives an excess of correspondence in comparison with a base triangle. In this case Black will not be forced to adhere to strict correspondence on the rear squares. So we should choose a system which forces both sides to adopt the strictest manoeuvring. Therefore we take as the base squares d4-e3 for White and f7-g6 for Black. The base triangles can be amplified to 3x3 squares, so we again have an eight-square system.^013^010 %05 The markings, the zone structures and the play are all analogous to the previous examples. Black has no counter-play, and so the zone extends to the edge of the board. %15N #B(5I1I1I1/5I1I1I1/ 6I1I1/8/2D1D14/2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(504I05I1/501I03I07I/ 602I08I/8/04D01D04D01D4/05D03D05D03D02D3/06D07D06D07D08D3/103D05D03D02D3) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kg8 {%15N #B(5I1I1I1/5I1I1I1/6I1I1/8/2D1D14/2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/ 8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(504I05I1/501I03I07I/602I08I/8/04D01D04D01D4/ 05D03D05D03D02D3/06D07D06D07D08D3/103D05D03D02D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Ka3 { %15N #B(5I1I1I1/5I1I1I1/6I1I1/8/2D1D14/2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(504I05I1/501I03I07I/602I08I/8/04D01D04D01D4/05D03D05D03D02D3/ 06D07D06D07D08D3/103D05D03D02D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf8 {%15N #B(5I1I1I1/ 5I1I1I1/6I1I1/8/2D1D14/2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(504I05I1/ 501I03I07I/602I08I/8/04D01D04D01D4/05D03D05D03D02D3/06D07D06D07D08D3/ 103D05D03D02D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kb2 {%15N #B(5I1I1I1/5I1I1I1/6I1I1/8/ 2D1D14/2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(504I05I1/501I03I07I/602I08I/ 8/04D01D04D01D4/05D03D05D03D02D3/06D07D06D07D08D3/103D05D03D02D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8)} Kf7 {%15N #B(5I1I1I1/5I1I1I1/6I1I1/8/2D1D14/2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8) #S(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(504I05I1/501I03I07I/602I08I/8/04D01D04D01D4/05D03D05D03D02D3/ 06D07D06D07D08D3/103D05D03D02D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kc2 {%15N #B(5I1I1I1/ 5I1I1I1/6I1I1/8/2D1D14/2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(504I05I1/ 501I03I07I/602I08I/8/04D01D04D01D4/05D03D05D03D02D3/06D07D06D07D08D3/ 103D05D03D02D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf8 {%15N #B(5I1I1I1/5I1I1I1/6I1I1/8/ 2D1D14/2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(504I05I1/501I03I07I/602I08I/ 8/04D01D04D01D4/05D03D05D03D02D3/06D07D06D07D08D3/103D05D03D02D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8)} 5. Kd2 {%15N #B(5I1I1I1/5I1I1I1/6I1I1/8/2D1D14/2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8) #S (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(504I05I1/501I03I07I/602I08I/8/04D01D04D01D4/ 05D03D05D03D02D3/06D07D06D07D08D3/103D05D03D02D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf7 { %15N #B(5I1I1I1/5I1I1I1/6I1I1/8/2D1D14/2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(504I05I1/501I03I07I/602I08I/8/04D01D04D01D4/05D03D05D03D02D3/ 06D07D06D07D08D3/103D05D03D02D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Ke2 {%15N #B(5I1I1I1/ 5I1I1I1/6I1I1/8/2D1D14/2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(504I05I1/ 501I03I07I/602I08I/8/04D01D04D01D4/05D03D05D03D02D3/06D07D06D07D08D3/ 103D05D03D02D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kg7 {%15N #B(5I1I1I1/5I1I1I1/6I1I1/8/ 2D1D14/2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(504I05I1/501I03I07I/602I08I/ 8/04D01D04D01D4/05D03D05D03D02D3/06D07D06D07D08D3/103D05D03D02D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8)} 7. Kd3 {%15N #B(5I1I1I1/5I1I1I1/6I1I1/8/2D1D14/2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8) #S (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(504I05I1/501I03I07I/602I08I/8/04D01D04D01D4/ 05D03D05D03D02D3/06D07D06D07D08D3/103D05D03D02D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf7 { %15N #B(5I1I1I1/5I1I1I1/6I1I1/8/2D1D14/2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(504I05I1/501I03I07I/602I08I/8/04D01D04D01D4/05D03D05D03D02D3/ 06D07D06D07D08D3/103D05D03D02D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 8. Kd4 {, and White breaks through on one of the wings. %15 N #B(5I1I1I1/5I1I1I1/6I1I1/8/2D1D14/ 2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(504I05I1/501I03I07I/602I08I/8/ 04D01D04D01D4/05D03D05D03D02D3/06D07D06D07D08D3/103D05D03D02D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8)} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1965.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Brogi"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/4k3/2p5/2Pp4/3P2p1/3P1pP1/5P2/K7 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1965.??.??"] {%15N #B(3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/4I1I12/8/8/1D1D15/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(304I05I06I2/301I107I2/402I08I2/8/8/104D01D5/03D05D03D02D4/106D07D08D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Ka2 {! %05The shortest distances a5-b4-c3-d2-e3 and b7-c79c8)-d7-e6-f5 consist of five squares. For the base squares we take the c3-d2 pair, since the d2-e3 pair has no linking square, while with White's king at b4 the black king can be either at c7, or at c8, i.e. the correspondence is not unambiguous. The course of the further reasoning is the same as in the preceding examples. %15N #B(3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/4I1I12/8/8/1D1D15/ 1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I05I06I2/301I107I2/402I08I2/8/8/ 104D01D5/03D05D03D02D4/106D07D08D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd7 {%15N #B(3I1I1I12/ 3I1I1I12/4I1I12/8/8/1D1D15/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (304I05I06I2/301I03I07I2/402I08I2/8/8/104D01D5/03D05D03D02D4/106D07D08D4) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kb1 {! %15 N #B(3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/4I1I12/8/8/1D1D15/ 1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I05I06I2/301I03I07I2/402I08I2/8/8/ 104D01D5/03D05D03D02D4/106D07D08D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (2. Ka3 {? %05But not} Kc7 {! , since the a3 square is removed from the correspondence by counter-play:} 3. Kb2 Kb7 4. Kc2 Ka6) 2... Kd8 {%15 N #B(3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/ 4I1I12/8/8/1D1D15/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I05I06I2/ 301I03I07I2/402I08I2/8/8/104D01D5/03D05D03D02D4/106D07D08D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8)} 3. Kc1 {%15N #B(3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/4I1I12/8/8/1D1D15/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14) #S (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I05I06I2/301I03I07I2/402I08I2/8/8/104D01D5/ 03D05D03D02D4/106D07D08D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd7 {%15N #B(3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/ 4I1I12/8/8/1D1D15/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I05I06I2/ 301I03I07I2/402I08I2/8/8/104D01D5/03D05D03D02D4/106D07D08D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8)} 4. Kd1 {%15N #B(3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/4I1I12/8/8/1D1D15/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14) #S (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I05I06I2/301I03I07I2/402I08I2/8/8/104D01D5/ 03D05D03D02D4/106D07D08D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 {%15N #B(3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/ 4I1I12/8/8/1D1D15/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I05I06I2/ 301I03I07I2/402I08I2/8/8/104D01D5/03D05D03D02D4/106D07D08D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8)} 5. Kc2 {%15N #B(3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/4I1I12/8/8/1D1D15/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14) #S (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I05I06I2/301I03I07I2/402I08I2/8/8/104D01D5/ 03D05D03D02D4/106D07D08D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd7 {%15N #B(3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/ 4I1I12/8/8/1D1D15/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I05I06I2/ 301I03I07I2/402I08I2/8/8/104D01D5/03D05D03D02D4/106D07D08D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8)} 6. Kc3 {, and wins. %15 N #B(3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/4I1I12/8/8/1D1D15/1D1D1D14/ 1D1D1D14) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I05I06I2/301I03I07I2/402I08I2/8/8/104D01D5/ 03D05D03D02D4/106D07D08D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1936.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Bahr Peter (GER)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/3k4/p4p2/1p3P2/PP3P2/1P6/8/1K6 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "41"] [EventDate "1936.??.??"] {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/2I1I14/8/3D1D13/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(206I07I08I3/205I03I02I3/204I01I4/8/304D01D3/203D05D03D02D2/ 207D06D07D08D2/203D05D03D02D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kc1 {! %05Here the exchange of pawns is unfavourable for Black, but White too cannot make use of it. 1. a5? merely improves the opponent's position: penetrating to d5 will then not achieve anything. It is also unfavourable to exchange: the a4-a5 tempo will be needed later.^013^010 %05 The shortest distances d4-e4-f3-g4-h5 and c6-d6-e7-f7(f8)-g7 consist of five squares. The g4 square does not have unambiguous correspondence, and cannot be taken as a base square. For the base squares we will take e4-f3 for White and d6-e7 for Black - an eight-square system.^013^010 %05 The question arises: why did we not take d4-e4 as the base squares? As will become clear from what follows, we would then have obtained a quadratic system, the main zone of which consists of four squares, whereas, as was mentioned in the analysis of example 697, we are obliged to choose the system which leads to the most strict manoeuvring. Therefore preference is given to the eight-square system, the main zone of which consists of 8 squares. ^013^010 %05 The markings are given in the diagram. The correspondence does not extend to the b-file, since on the c-file there is an inaccessible square at c4. %15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/2I1I14/8/3D1D13/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8) #C(206I07I08I3/205I03I02I3/204I01I4/8/304D01D3/203D05D03D02D2/ 207D06D07D08D2/203D05D03D02D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc7 {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/ 2I1I1I13/2I1I14/8/3D1D13/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (206I07I08I3/205I03I02I3/204I01I4/8/304D01D3/203D05D03D02D2/207D06D07D08D2/ 203D05D03D02D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kd1 {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/2I1I14/ 8/3D1D13/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(206I07I08I3/205I03I02I3/ 204I01I4/8/304D01D3/203D05D03D02D2/207D06D07D08D2/203D05D03D02D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8)} Kd7 {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/2I1I14/8/3D1D13/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(206I07I08I3/205I03I02I3/204I01I4/8/304D01D3/ 203D05D03D02D2/207D06D07D08D2/203D05D03D02D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Ke1 { %15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/2I1I14/8/3D1D13/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(206I07I08I3/205I03I02I3/204I01I4/8/304D01D3/203D05D03D02D2/ 207D06D07D08D2/203D05D03D02D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/ 2I1I1I13/2I1I14/8/3D1D13/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (206I07I08I3/205I03I02I3/204I01I4/8/304D01D3/203D05D03D02D2/207D06D07D08D2/ 203D05D03D02D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kd2 {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/2I1I14/ 8/3D1D13/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(206I07I08I3/205I03I02I3/ 204I01I4/8/304D01D3/203D05D03D02D2/207D06D07D08D2/203D05D03D02D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8)} Kd8 {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/2I1I14/8/3D1D13/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(206I07I08I3/205I03I02I3/204I01I4/8/304D01D3/ 203D05D03D02D2/207D06D07D08D2/203D05D03D02D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Ke2 { %15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/2I1I14/8/3D1D13/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(206I07I08I3/205I03I02I3/204I01I4/8/304D01D3/203D05D03D02D2/ 207D06D07D08D2/203D05D03D02D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke8 {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/ 2I1I1I13/2I1I14/8/3D1D13/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (206I07I08I3/205I03I02I3/204I01I4/8/304D01D3/203D05D03D02D2/207D06D07D08D2/ 203D05D03D02D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Kd3 {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/2I1I14/ 8/3D1D13/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(206I07I08I3/205I03I02I3/ 204I01I4/8/304D01D3/203D05D03D02D2/207D06D07D08D2/203D05D03D02D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8)} Kd7 {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/2I1I14/8/3D1D13/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(206I07I08I3/205I03I02I3/204I01I4/8/304D01D3/ 203D05D03D02D2/207D06D07D08D2/203D05D03D02D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 7. Ke3 { %15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/2I1I14/8/3D1D13/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(206I07I08I3/205I03I02I3/204I01I4/8/304D01D3/203D05D03D02D2/ 207D06D07D08D2/203D05D03D02D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd6 {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/ 2I1I1I13/2I1I14/8/3D1D13/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (206I07I08I3/205I03I02I3/204I01I4/8/304D01D3/203D05D03D02D2/207D06D07D08D2/ 203D05D03D02D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 8. Ke4 {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/2I1I14/ 8/3D1D13/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(206I07I08I3/205I03I02I3/ 204I01I4/8/304D01D3/203D05D03D02D2/207D06D07D08D2/203D05D03D02D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8)} Kc6 {Now White breaks through on the K-side, but the game is not yet over. %15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/2I1I14/8/3D1D13/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8) #C(206I07I08I3/205I03I02I3/204I01I4/8/304D01D3/203D05D03D02D2/ 207D06D07D08D2/203D05D03D02D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 9. Kf3 {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/ 2I1I1I13/2I1I14/8/3D1D13/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (206I07I08I3/205I03I02I3/204I01I4/8/304D01D3/203D05D03D02D2/207D06D07D08D2/ 203D05D03D02D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd5 10. Kg3 Kd4 11. Kh4 {!} Kc3 (11... Ke4 12. Kg4 Ke3 13. Kh5 Kxf4 14. Kg6 Ke5 15. a5 {! - this is why White needs his tempo}) 12. axb5 axb5 13. Kh5 Kxb4 14. Kg6 Kxb3 15. Kxf6 Kc3 {!} 16. Ke5 {!} b4 17. f6 b3 18. f7 b2 19. f8=Q b1=Q 20. Qc5+ Kd2 21. Qd4+ {, exchanging queens.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1983.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Zinar M"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/3k4/1p6/5p1p/1p3P2/1P3PP1/1K6/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "29"] [EventDate "1983.??.??"] {%15N #B(8/2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/2I1I14/8/3D1D13/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(8/206I07I08I3/205I03I02I3/204I01I4/8/304D01D3/203D05D03D02D2/ 207D06D07D08D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kc1 {%15N #B(8/2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/ 2I1I14/8/3D1D13/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/206I07I08I3/ 205I03I02I3/204I01I4/8/304D01D3/203D05D03D02D2/207D06D07D08D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) ! %05With the white king at g4, Black must defend his pawn %05from h6, so that he can meet 1. g4 with 1... Kg6! 2. g5 %05b5! with a draw.^013^010 %05 From the necessity to defend the key squares c4 and %05d4, the second end of the shortest path of six squares, %05h4-h3-g2-f2-e3-d3 and h6-g6(g7)-e6-d5-c5, will be %05Kd3/Kc5. The correspondence on the K-side is not %05unambiguous, and so, as in example ~3($40852)~, we %05take e3-f2 as the base squares, giving preference to %05the eight-square system.} Kc7 {%15 N #B(8/2I1I1I13/ 2I1I1I13/2I1I14/8/3D1D13/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/ 206I07I08I3/205I03I02I3/204I01I4/8/304D01D3/203D05D03D02D2/207D06D07D08D2) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kd1 {%15N #B(8/2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/2I1I14/8/3D1D13/ 3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/206I07I08I3/205I03I02I3/204I01I4/8/ 304D01D3/203D05D03D02D2/207D06D07D08D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd7 {%15N #B(8/ 2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/2I1I14/8/3D1D13/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/ 206I07I08I3/205I03I02I3/204I01I4/8/304D01D3/203D05D03D02D2/207D06D07D08D2) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Ke1 {%15N #B(8/2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/2I1I14/8/3D1D13/ 3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/206I07I08I3/205I03I02I3/204I01I4/8/ 304D01D3/203D05D03D02D2/207D06D07D08D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 {%15N #B(8/ 2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/2I1I14/8/3D1D13/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/ 206I07I08I3/205I03I02I3/204I01I4/8/304D01D3/203D05D03D02D2/207D06D07D08D2) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kf1 {%15N #B(8/2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/2I1I14/8/3D1D13/ 3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/206I07I08I3/205I03I02I3/204I01I4/8/ 304D01D3/203D05D03D02D2/207D06D07D08D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf7 {%15N #B(8/ 2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/2I1I14/8/3D1D13/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/ 206I07I08I3/205I03I02I3/204I01I4/8/304D01D3/203D05D03D02D2/207D06D07D08D2) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Ke2 {! %15 N #B(8/2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/2I1I14/8/3D1D13/ 3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/206I07I08I3/205I03I02I3/204I01I4/8/ 304D01D3/203D05D03D02D2/207D06D07D08D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke6 {%15N #B(8/ 2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/2I1I14/8/3D1D13/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/ 206I07I08I3/205I03I02I3/204I01I4/8/304D01D3/203D05D03D02D2/207D06D07D08D2) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Kf2 {! %15 N #B(8/2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/2I1I14/8/3D1D13/ 3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/206I07I08I3/205I03I02I3/204I01I4/8/ 304D01D3/203D05D03D02D2/207D06D07D08D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd6 {%15N #B(8/ 2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/2I1I14/8/3D1D13/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/ 206I07I08I3/205I03I02I3/204I01I4/8/304D01D3/203D05D03D02D2/207D06D07D08D2) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (6... Kd5 {%05the counter-attack} 7. Kg2 Kd4 {fails to} 8. g4) 7. g4 hxg4 8. fxg4 fxg4 9. Kg3 Ke6 10. Kxg4 {, and White wins:} Kf6 11. f5 Kf7 12. Kf4 Kf6 13. Ke4 Ke7 14. Kd5 Kf6 15. Kc6 {Compare the relative placing of the main zones in the above examples. Everywhere it is different. But, whatever the placing of the zones relative to each other, the determination, the structure and the play all follow the same principle.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1983.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Zinar M"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1p5k/1P2p3/1P2P3/4P1p1/5pP1/K4P2/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1983.??.??"] {%15N #B(5I1I11/5I1I11/8/8/2D1D14/2D1D14/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (503I04I03I/501I02I01I/6aI1/8/101D03D01D4/102D04D02DaD3/101D03D01D4/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8) ~110.2 QUADRATIC SYSTEM~ If an eight-square system cannot be formed, but on the side of the base triangle a square can be constructed, we have in operation a quadratic system. If both sides have 2x2 base squares, the quadratic system again operates.} 1. Kb2 {! (to a "1" square, on which the black king stands, and approaching the base squares) %05Compared with example ($40850) here the e2 square is %05inaccessible to White. The base triangle cannot be %05amplified to a 3x3 square, but on the d4-d3 side a 2x2 %05square can be constructed. We conclude that here the %05quadratic system operates. ^013^010 %05 We designate the apex of the triangle by the letter "a" %05(this square is unsystematic and does not have any %05related squares to the rear, and so we designate it with %05a letter). We designate the second base square with the %05number "1", and the linking square with the number "2". %05Alongside "1" we write "3", and alongside "2" we write %05"4".^013^010 %05 We have obtained the main zone of the quadratic %05system, which consists of four squares. The rear %05squares receive the same designations as the squares %05of the main zone which are one square away horizontally %05(or vertically). ^013^010 %05 In width the quadratic system extends for the same %05number of lines as have an outlet through the triangle %05apex "a". In our example this is the 4th, 3rd and 2nd %05ranks.^013^010 %05 In depth the quadratic system extends until the %05appearance of counter-play or some obstruction, or as %05long as there is an unequal distance from adjacent rear %05squares to the nearest square of the shortest path. In %05example 701, from b4 to the nearest square of the %05shortest path c5 it is one move, and from b3 it is two %05moves. But the correspondence does not extend to the %05a-file, since from a4 and a3 to c5 the distance is the %05same (two moves).^013^010 %05 Here we will employ the same approach as in the %05eight-square system. %15N #B(5I1I11/ 5I1I11/8/8/2D1D14/2D1D14/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(503I04I03I/501I02I01I/ 6aI1/8/101D03D01D4/102D04D02DaD3/101D03D01D4/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kh8 { %15N #B(5I1I11/5I1I11/8/8/2D1D14/2D1D14/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(503I04I03I/ 501I02I01I/6aI1/8/101D03D01D4/102D04D02DaD3/101D03D01D4/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kc2 {(also to "3", and approaching the base square "a') %15 N #B(5I1I11/ 5I1I11/8/8/2D1D14/2D1D14/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(503I04I03I/501I02I01I/ 6aI1/8/101D03D01D4/102D04D02DaD3/101D03D01D4/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kh7 { %15N #B(5I1I11/5I1I11/8/8/2D1D14/2D1D14/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(503I04I03I/ 501I02I01I/6aI1/8/101D03D01D4/102D04D02DaD3/101D03D01D4/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kd2 {(to a "1" square, approaching the "a" square) %15 N #B(5I1I11/5I1I11/8/ 8/2D1D14/2D1D14/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(503I04I03I/501I02I01I/6aI1/8/ 101D03D01D4/102D04D02DaD3/101D03D01D4/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kh6 {%15N #B (5I1I11/5I1I11/8/8/2D1D14/2D1D14/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(503I04I03I/ 501I02I01I/6aI1/8/101D03D01D4/102D04D02DaD3/101D03D01D4/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kc3 {(to a "4" square, which has been left unattended, and approaching the "1" square) %15N #B(5I1I11/5I1I11/8/8/2D1D14/2D1D14/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(503I04I03I/501I02I01I/6aI1/8/101D03D01D4/102D04D02DaD3/101D03D01D4/8) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kg6 {%15N #B(5I1I11/5I1I11/8/8/2D1D14/2D1D14/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8) #C(503I04I03I/501I02I01I/6aI1/8/101D03D01D4/102D04D02DaD3/101D03D01D4/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kc4 {! (it is not possible to approach "1" or "a", so we continue the manoeuvre to a "3" square, which has been unattended) %15N #B (5I1I11/5I1I11/8/8/2D1D14/2D1D14/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(503I04I03I/ 501I02I01I/6aI1/8/101D03D01D4/102D04D02DaD3/101D03D01D4/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf7 {%15N #B(5I1I11/5I1I11/8/8/2D1D14/2D1D14/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (503I04I03I/501I02I01I/6aI1/8/101D03D01D4/102D04D02DaD3/101D03D01D4/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Kd4 {! breaking through on one of the wings. %15 N #B(5I1I11/ 5I1I11/8/8/2D1D14/2D1D14/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(503I04I03I/501I02I01I/ 6aI1/8/101D03D01D4/102D04D02DaD3/101D03D01D4/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1983.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Zinar M"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "2k5/8/5p2/1p3P2/1P3P2/1P6/5P2/4K3 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "19"] [EventDate "1983.??.??"] {%15N #B(8/2I1I14/2I1I14/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(201I02I4/ 203I04I4/201I02I4/8/301D02D3/303D04D3/301D02D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kd2 { %15N #B(8/2I1I14/2I1I14/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(201I02I4/ 203I04I4/201I02I4/8/301D02D3/303D04D3/301D02D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) ! %05In comparison with example ~3($40852)~ here the f2 %05square^013^010 %05is inaccessible to White, and therefore an eight-square^013^010 %05system cannot be formed. White cannot use his pawn^013^010 %05tempo, since after f2-f3 this lengthens the shortest^013^010 %05path d4-e4-f3-g4-h5, and c6-d6-f7(f8)-g7. ^013^010 %05 Which should be taken as the base squares? If the^013^010 %05d4-e4 pair, we obtain a 2x2 base square - a quadratic^013^010 %05system; if the e4-f3 pair, we obtain a base triangle - also^013^010 %05a quadratic system. The main zones in both cases^013^010 %05coincide.^013^010 %05 In such situations there is a choice available. We have^013^010 %05chosen the d4-e4 pair, but we could have also taken the^013^010 %05e4-f3 pair, designating the apex (f3) by the letter "a', e4^013^010 %05by the number '1", and so on. This would not have^013^010 %05changed anything.} Kd8 {%15 N #B(8/2I1I14/2I1I14/8/ 3D1D13/3D1D13/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(201I02I4/203I04I4/201I02I4/8/ 301D02D3/303D04D3/301D02D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Ke2 {%15N #B(8/2I1I14/ 2I1I14/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(201I02I4/203I04I4/201I02I4/ 8/301D02D3/303D04D3/301D02D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke8 {%15N #B(8/2I1I14/ 2I1I14/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(201I02I4/203I04I4/201I02I4/ 8/301D02D3/303D04D3/301D02D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kd3 {%15N #B(8/2I1I14/ 2I1I14/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(201I02I4/203I04I4/201I02I4/ 8/301D02D3/303D04D3/301D02D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd7 {%15N #B(8/2I1I14/ 2I1I14/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(201I02I4/203I04I4/201I02I4/ 8/301D02D3/303D04D3/301D02D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Ke3 {! %15 N #B(8/ 2I1I14/2I1I14/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(201I02I4/203I04I4/ 201I02I4/8/301D02D3/303D04D3/301D02D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd6 {%15N #B(8/ 2I1I14/2I1I14/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(201I02I4/203I04I4/ 201I02I4/8/301D02D3/303D04D3/301D02D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Ke4 {%15N #B (8/2I1I14/2I1I14/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(201I02I4/203I04I4/ 201I02I4/8/301D02D3/303D04D3/301D02D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc6 6. Kf3 Kd5 7. Kg4 Kd4 8. Kh5 Kc3 9. Kg6 Kxb3 10. Kxf6 {, and White wins. The correspondence does not extend to the 1st rank, since from d1 and e1 to f3 the distance is the same; nor does it extend to the c-file, since there is no outlet to the key squares c5 and d5.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1901.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Lasker Emanuel (GER)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/k7/3p4/p2P1p2/P2P1P2/8/8/K7 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] [EventDate "1901.??.??"] {%15N #B(1I1I15/1I1I15/8/8/8/2D1D14/2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (03I04I03I5/01I02I01I5/1aI6/8/2aD5/101D02D01D4/103D04D03D4/101D02D01D4) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kb1 {! %05On the K-side the correspondence here is not unambiguous. On the c3-d3 side of the base triangle a square can be constructed. The marking is made in analogy with previous examples.^013^010 %05 The shortest paths are c4-d3-e3(e2)-f3(f2)-g3-h4 and b6-c7-d7(d8)-e7(e8) -f6(f7)-g6. In width the zone occupies three files, from which there is an outlet to the "a" square. In depth it extends to the edge of the board, since the distances from c1 and d1 to the line of the shortest path are different. %15N #B(1I1I15/1I1I15/8/8/8/2D1D14/2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(03I04I03I5/ 01I02I01I5/1aI6/8/2aD5/101D02D01D4/103D04D03D4/101D02D01D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) } Kb7 {%15N #B(1I1I15/1I1I15/8/8/8/2D1D14/2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (03I04I03I5/01I02I01I5/1aI6/8/2aD5/101D02D01D4/103D04D03D4/101D02D01D4) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kc1 {%15N #B(1I1I15/1I1I15/8/8/8/2D1D14/2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8) #C(03I04I03I5/01I02I01I5/1aI6/8/2aD5/101D02D01D4/103D04D03D4/ 101D02D01D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc7 {%15N #B(1I1I15/1I1I15/8/8/8/2D1D14/ 2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(03I04I03I5/01I02I01I5/1aI6/8/2aD5/101D02D01D4/ 103D04D03D4/101D02D01D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kd1 {%15N #B(1I1I15/1I1I15/8/ 8/8/2D1D14/2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(03I04I03I5/01I02I01I04I4/1aI6/8/ 2aD5/101D02D01D4/103D04D03D4/101D02D01D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd7 {%15N #B (1I1I15/1I1I15/8/8/8/2D1D14/2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(03I04I03I5/ 01I02I01I04I4/1aI6/8/2aD5/101D02D01D4/103D04D03D4/101D02D01D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8)} 4. Kc2 {%15N #B(1I1I15/1I1I15/8/8/8/2D1D14/2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(03I04I03I5/01I02I01I04I4/1aI6/8/2aD5/101D02D01D4/103D04D03D4/101D02D01D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc8 {%15N #B(1I1I15/1I1I15/8/8/8/2D1D14/2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(03I04I03I5/01I02I01I04I4/1aI6/8/2aD5/101D02D01D4/103D04D03D4/ 101D02D01D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kd2 {%15N #B(1I1I15/1I1I15/8/8/8/2D1D14/ 2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(03I04I03I5/01I02I01I04I4/1aI6/8/2aD5/ 101D02D01D4/103D04D03D4/101D02D01D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd7 {%15N #B(1I1I15/ 1I1I15/8/8/8/2D1D14/2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(03I04I03I5/01I02I01I04I4/ 1aI6/8/2aD5/101D02D01D4/103D04D03D4/101D02D01D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Kc3 { %15N #B(1I1I15/1I1I15/8/8/8/2D1D14/2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(03I04I03I5/ 01I02I01I04I4/1aI6/8/2aD5/101D02D01D4/103D04D03D4/101D02D01D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8)} Kc7 {%15N #B(1I1I15/1I1I15/8/8/8/2D1D14/2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (03I04I03I5/01I02I01I04I4/1aI6/8/2aD5/101D02D01D4/103D04D03D4/101D02D01D4) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 7. Kd3 {, and wins. %15 N #B(1I1I15/1I1I15/8/8/8/2D1D14/ 2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(03I04I03I5/01I02I01I04I4/1aI6/8/2aD5/ 101D02D01D4/103D04D03D4/101D02D01D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1983.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Zinar M"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2p1k3/5p1p/2p2P2/2P2PP1/8/8/2K5 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "23"] [EventDate "1983.??.??"] {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/8/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I03I3/ 302I01I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D01D2/303D04D03D2/301D02D01D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) Compare the following example with position ~3 ( 853)~.} 1. Kd1 {! %15N #B (3I1I13/3I1I13/8/8/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I03I3/302I01I3/ 3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D01D2/303D04D03D2/301D02D01D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd7 { %15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/8/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I03I3/ 302I01I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D01D2/303D04D03D2/301D02D01D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Ke1 {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/8/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (304I03I3/302I01I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D01D2/303D04D03D2/301D02D01D2) #F(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8)} Ke7 {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/8/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I03I3/302I01I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D01D2/303D04D03D2/301D02D01D2) #F(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kf1 {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/8/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8) #C(304I03I3/302I01I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D01D2/303D04D03D2/301D02D01D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd7 {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/8/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I03I3/302I01I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D01D2/303D04D03D2/ 301D02D01D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kg2 {The king emerges from the correspondence zone onto the line of the shortest path e4-f3-g3-h4-h5 and d6-e7-f7(f8)-g7(g8)-h7. %15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/8/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I03I3/302I01I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D01D2/303D04D03D2/ 301D02D01D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke8 {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/8/8/4D1D12/ 4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I03I3/302I01I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D01D2/ 303D04D03D2/301D02D01D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kf2 {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/ 8/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I03I3/302I01I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/ 301D02D01D2/303D04D03D2/301D02D01D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf8 {%15N #B(3I1I13/ 3I1I13/8/8/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I03I3/302I01I3/3aI4/8/ 4aD3/301D02D01D2/303D04D03D2/301D02D01D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Ke3 {%15N #B (3I1I13/3I1I13/8/8/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I03I3/302I01I3/ 3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D01D2/303D04D03D2/301D02D01D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 { %15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/8/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I03I3/ 302I01I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D01D2/303D04D03D2/301D02D01D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 7. Kf3 {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/8/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (304I03I3/302I01I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D01D2/303D04D03D2/301D02D01D2) #F(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8)} Kd7 {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/8/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I03I3/302I01I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D01D2/303D04D03D2/301D02D01D2) #F(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8)} 8. Kg3 {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/8/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8) #C(304I03I3/302I01I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D01D2/303D04D03D2/301D02D01D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 9. Kh4 Kf7 10. Kh5 Kg7 11. g5 {!} c6 12. g6 {! , and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1983.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Zinar M"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/k7/1p1p1p2/p2P1P2/P2P4/3P4/P7/K7 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "17"] [EventDate "1983.??.??"] {%15N #B(I1I16/I1I16/8/8/8/1D1D15/1D1D15/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(04I03I6/ 101I6/aI7/8/2aD5/102D01D5/104D03D5/102D01D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kb1 { ! %05For the base squares we will take c4-c3 with the linking square b3, since further to the right the correspondence is not unambiguous. And although the base triangle has a different appearance than in the earlier examples, this does not affect the determination of the system. On the c3-b3 side we construct a square. %15N #B(I1I16/I1I16/8/8/8/1D1D15/1D1D15/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(04I03I6/101I6/aI7/8/2aD5/102D01D5/104D03D5/102D01D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8)} Kb7 {%15N #B(I1I16/I1I16/8/8/8/1D1D15/1D1D15/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (04I03I6/02I01I6/aI7/8/2aD5/102D01D5/104D03D5/102D01D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kc1 {%15N #B(I1I16/I1I16/8/8/8/1D1D15/1D1D15/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(04I03I6/ 02I01I6/aI7/8/2aD5/102D01D5/104D03D5/102D01D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc7 { %15N #B(I1I16/I1I16/8/8/8/1D1D15/1D1D15/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(04I03I6/ 02I01I6/aI7/8/2aD5/102D01D5/104D03D5/102D01D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kb2 { %15N #B(I1I16/I1I16/8/8/8/1D1D15/1D1D15/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(04I03I6/ 02I01I6/aI7/8/2aD5/102D01D5/104D03D5/102D01D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kb8 { %15N #B(I1I16/I1I16/8/8/8/1D1D15/1D1D15/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(04I03I6/ 02I01I6/aI7/8/2aD5/102D01D5/104D03D5/102D01D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kc2 { %15N #B(I1I16/I1I16/8/8/8/1D1D15/1D1D15/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(04I03I6/ 02I01I6/aI7/8/2aD5/102D01D5/104D03D5/102D01D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc8 { %15N #B(I1I16/I1I16/8/8/8/1D1D15/1D1D15/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(04I03I6/ 02I01I6/aI7/8/2aD5/102D01D5/104D03D5/102D01D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kb3 { %15N #B(I1I16/I1I16/8/8/8/1D1D15/1D1D15/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(04I03I6/ 02I01I6/aI7/8/2aD5/102D01D5/104D03D5/102D01D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kb7 { %15N #B(I1I16/I1I16/8/8/8/1D1D15/1D1D15/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(04I03I6/ 02I01I6/aI7/8/2aD5/102D01D5/104D03D5/102D01D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Kc3 { %15N #B(I1I16/I1I16/8/8/8/1D1D15/1D1D15/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(04I03I6/ 02I01I6/aI7/8/2aD5/102D01D5/104D03D5/102D01D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc7 { %15N #B(I1I16/I1I16/8/8/8/1D1D15/1D1D15/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(04I03I6/ 02I01I6/aI7/8/2aD5/102D01D5/104D03D5/102D01D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 7. Kc4 { %15N #B(I1I16/I1I16/8/8/8/1D1D15/1D1D15/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(04I03I6/ 02I01I6/aI7/8/2aD5/102D01D5/104D03D5/102D01D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kb8 { %15N #B(I1I16/I1I16/8/8/8/1D1D15/1D1D15/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(04I03I6/ 02I01I6/aI7/8/2aD5/102D01D5/104D03D5/102D01D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 8. Kb5 { %15N #B(I1I16/I1I16/8/8/8/1D1D15/1D1D15/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(04I03I6/ 02I01I6/aI7/8/2aD5/102D01D5/104D03D5/102D01D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kb7 9. a3 { , and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1930.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Halberstadt Vitaly (FRA)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "2k5/2p2p2/2p1p3/2P1PpP1/1p1P1p2/1P3P2/1K3P2/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] [EventDate "1930.??.??"] {%15N #B(I1I16/I1I16/8/8/8/8/3D1D13/3D1D13) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(04I03I6/ 02I01I6/aI7/8/8/3aD4/201D02D01D3/203D04D03D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kb1 { ! (now Black is forced to step onto a "1' or "3" square) %05Here the shortest path consist of eight squares: c4-d3-e2-f1-g2-h3-h4-h5 and a5-a6-b7-c8-d7(d8) -e7(e8)-f8-g7.^013^010 %05 The pairs c4-d3 and h4-h5 cannot be taken as the base squares, since there is no linking square. We can take d3-e2 (a6-b7 for Black) or e2-f1 (b7-c8 for Black). In both cases we obtain a quadratic system with main zones which coincide. %15N #B(I1I16/I1I16/8/8/8/8/3D1D13/3D1D13) #S (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(04I03I6/02I01I6/aI7/8/8/3aD4/201D02D01D3/203D04D03D3) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kb8 {%15N #B(I1I16/I1I16/8/8/8/8/3D1D13/3D1D13) #S(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8) #C(04I03I6/02I01I6/aI7/8/8/3aD4/201D02D01D3/203D04D03D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8)} 2. Kc1 {%15N #B(I1I16/I1I16/8/8/8/8/3D1D13/3D1D13) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(04I03I6/02I01I6/aI7/8/8/3aD4/201D02D01D3/203D04D03D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ka8 {%15N #B(I1I16/I1I16/8/8/8/8/3D1D13/3D1D13) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(04I03I6/ 02I01I6/aI7/8/8/3aD4/201D02D01D3/203D04D03D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kd1 { %15N #B(I1I16/I1I16/8/8/8/8/3D1D13/3D1D13) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(04I03I6/ 02I01I6/aI7/8/8/3aD4/201D02D01D3/203D04D03D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kb8 { %15N #B(I1I16/I1I16/8/8/8/8/3D1D13/3D1D13) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(04I03I6/ 02I01I6/aI7/8/8/3aD4/201D02D01D3/203D04D03D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Ke1 { %15N #B(I1I16/I1I16/8/8/8/8/3D1D13/3D1D13) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(04I03I6/ 02I01I6/aI7/8/8/3aD4/201D02D01D3/203D04D03D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kb7 { %15N #B(I1I16/I1I16/8/8/8/8/3D1D13/3D1D13) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(04I03I6/ 02I01I6/aI7/8/8/3aD4/201D02D01D3/203D04D03D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Ke2 { , and White wins. %15 N #B(I1I16/I1I16/8/8/8/8/3D1D13/3D1D13) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8) #C(04I03I6/02I01I6/aI7/8/8/3aD4/201D02D01D3/203D04D03D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) } * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1983.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Zinar M"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "2k5/8/3p4/3P1p2/1p1P1p2/1P3P2/1K3P2/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] [EventDate "1983.??.??"] {%15N #B(1I1I15/1I1I15/8/8/8/8/3D1D13/3D1D13) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(03I04I6/ 01I02I01I5/aI7/8/8/3aD4/201D02D01D3/203D04D03D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kc1 { %15N #B(1I1I15/1I1I15/8/8/8/8/3D1D13/3D1D13) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(03I04I6/ 01I02I01I5/aI7/8/8/3aD4/201D02D01D3/203D04D03D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) ! %05An insignificant change in the position, and Black's main %05zone has moved to the right here in comparison with %05example ~3($40859)~.} Kb8 {%15N #B(1I1I15/ 1I1I15/8/8/8/8/3D1D13/3D1D13) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(03I04I6/01I02I01I5/aI7/8/ 8/3aD4/201D02D01D3/203D04D03D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kd1 {%15N #B(1I1I15/ 1I1I15/8/8/8/8/3D1D13/3D1D13) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(03I04I6/01I02I01I5/aI7/8/ 8/3aD4/201D02D01D3/203D04D03D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kb7 {%15N #B(1I1I15/ 1I1I15/8/8/8/8/3D1D13/3D1D13) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(03I04I6/01I02I01I5/aI7/8/ 8/3aD4/201D02D01D3/203D04D03D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kd2 {%15N #B(1I1I15/ 1I1I15/8/8/8/8/3D1D13/3D1D13) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(03I04I6/01I02I01I5/aI7/8/ 8/3aD4/201D02D01D3/203D04D03D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc7 {%15N #B(1I1I15/ 1I1I15/8/8/8/8/3D1D13/3D1D13) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(03I04I6/01I02I01I5/aI7/8/ 8/3aD4/201D02D01D3/203D04D03D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Ke2 {, and wins. %15 N #B(1I1I15/1I1I15/8/8/8/8/3D1D13/3D1D13) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(03I04I6/ 01I02I01I5/aI7/8/8/3aD4/201D02D01D3/203D04D03D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1976.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Zinar M"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/6k1/8/pp4Pp/7P/6p1/1P4P1/K7 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "19"] [EventDate "1976.??.??"] {%15N #B(8/8/3I1I13/3I1I13/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/ 303I04I3/301I02IaI2/8/1aD02D01D02DaD2/204D03D04D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Ka2 {! %05Here d4, e4, f4 are the key squares, and the front-line squares are d3, e3, f3 and d5, e5, f5. Both pairs can be taken as base squares, since in both cases this leads to a quadratic system with coinciding main zones. White succeeds in winning the correspondence at the distant approaches, by exploiting the unfortunate position of the black king. %15N #B(8/8/3I1I13/ 3I1I13/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/303I04I3/301I02IaI2/8/ 1aD02D01D02DaD2/204D03D04D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kg6 {! %15 N #B(8/8/3I1I13/ 3I1I13/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/303I04I3/301I02IaI2/8/ 1aD02D01D02DaD2/204D03D04D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Ka3 {!! %15 N #B(8/8/ 3I1I13/3I1I13/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/303I04I3/ 301I02IaI2/8/1aD02D01D02DaD2/204D03D04D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf5 {%15N #B (8/8/3I1I13/3I1I13/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/303I04I3/ 301I02IaI2/8/1aD02D01D02DaD2/204D03D04D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kb3 { %15N #B(8/8/3I1I13/3I1I13/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/ 303I04I3/301I02IaI2/8/1aD02D01D02DaD2/204D03D04D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke6 { %15N #B(8/8/3I1I13/3I1I13/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/ 303I04I3/301I02IaI2/8/1aD02D01D02DaD2/204D03D04D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kc2 {%15N #B(8/8/3I1I13/3I1I13/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/ 303I04I3/301I02IaI2/8/1aD02D01D02DaD2/204D03D04D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd6 { %15N #B(8/8/3I1I13/3I1I13/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/ 303I04I3/301I02IaI2/8/1aD02D01D02DaD2/204D03D04D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (4... Ke5 {%15 N #B(8/8/3I1I13/3I1I13/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/ 303I04I3/301I02IaI2/8/1aD02D01D02DaD2/204D03D04D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kc3 {%15N #B(8/8/3I1I13/3I1I13/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/ 303I04I3/301I02IaI2/8/1aD02D01D02DaD2/204D03D04D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke6 { %15N #B(8/8/3I1I13/3I1I13/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/ 303I04I3/301I02IaI2/8/1aD02D01D02DaD2/204D03D04D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Kd4 {%15N #B(8/8/3I1I13/3I1I13/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/ 303I04I3/301I02IaI2/8/1aD02D01D02DaD2/204D03D04D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd6 { %15N #B(8/8/3I1I13/3I1I13/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/ 303I04I3/301I02IaI2/8/1aD02D01D02DaD2/204D03D04D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 7. g6 {! , winning}) 5. Kd2 {! %15 N #B(8/8/3I1I13/3I1I13/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/303I04I3/301I02IaI2/8/1aD02D01D02DaD2/204D03D04D3/8) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke6 {%15N #B(8/8/3I1I13/3I1I13/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8) #C(8/8/303I04I3/301I02IaI2/8/1aD02D01D02DaD2/204D03D04D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8)} 6. Ke2 {! %15 N #B(8/8/3I1I13/3I1I13/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8) #C(8/8/303I04I3/301I02IaI2/8/1aD02D01D02DaD2/204D03D04D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8)} Kd6 {%15N #B(8/8/3I1I13/3I1I13/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/303I04I3/301I02IaI2/8/1aD02D01D02DaD2/204D03D04D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) } 7. Kf3 {! %15 N #B(8/8/3I1I13/3I1I13/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/303I04I3/301I02IaI2/8/1aD02D01D02DaD2/204D03D04D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) } Ke5 {%15N #B(8/8/3I1I13/3I1I13/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/ 303I04I3/301I02IaI2/8/1aD02D01D02DaD2/204D03D04D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 8. Ke3 {%15N #B(8/8/3I1I13/3I1I13/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/ 303I04I3/301I02IaI2/8/1aD02D01D02DaD2/204D03D04D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd5 { %15N #B(8/8/3I1I13/3I1I13/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/ 303I04I3/301I02IaI2/8/1aD02D01D02DaD2/204D03D04D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 9. Kf4 {%15N #B(8/8/3I1I13/3I1I13/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/ 303I04I3/301I02IaI2/8/1aD02D01D02DaD2/204D03D04D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke6 { %15N #B(8/8/3I1I13/3I1I13/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/ 303I04I3/301I02IaI2/8/1aD02D01D02DaD2/204D03D04D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 10. Ke4 {, and White wins. %15 N #B(8/8/3I1I13/3I1I13/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/303I04I3/301I02IaI2/8/1aD02D01D02DaD2/204D03D04D3/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1983.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Zinar M"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2p5/1pP3k1/1P3p2/8/5pP1/5P2/3K4 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "0"] [EventDate "1983.??.??"] {%15N #B(8/8/6I1I1/6I1I1/2D1D14/2D1D14/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/704I/ 4aI101I02I/203D01D4/204D02DaD3/203D01D4/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) Let us compare the arrangement of the corresponding squares in the examples considered: in ~3 ( 856)~ they are on adjacent files, on squares of opposite colour; in ~3( 859) ~ they are on adjacent files, on squares of the same colour; in ~3( 860)~ they are on the same file, on squares of opposite colour; and in ~3( 854)~ and ~3( 862)~ the main zones are altogether rotated relative to each other. As we see, it is not possible to employ any method other than the theory of corresponding squares. Note also that the quadratic system occurs more often than the eight-square system, since it requires less space. We have met several examples where any pair of three adjoining squares of the shortest path (or the front line) can be taken as the base pair. Let us generalize these cases: (a) The number of possible squares must always be reduced to the minimum. (b) With coinciding main zones, if the systems are different,} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1983.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Zinar M"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/2k2p2/2p2P2/2P2P2/2P5/2K5/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1983.??.??"] {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/8/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (203I03I03I3/201I02I01I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D01D2/303D03D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) ~110.3 QUADRATIC SYSTEM WITH NON-UNAMBIGUOUS REAR~ This is a transitional system between the quadratic and triangular systems. If the distances from the "3" and "4" squares of the main zone of a quadratic system to the nearest square of the shortest path are equal, we have in operation a quadratic system with non-unambiguous rear.} 1. Kd2 {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/8/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/ 8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(203I03I03I3/201I02I01I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D01D2/ 303D03D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) ! %05It is useful to compare this example with position %05~3($40856)~. The distances from e2 and f2 to the %05nearest^013^010 %05square of the shortest path, g4, are identical.^013^010 %05 We will designate the triangle apex by the letter "a". We^013^010 %05will designate the second base square by the number^013^010 %05"1", and the linking square by "2". Two squares of the^013^010 %05main zone receive the identical designation "3". In depth^013^010 %05the system does not extend, while in width it extends to^013^010 %05the number of files (here three) from which there is^013^010 %05access to the apex "a" of the base triangle.^013^010 %05 White succeeds in exploiting the poor position of the^013^010 %05enemy king:} Kc7 {%15 N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/8/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (203I03I03I3/201I02I01I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D01D2/303D03D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8)} 2. Kd3 {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/8/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(203I03I03I3/201I02I01I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D01D2/303D03D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8)} Kc6 {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/8/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(203I03I03I3/201I02I01I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D01D2/303D03D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8)} 3. Ke2 {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/8/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8) #C(203I03I03I3/201I02I01I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D01D2/303D03D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8)} Kd6 {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/8/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8) #C(203I03I03I3/201I02I01I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D01D2/303D03D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kf2 {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/8/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8) #C(203I03I03I3/201I02I01I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D01D2/303D03D03D2/8) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd7 {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/8/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8) #C(203I03I03I3/201I02I01I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D01D2/303D03D03D2/8) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Ke3 {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/8/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8) #C(203I03I03I3/201I02I01I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D01D2/303D03D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/8/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(203I03I03I3/201I02I01I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D01D2/303D03D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Kf3 {, and wins. %15 N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/8/8/4D1D12/ 4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(203I03I03I3/201I02I01I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/ 301D02D01D2/303D03D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1983.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Zinar M"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/p6p/P1p2k1P/2p5/2P5/P7/3K4 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "22"] [EventDate "1983.??.??"] {%15N #B(8/8/8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D12/4D1D12) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/ 403I3/401I02I2/8/401D02D2/403D03D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Ke1 {! %05The front-line squares are "1" and "2", and the squares of the main zone are "3". There few corresponding squares, and the play is relatively simple. White's task - to defend the c3 pawn from attack - proves to be practicable. %15N #B(8/ 8/8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D12/4D1D12) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/403I3/401I02I2/ 8/401D02D2/403D03D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke5 {%15N #B(8/8/8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/ 4D1D12/4D1D12) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/403I3/401I02I2/8/401D02D2/403D03D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kf1 {%15N #B(8/8/8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D12/4D1D12) #S(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/403I3/401I02I2/8/401D02D2/403D03D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) } Kf5 {%15N #B(8/8/8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D12/4D1D12) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/ 8/403I3/401I02I2/8/401D02D2/403D03D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Ke1 {%15N #B(8/8/ 8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D12/4D1D12) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/403I3/401I02I2/8/ 401D02D2/403D03D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kg5 {%15N #B(8/8/8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/ 4D1D12/4D1D12) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/403I3/401I02I2/8/401D02D2/403D03D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Ke2 Kg4 5. Ke3 Kxh5 6. Kd2 {! (only now does the king make for the saving a4 square)} Kg4 7. Kc2 h5 8. Kb2 h4 9. Ka3 h3 10. Ka4 h2 11. a3 h1=Q {- stalemate.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1983.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Zinar M"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "5k2/1p6/pP2p3/Pp2P3/1P2P1p1/1K4P1/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1983.??.??"] {%15N #B(8/6I1I1/6I1I1/8/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(601I03I/ 5aI02I03I/601I03I/8/3aD4/201D02D01D3/203D03D03D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kc2 {%15N #B(8/6I1I1/6I1I1/8/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(601I03I/ 5aI02I03I/601I03I/8/3aD4/201D02D01D3/203D03D03D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) ! %05Compare this example with positions ~3 ($40850)~ and %05~3($40854)~. The distances from d2 and e2 to f4 are^013^010 %05identical.^013^010 %05That means we have a quadratic system with^013^010 %05non-unambiguous rear.} Kg8 {%15 N #B(8/6I1I1/6I1I1/8/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(601I03I/5aI02I03I/ 601I03I/8/3aD4/201D02D01D3/203D03D03D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kc3 {%15N #B (8/6I1I1/6I1I1/8/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(601I03I/5aI02I03I/ 601I03I/8/3aD4/201D02D01D3/203D03D03D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf8 {%15N #B(8/ 6I1I1/6I1I1/8/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(601I03I/5aI02I03I/ 601I03I/8/3aD4/201D02D01D3/203D03D03D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kd2 {%15N #B (8/6I1I1/6I1I1/8/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(601I03I/5aI02I03I/ 601I03I/8/3aD4/201D02D01D3/203D03D03D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf7 {%15N #B(8/ 6I1I1/6I1I1/8/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(601I03I/5aI02I03I/ 601I03I/8/3aD4/201D02D01D3/203D03D03D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Ke2 {%15N #B (8/6I1I1/6I1I1/8/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(601I03I/5aI02I03I/ 601I03I/8/3aD4/201D02D01D3/203D03D03D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kg7 {%15N #B(8/ 6I1I1/6I1I1/8/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(601I03I/5aI02I03I/ 601I03I/8/3aD4/201D02D01D3/203D03D03D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kd3 {%15N #B (8/6I1I1/6I1I1/8/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(601I03I/5aI02I03I/ 601I03I/8/3aD4/201D02D01D3/203D03D03D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kg6 {%15N #B(8/ 6I1I1/6I1I1/8/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(601I03I/5aI02I03I/ 601I03I/8/3aD4/201D02D01D3/203D03D03D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Ke3 {, and White wins. %15 N #B(8/6I1I1/6I1I1/8/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (601I03I/5aI02I03I/601I03I/8/3aD4/201D02D01D3/203D03D03D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8)} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1983.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Zinar M"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "5k2/5p2/5P2/5p2/5P2/5K2/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "17"] [EventDate "1983.??.??"] {%15N #B(8/8/3D12I1I1/3D1D12I1/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/401D202I/ 302D201I03I/303D01D202I/302D201I1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) ~110.4 TRIANGULAR SYSTEM~ If a 2x2 square cannot be constructed on one side's base triangle, we have in operation a triangular system. The reader will already be familiar with certain cases of the triangular system ("triangulation"). Here we will describe certain features of this system.} 1. Ke3 {! %05The base squares receive designations "1" and "2", and the linking square "3". This is the main zone. The rear squares are marked with the same numbers, such that in each new triangle there should be the numbers "1", "2" and "3". The correspondence zone extends until it proves possible to construct a square on the side of the triangle.^013^010 Play reduces to the exploitation of rear squares. On them the correspondence is won, and play then follows the principles examined earlier. One must occupy a square of identical designation, or one left unattended, while approaching the base squares.^013^010 Due to Black's counter-play against the f6 pawn, the system in our example is irreversible. The correspondence must be won immediately by a king manoeuvre on the rear squares. %15N #B(8/8/3D12I1I1/3D1D12I1/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/ 401D202I/302D201I03I/303D01D202I/302D201I1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kg8 { %15N #B(8/8/3D12I1I1/3D1D12I1/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/401D202I/ 302D201I03I/303D01D202I/302D201I1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kd3 {%15N #B (8/8/3D12I1I1/3D1D12I1/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/401D202I/302D201I03I/ 303D01D202I/302D201I1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kh8 {%15N #B(8/8/3D12I1I1/ 3D1D12I1/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/401D202I/302D201I03I/303D01D202I/ 302D201I1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kc4 {%15N #B(8/8/3D12I1I1/3D1D12I1/8/ 8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/401D202I/302D201I03I/303D01D202I/302D201I1/8/8/ 8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kh7 {%15N #B(8/8/3D12I1I1/3D1D12I1/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8) #C(8/401D202I/302D201I03I/303D01D202I/302D201I1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8)} 4. Kd4 {%15N #B(8/8/3D12I1I1/3D1D12I1/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/ 401D202I/302D201I03I/303D01D202I/302D201I1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kh6 { %15N #B(8/8/3D12I1I1/3D1D12I1/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/401D202I/ 302D201I03I/303D01D202I/302D201I1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kd5 {%15N #B (8/8/3D12I1I1/3D1D12I1/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/401D202I/302D201I03I/ 303D01D202I/302D201I1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kh5 {%15N #B(8/8/3D12I1I1/ 3D1D12I1/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/401D202I/302D201I03I/303D01D202I/ 302D201I1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Kd6 {%15N #B(8/8/3D12I1I1/3D1D12I1/8/ 8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/401D202I/302D201I03I/303D01D202I/302D201I1/8/8/ 8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kh6 {%15N #B(8/8/3D12I1I1/3D1D12I1/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8) #C(8/401D202I/302D201I03I/303D01D202I/302D201I1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8)} (6... Kh4 7. Ke7) (6... Kg4 7. Ke5) 7. Kd7 {! %15 N #B(8/8/3D12I1I1/ 3D1D12I1/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/401D202I/302D201I03I/303D01D202I/ 302D201I1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kh5 {%15N #B(8/8/3D12I1I1/3D1D12I1/8/8/8/ 8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/401D202I/302D201I03I/303D01D202I/302D201I1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 8. Ke8 {!} Kg6 9. Ke7 {, and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1922.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Dawson"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/4p1p1/1k2p1p1/p3P1P1/P1p2P2/2P5/5P2/4K3 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "25"] [EventDate "1922.??.??"] {%15N #B(8/8/2I15/2I1I14/4D13/4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/203I5/ 201I02I4/401D3/402D03D2/303D01D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kd1 {! %05Here in the defence of the key d4 square the following positions of mutual zugzwang arise: Ke4/Kc5 and Ke3/Kd5.^013^010 A quadratic system cannot be formed. The e3 and f3 squares are designated by the numbers "2" and "3", which means that e2 receives the missing number "1". Since e3 and e2 are designated "2" and "1", the d2 square receives the missing number "1". Since e3 and e2 are designated "2" and "1", the d2 square receives the missing number '3" The system does not extend further, since a square can be constructed. %15N #B(8/8/2I15/2I1I14/ 4D13/4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/203I5/201I02I4/401D3/402D03D2/ 303D01D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc6 {%15N #B(8/8/2I15/2I1I14/4D13/4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/203I5/201I02I4/401D3/402D03D2/303D01D3/8) #F(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kd2 {%15N #B(8/8/2I15/2I1I14/4D13/4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8) #C(8/8/203I5/201I02I4/401D3/402D03D2/303D01D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc5 { %15N #B(8/8/2I15/2I1I14/4D13/4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/203I5/ 201I02I4/401D3/402D03D2/303D01D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Ke2 {%15N #B(8/8/ 2I15/2I1I14/4D13/4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/203I5/201I02I4/401D3/ 402D03D2/303D01D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc6 {%15N #B(8/8/2I15/2I1I14/4D13/ 4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/203I5/201I02I4/401D3/402D03D2/303D01D3/ 8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kf3 {%15N #B(8/8/2I15/2I1I14/4D13/4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/203I5/201I02I4/401D3/402D03D2/303D01D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8)} Kd5 {%15N #B(8/8/2I15/2I1I14/4D13/4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/ 203I5/201I02I4/401D3/402D03D2/303D01D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Ke3 {%15N #B (8/8/2I15/2I1I14/4D13/4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/203I5/201I02I4/ 401D3/402D03D2/303D01D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc5 {%15N #B(8/8/2I15/2I1I14/ 4D13/4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/203I5/201I02I4/401D3/402D03D2/ 303D01D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Ke4 {%15N #B(8/8/2I15/2I1I14/4D13/4D1D12/8/ 8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/203I5/201I02I4/401D3/402D03D2/303D01D3/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc6 {%15N #B(8/8/2I15/2I1I14/4D13/4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/203I5/201I02I4/401D3/402D03D2/303D01D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 7. Kd4 { %15N #B(8/8/2I15/2I1I14/4D13/4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/203I5/ 201I02I4/401D3/402D03D2/303D01D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kb6 {%15N #B(8/8/2I15/ 2I1I14/4D13/4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/203I5/201I02I4/401D3/ 402D03D2/303D01D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 8. Kxc4 Kc6 9. Kd4 Kb6 10. c4 Kc6 11. c5 Kc7 12. Kc4 Kc6 13. f3 {, and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1983.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Zinar M"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p3kp2/P2p4/P7/P2pPp1p/3P1P1P/P7/K7 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "19"] [EventDate "1983.??.??"] {%15N #B(8/8/4I1I12/1D12I13/1D1D15/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/403I02I2/ 102D201I3/103D01D5/01D02D6/103D01D5/102D02D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kb1 { %05This rather unnatural position demonstrates the maximum zone of the triangular system.^013^010 For the base squares we take the b5-c4 pair, since the b5-c6 pair does not have a linking square. The pawn tempo a2-a3 must be retained. %15N #B(8/8/4I1I12/1D12I13/1D1D15/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/ 403I02I2/102D201I3/103D01D5/01D02D6/103D01D5/102D02D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf6 {%15N #B(8/8/4I1I12/1D12I13/1D1D15/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/403I02I2/ 102D201I3/103D01D5/01D02D6/103D01D5/102D02D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kc1 { ! %15 N #B(8/8/4I1I12/1D12I13/1D1D15/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/ 403I02I2/102D201I3/103D01D5/01D02D6/103D01D5/102D02D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 {%15N #B(8/8/4I1I12/1D12I13/1D1D15/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/403I02I2/ 102D201I3/103D01D5/01D02D6/103D01D5/102D02D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kc2 { %15N #B(8/8/4I1I12/1D12I13/1D1D15/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/403I02I2/ 102D201I3/103D01D5/01D02D6/103D01D5/102D02D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke6 { %15N #B(8/8/4I1I12/1D12I13/1D1D15/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/403I02I2/ 102D201I3/103D01D5/01D02D6/103D01D5/102D02D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kb2 { %15N #B(8/8/4I1I12/1D12I13/1D1D15/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/403I02I2/ 102D201I3/103D01D5/01D02D6/103D01D5/102D02D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke5 { %15N #B(8/8/4I1I12/1D12I13/1D1D15/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/403I02I2/ 102D201I3/103D01D5/01D02D6/103D01D5/102D02D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Ka3 { %15N #B(8/8/4I1I12/1D12I13/1D1D15/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/403I02I2/ 102D201I3/103D01D5/01D02D6/103D01D5/102D02D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf6 { %15N #B(8/8/4I1I12/1D12I13/1D1D15/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/403I02I2/ 102D201I3/103D01D5/01D02D6/103D01D5/102D02D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Kb3 { %15N #B(8/8/4I1I12/1D12I13/1D1D15/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/403I02I2/ 102D201I3/103D01D5/01D02D6/103D01D5/102D02D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke6 { %15N #B(8/8/4I1I12/1D12I13/1D1D15/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/403I02I2/ 102D201I3/103D01D5/01D02D6/103D01D5/102D02D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 7. Kb4 { %15N #B(8/8/4I1I12/1D12I13/1D1D15/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/403I02I2/ 102D201I3/103D01D5/01D02D6/103D01D5/102D02D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf6 { %15N #B(8/8/4I1I12/1D12I13/1D1D15/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/403I02I2/ 102D201I3/103D01D5/01D02D6/103D01D5/102D02D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 8. Kb5 { %15N #B(8/8/4I1I12/1D12I13/1D1D15/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/403I02I2/ 102D201I3/103D01D5/01D02D6/103D01D5/102D02D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke5 { %15N #B(8/8/4I1I12/1D12I13/1D1D15/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/403I02I2/ 102D201I3/103D01D5/01D02D6/103D01D5/102D02D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 9. Kc4 {!} ( 9. Kc6 {%05not} Ke6 {!} 10. Kb7 Kd7 11. Kxa7 Kc7 {!} 12. a3 f6 {=}) 9... f6 10. a3 $40 {, and wins. The triangular system occurs frequently, with the most diverse pawn structures. We have considered the most complicated cases, since where there are only the main zones of a triangular system, the play does not present any difficulty. Thus, for example, in position ~3 ( 868)~ White has an excess of correspondence to the rear, in the absence of counter-play for the opponent. The play in such cases is of a reversible nature: in the event of a mistake one can return to the rear, and again begin the battle for the correspondence.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1939.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Leick"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2k5/4p3/1p2P3/1P2P3/4P3/8/1K6 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "21"] [EventDate "1939.??.??"] {%15N #B(2I1I12I1I1/2I1I12I1I1/8/6D1D1/6D1D1/2D1D14/2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8) #C(204I03I203I04I/301I201I02I/2aI5/601D02D/3aD203D04D/202D01D201D02D/ 204D03D203D04D/202D01D201D02D) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) ~110.5 TWO SYSTEMS~ Cases are possible where two systems exist on different parts of the board. This does not usually affect the marking of the squares, since the play takes place in one of the systems.} 1. Kc1 {! %05In the centre we have the base triangles d4-d3-c3 for White and c6-d7-c7 for Black, and on the K-side we have 2x2 base squares; i.e. two quadratic systems.^013^010 To draw, of course, both systems must be maintained, but to win, one is sufficient. %15N #B(2I1I12I1I1/ 2I1I12I1I1/8/6D1D1/6D1D1/2D1D14/2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (204I03I203I04I/301I201I02I/2aI5/601D02D/3aD203D04D/202D01D201D02D/ 204D03D203D04D/202D01D201D02D) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd7 {%15N #B(2I1I12I1I1/ 2I1I12I1I1/8/6D1D1/6D1D1/2D1D14/2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (204I03I203I04I/301I201I02I/2aI5/601D02D/3aD203D04D/202D01D201D02D/ 204D03D203D04D/202D01D201D02D) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kd1 {! %15 N #B (2I1I12I1I1/2I1I12I1I1/8/6D1D1/6D1D1/2D1D14/2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (204I03I203I04I/301I201I02I/2aI5/601D02D/3aD203D04D/202D01D201D02D/ 204D03D203D04D/202D01D201D02D) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 {%15N #B(2I1I12I1I1/ 2I1I12I1I1/8/6D1D1/6D1D1/2D1D14/2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (204I03I203I04I/301I201I02I/2aI5/601D02D/3aD203D04D/202D01D201D02D/ 204D03D203D04D/202D01D201D02D) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kc2 {%15N #B(2I1I12I1I1/ 2I1I12I1I1/8/6D1D1/6D1D1/2D1D14/2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (204I03I203I04I/301I201I02I/2aI5/601D02D/3aD203D04D/202D01D201D02D/ 204D03D203D04D/202D01D201D02D) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd8 {%15N #B(2I1I12I1I1/ 2I1I12I1I1/8/6D1D1/6D1D1/2D1D14/2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (204I03I203I04I/301I201I02I/2aI5/601D02D/3aD203D04D/202D01D201D02D/ 204D03D203D04D/202D01D201D02D) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kd2 {%15N #B(2I1I12I1I1/ 2I1I12I1I1/8/6D1D1/6D1D1/2D1D14/2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (204I03I203I04I/301I201I02I/2aI5/601D02D/3aD203D04D/202D01D201D02D/ 204D03D203D04D/202D01D201D02D) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke8 {%15N #B(2I1I12I1I1/ 2I1I12I1I1/8/6D1D1/6D1D1/2D1D14/2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (204I03I203I04I/301I201I02I/2aI5/601D02D/3aD203D04D/202D01D201D02D/ 204D03D203D04D/202D01D201D02D) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kc3 {%15N #B(2I1I12I1I1/ 2I1I12I1I1/8/6D1D1/6D1D1/2D1D14/2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (204I03I203I04I/301I201I02I/2aI5/601D02D/3aD203D04D/202D01D201D02D/ 204D03D203D04D/202D01D201D02D) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd7 {%15N #B(2I1I12I1I1/ 2I1I12I1I1/8/6D1D1/6D1D1/2D1D14/2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (204I03I203I04I/301I201I02I/2aI5/601D02D/3aD203D04D/202D01D201D02D/ 204D03D203D04D/202D01D201D02D) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Kd3 {%15N #B(2I1I12I1I1/ 2I1I12I1I1/8/6D1D1/6D1D1/2D1D14/2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (204I03I203I04I/301I201I02I/2aI5/601D02D/3aD203D04D/202D01D201D02D/ 204D03D203D04D/202D01D201D02D) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc7 {%15N #B(2I1I12I1I1/ 2I1I12I1I1/8/6D1D1/6D1D1/2D1D14/2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (204I03I203I04I/301I201I02I/2aI5/601D02D/3aD203D04D/202D01D201D02D/ 204D03D203D04D/202D01D201D02D) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 7. Ke2 {%15N #B(2I1I12I1I1/ 2I1I12I1I1/8/6D1D1/6D1D1/2D1D14/2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (204I03I203I04I/301I201I02I/2aI5/601D02D/3aD203D04D/202D01D201D02D/ 204D03D203D04D/202D01D201D02D) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd7 {%15N #B(2I1I12I1I1/ 2I1I12I1I1/8/6D1D1/6D1D1/2D1D14/2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (204I03I203I04I/301I201I02I/2aI5/601D02D/3aD203D04D/202D01D201D02D/ 204D03D203D04D/202D01D201D02D) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 8. Kf3 {%15N #B(2I1I12I1I1/ 2I1I12I1I1/8/6D1D1/6D1D1/2D1D14/2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (204I03I203I04I/301I201I02I/2aI5/601D02D/3aD203D04D/202D01D201D02D/ 204D03D203D04D/202D01D201D02D) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 {%15N #B(2I1I12I1I1/ 2I1I12I1I1/8/6D1D1/6D1D1/2D1D14/2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (204I03I203I04I/301I201I02I/2aI5/601D02D/3aD203D04D/202D01D201D02D/ 204D03D203D04D/202D01D201D02D) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 9. Kg4 {%15N #B(2I1I12I1I1/ 2I1I12I1I1/8/6D1D1/6D1D1/2D1D14/2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (204I03I203I04I/301I201I02I/2aI5/601D02D/3aD203D04D/202D01D201D02D/ 204D03D203D04D/202D01D201D02D) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf7 {%15N #B(2I1I12I1I1/ 2I1I12I1I1/8/6D1D1/6D1D1/2D1D14/2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (204I03I203I04I/301I201I02I/2aI5/601D02D/3aD203D04D/202D01D201D02D/ 204D03D203D04D/202D01D201D02D) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 10. Kh5 {! %15 N #B (2I1I12I1I1/2I1I12I1I1/8/6D1D1/6D1D1/2D1D14/2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (204I03I203I04I/301I201I02I/2aI5/601D02D/3aD203D04D/202D01D201D02D/ 204D03D203D04D/202D01D201D02D) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kg7 {%15N #B(2I1I12I1I1/ 2I1I12I1I1/8/6D1D1/6D1D1/2D1D14/2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (204I03I203I04I/301I201I02I/2aI5/601D02D/3aD203D04D/202D01D201D02D/ 204D03D203D04D/202D01D201D02D) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 11. Kg5 {, and White wins. %15 N #B(2I1I12I1I1/2I1I12I1I1/8/6D1D1/6D1D1/2D1D14/2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8) #C(204I03I203I04I/301I201I02I/2aI5/601D02D/3aD203D04D/202D01D201D02D/ 204D03D203D04D/202D01D201D02D) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1983.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Zinar M"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "6k1/7p/3p3P/3P4/3P3P/7K/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "43"] [EventDate "1983.??.??"] {%15N #B(I1I1I11I1I12/I1I1I11I1I12/I17/5D1D11/1D1D12D1D11/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(06I07I08I103I04I2/05I03I02I101I02I2/04I01I6/501D02D1/ 01D04D01D203D04D1/03D05D03D02D101D02D1/07D06D07D08D103D04D1/03D103D02D4) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kh2 {! (Black is forced to stand on a "2" or "4" square) %05 The tempo has to be preserved here, of course. On the base triangle d3-c4-c3 we form an eight-square system, while on the K-side a quadratic system operates. %15N #B(I1I1I11I1I12/I1I1I11I1I12/I17/5D1D11/1D1D12D1D11/ 1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(06I07I08I103I04I2/ 05I03I02I101I02I2/04I01I6/501D02D1/01D04D01D203D04D1/03D05D03D02D101D02D1/ 07D06D07D08D103D04D1/03D103D02D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf8 {%15N #B (I1I1I11I1I12/I1I1I11I1I12/I17/5D1D11/1D1D12D1D11/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14/8) #S(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(06I07I08I103I04I2/05I03I02I101I02I2/04I01I6/501D02D1/ 01D04D01D203D04D1/03D05D03D02D101D02D1/07D06D07D08D103D04D1/03D103D02D4) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kg2 {! %15 N #B(I1I1I11I1I12/I1I1I11I1I12/I17/5D1D11/ 1D1D12D1D11/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(06I07I08I103I04I2/ 05I03I02I101I02I2/04I01I6/501D02D1/01D04D01D203D04D1/03D05D03D02D101D02D1/ 07D06D07D08D103D04D1/03D103D02D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke8 {%15N #B (I1I1I11I1I12/I1I1I11I1I12/I17/5D1D11/1D1D12D1D11/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14/8) #S(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(06I07I08I103I04I2/05I03I02I101I02I2/04I01I6/501D02D1/ 01D04D01D203D04D1/03D05D03D02D101D02D1/07D06D07D08D103D04D1/03D103D02D4) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kf2 {%15N #B(I1I1I11I1I12/I1I1I11I1I12/I17/5D1D11/ 1D1D12D1D11/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(06I07I08I103I04I2/ 05I03I02I101I02I2/04I01I6/501D02D1/01D04D01D203D04D1/03D05D03D02D101D02D1/ 07D06D07D08D103D04D1/03D103D02D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd8 {%15N #B (I1I1I11I1I12/I1I1I11I1I12/I17/5D1D11/1D1D12D1D11/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14/8) #S(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(06I07I08I103I04I2/05I03I02I101I02I2/04I01I6/501D02D1/ 01D04D01D203D04D1/03D05D03D02D101D02D1/07D06D07D08D103D04D1/03D103D02D4) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kg3 {%15N #B(I1I1I11I1I12/I1I1I11I1I12/I17/5D1D11/ 1D1D12D1D11/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(06I07I08I103I04I2/ 05I03I02I101I02I2/04I01I6/501D02D1/01D04D01D203D04D1/03D05D03D02D101D02D1/ 07D06D07D08D103D04D1/03D103D02D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 {%15N #B (I1I1I11I1I12/I1I1I11I1I12/I17/5D1D11/1D1D12D1D11/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14/8) #S(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(06I07I08I103I04I2/05I03I02I101I02I2/04I01I6/501D02D1/ 01D04D01D203D04D1/03D05D03D02D101D02D1/07D06D07D08D103D04D1/03D103D02D4) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kf3 {%15N #B(I1I1I11I1I12/I1I1I11I1I12/I17/5D1D11/ 1D1D12D1D11/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(06I07I08I103I04I2/ 05I03I02I101I02I2/04I01I6/501D02D1/01D04D01D203D04D1/03D05D03D02D101D02D1/ 07D06D07D08D103D04D1/03D103D02D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd8 {%15N #B (I1I1I11I1I12/I1I1I11I1I12/I17/5D1D11/1D1D12D1D11/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14/8) #S(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(06I07I08I103I04I2/05I03I02I101I02I2/04I01I6/501D02D1/ 01D04D01D203D04D1/03D05D03D02D101D02D1/07D06D07D08D103D04D1/03D103D02D4) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Kg4 {%15N #B(I1I1I11I1I12/I1I1I11I1I12/I17/5D1D11/ 1D1D12D1D11/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(06I07I08I103I04I2/ 05I03I02I101I02I2/04I01I6/501D02D1/01D04D01D203D04D1/03D05D03D02D101D02D1/ 07D06D07D08D103D04D1/03D103D02D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke8 {%15N #B (I1I1I11I1I12/I1I1I11I1I12/I17/5D1D11/1D1D12D1D11/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14/8) #S(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(06I07I08I103I04I2/05I03I02I101I02I2/04I01I6/501D02D1/ 01D04D01D203D04D1/03D05D03D02D101D02D1/07D06D07D08D103D04D1/03D103D02D4) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 7. Kf4 {%15N #B(I1I1I11I1I12/I1I1I11I1I12/I17/5D1D11/ 1D1D12D1D11/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(06I07I08I103I04I2/ 05I03I02I101I02I2/04I01I6/501D02D1/01D04D01D203D04D1/03D05D03D02D101D02D1/ 07D06D07D08D103D04D1/03D103D02D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd8 {%15N #B (I1I1I11I1I12/I1I1I11I1I12/I17/5D1D11/1D1D12D1D11/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14/8) #S(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(06I07I08I103I04I2/05I03I02I101I02I2/04I01I6/501D02D1/ 01D04D01D203D04D1/03D05D03D02D101D02D1/07D06D07D08D103D04D1/03D103D02D4) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 8. Kg5 {%15N #B(I1I1I11I1I12/I1I1I11I1I12/I17/5D1D11/ 1D1D12D1D11/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(06I07I08I103I04I2/ 05I03I02I101I02I2/04I01I6/501D02D1/01D04D01D203D04D1/03D05D03D02D101D02D1/ 07D06D07D08D103D04D1/03D103D02D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 {%15N #B (I1I1I11I1I12/I1I1I11I1I12/I17/5D1D11/1D1D12D1D11/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14/8) #S(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(06I07I08I103I04I2/05I03I02I101I02I2/04I01I6/501D02D1/ 01D04D01D203D04D1/03D05D03D02D101D02D1/07D06D07D08D103D04D1/03D103D02D4) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 9. Kf5 {%15N #B(I1I1I11I1I12/I1I1I11I1I12/I17/5D1D11/ 1D1D12D1D11/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(06I07I08I103I04I2/ 05I03I02I101I02I2/04I01I6/501D02D1/01D04D01D203D04D1/03D05D03D02D101D02D1/ 07D06D07D08D103D04D1/03D103D02D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf7 {%15N #B (I1I1I11I1I12/I1I1I11I1I12/I17/5D1D11/1D1D12D1D11/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14/8) #S(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(06I07I08I103I04I2/05I03I02I101I02I2/04I01I6/501D02D1/ 01D04D01D203D04D1/03D05D03D02D101D02D1/07D06D07D08D103D04D1/03D103D02D4) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 10. Ke4 Kg6 (10... Ke7 11. Kd3 Kd7 12. Kc4 Kc7 13. Kb5 Kb7 14. h5 $18) 11. Kd3 Kxh6 (11... Kf5 12. Kc3 {!} Kf4 13. Kb4 {!} Ke4 14. Kc4 Ke3 15. Kb5 Kxd4 16. Kc6 Ke5 17. h5 $18) 12. Kc4 Kh5 13. Kb5 Kxh4 14. Kc6 Kg3 15. Kxd6 h5 16. Ke5 {!} h4 17. d6 h3 18. d7 h2 19. d8=Q h1=Q 20. Qg5+ {!} Kf2 21. Qf4+ Ke2 22. Qe4+ {, winning.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1924.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Euwe Max (NED)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2k5/7p/1p1p3P/1P2p3/1PP1P3/K7/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "21"] [EventDate "1924.??.??"] {%15N #B(8/1I1I15/1I1I11I1I12/4I1I12/6D1D1/6D1D1/2D1D14/2D1D14) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(8/03I04I6/01I02I01I103I03I2/402I01I2/602D03D/601D03D/101D02D01D4/ 103D04D03D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kb1 {! %05One end of the shortest path is clear: Kg3/Kf5. The second is determined from the possibility of White playing 1. c4 dc 2. bc bc 3. Kc3 - at this point Black must be able to play 3... Kb5. ^013^010 On the Q-side a quadratic system operates, while in the struggle for the key f4 square on the K-side a quadratic system with non-unambiguous rear is formed. It is curious that on the left the systems are shifted relative to each other, while on the right they are rotated through 90 relative to each other. %15N #B(8/1I1I15/1I1I11I1I12/4I1I12/6D1D1/6D1D1/2D1D14/2D1D14) #S(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/03I04I6/01I02I01I103I03I2/402I01I2/602D03D/601D03D/101D02D01D4/ 103D04D03D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kb7 {%15N #B(8/1I1I15/1I1I11I1I12/4I1I12/ 6D1D1/6D1D1/2D1D14/2D1D14) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/03I04I6/01I02I01I103I03I2/ 402I01I2/602D03D/601D03D/101D02D01D4/103D04D03D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kc1 { %15N #B(8/1I1I15/1I1I11I1I12/4I1I12/6D1D1/6D1D1/2D1D14/2D1D14) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(8/03I04I6/01I02I01I103I03I2/402I01I2/602D03D/601D03D/101D02D01D4/ 103D04D03D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc7 {%15N #B(8/1I1I15/1I1I11I1I12/4I1I12/ 6D1D1/6D1D1/2D1D14/2D1D14) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/03I04I6/01I02I01I103I03I2/ 402I01I2/602D03D/601D03D/101D02D01D4/103D04D03D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kd1 { %15N #B(8/1I1I15/1I1I11I1I12/4I1I12/6D1D1/6D1D1/2D1D14/2D1D14) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(8/03I04I6/01I02I01I103I03I2/402I01I2/602D03D/601D03D/101D02D01D4/ 103D04D03D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd7 {%15N #B(8/1I1I15/1I1I11I1I12/4I1I12/ 6D1D1/6D1D1/2D1D14/2D1D14) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/03I04I6/01I02I01I103I03I2/ 402I01I2/602D03D/601D03D/101D02D01D4/103D04D03D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kc2 { %15N #B(8/1I1I15/1I1I11I1I12/4I1I12/6D1D1/6D1D1/2D1D14/2D1D14) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(8/03I04I6/01I02I01I103I03I2/402I01I2/602D03D/601D03D/101D02D01D4/ 103D04D03D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc6 {%15N #B(8/1I1I15/1I1I11I1I12/4I1I12/ 6D1D1/6D1D1/2D1D14/2D1D14) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/03I04I6/01I02I01I103I03I2/ 402I01I2/602D03D/601D03D/101D02D01D4/103D04D03D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kd2 { %15N #B(8/1I1I15/1I1I11I1I12/4I1I12/6D1D1/6D1D1/2D1D14/2D1D14) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(8/03I04I6/01I02I01I103I03I2/402I01I2/602D03D/601D03D/101D02D01D4/ 103D04D03D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd6 {%15N #B(8/1I1I15/1I1I11I1I12/4I1I12/ 6D1D1/6D1D1/2D1D14/2D1D14) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/03I04I6/01I02I01I103I03I2/ 402I01I2/602D03D/601D03D/101D02D01D4/103D04D03D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. c4 dxc4 7. bxc4 bxc4 8. Kc3 Kd5 9. b5 Kc5 10. b6 Kxb6 11. Kxc4 {, and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1983.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Zinar M"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/3k4/8/1p5p/1P5P/P7/8/2K5 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] [EventDate "1983.??.??"] {%15N #B(8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (301I02I03I2/405I06I2/301I02I03I2/8/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2/ 304D05D06D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) ~110.6 SIX-SQUARE (RECTANGULAR) SYSTEM~ Up till now we have considered quadratic systems with coinciding rears or situated on different parts of the board. But cases are possible where adjoining quadratic systems combine, since they have common base and rear squares. If both sides have adjoining quadratic systems, we have in operation a six-square system.} 1. Kd1 {! %05 The key line here is the 5th rank. On the front-line squares d4-e4 is one quadratic system, and on the e4-f4 squares is a second, adjoining it. This means that a six-square system is in operation. %15N #B(8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (301I02I03I2/405I06I2/301I02I03I2/8/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2/ 304D05D06D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 {%15N #B(8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/ 3D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(301I02I03I2/304I05I06I2/301I02I03I2/8/ 301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Ke1 { %15N #B(8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (301I02I03I2/304I05I06I2/301I02I03I2/8/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2/ 304D05D06D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd7 {%15N #B(8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/ 3D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(301I02I03I2/304I05I06I2/301I02I03I2/8/ 301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kf2 { (the "3" square has been left unattended, which means that there is a chance to approach) %15N #B(8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8) #C(301I02I03I2/304I05I06I2/301I02I03I2/8/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/ 301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke8 {%15N #B(8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/ 8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(301I02I03I2/304I05I06I2/ 301I02I03I2/8/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8)} 4. Ke2 {! %15 N #B(8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8) #C(301I02I03I2/304I05I06I2/301I02I03I2/8/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/ 301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf8 {%15N #B(8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/ 8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(301I02I03I2/304I05I06I2/ 301I02I03I2/8/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8)} 5. Kd3 {%15N #B(8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8) #C(301I02I03I2/304I05I06I2/301I02I03I2/8/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/ 301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 {%15N #B(8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/ 8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(301I02I03I2/304I05I06I2/ 301I02I03I2/8/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8)} 6. Ke3 {%15N #B(8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8) #C(301I02I03I2/304I05I06I2/301I02I03I2/8/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/ 301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke6 {%15N #B(8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/ 8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(301I02I03I2/304I05I06I2/ 301I02I03I2/8/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8)} 7. Ke4 {, and wins. %15 N #B(8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(301I02I03I2/304I05I06I2/301I02I03I2/8/301D02D03D2/ 304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1983.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Zinar M"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "3k4/1p6/8/p1P1p1p1/P5P1/P4P2/K7/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "31"] [EventDate "1983.??.??"] {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/8/8/2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (204I106I3/201I02I03I3/2aI1bI3/8/2aD1bD3/102D01D02D03D3/105D04D05D06D3/8) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kb2 {! %05On the base squares c4-d3 is one quadratic system, and on the d3-e4 squares is an adjoining system. %15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/8/ 8/2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(204I106I3/201I02I03I3/2aI1bI3/8/ 2aD1bD3/102D01D02D03D3/105D04D05D06D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc8 {%15N #B (2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/8/8/2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (204I05I06I3/201I02I03I3/2aI1bI3/8/2aD1bD3/102D01D02D03D3/105D04D05D06D3/8) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kc2 {! %15 N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/8/8/2D1D1D13/ 2D1D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(204I05I06I3/201I02I03I3/2aI1bI3/8/2aD1bD3/ 102D01D02D03D3/105D04D05D06D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd8 {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/ 2I1I1I13/8/8/8/2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(204I05I06I3/ 201I02I03I3/2aI1bI3/8/2aD1bD3/102D01D02D03D3/105D04D05D06D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8)} 3. Kd2 {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/8/8/2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8) #C(204I05I06I3/201I02I03I3/2aI1bI3/8/2aD1bD3/102D01D02D03D3/ 105D04D05D06D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc8 {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/8/8/ 2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(204I05I06I3/201I02I03I3/2aI1bI3/8/ 2aD1bD3/102D01D02D03D3/105D04D05D06D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Ke3 {%15N #B (2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/8/8/2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (204I05I06I3/201I02I03I3/2aI1bI3/8/2aD1bD3/102D01D02D03D3/105D04D05D06D3/8) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd7 {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/8/8/2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(204I05I06I3/201I02I03I3/2aI1bI3/8/2aD1bD3/ 102D01D02D03D3/105D04D05D06D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kd3 {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/ 2I1I1I13/8/8/8/2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(204I05I06I3/ 201I02I03I3/2aI1bI3/8/2aD1bD3/102D01D02D03D3/105D04D05D06D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8)} Ke7 {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/8/8/2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(204I05I06I3/201I02I03I3/2aI1bI3/8/2aD1bD3/102D01D02D03D3/ 105D04D05D06D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Kc4 {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/8/8/ 2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(204I05I06I3/201I02I03I3/2aI1bI3/8/ 2aD1bD3/102D01D02D03D3/105D04D05D06D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke6 7. Kb5 Kd5 8. Kb6 Kc4 9. Kxb7 Kxc5 10. Ka6 Kd4 11. Kxa5 Ke3 12. Kb5 Kxf3 13. a5 e4 14. a6 e3 15. a7 e2 16. a8=Q+ {, and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1983.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Zinar M"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1k6/4p1p1/1p2P2p/1P2PP1P/8/8/1K6 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] [EventDate "1983.??.??"] {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/8/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (105I04I05I06I05I2/201I02I03I02I2/8/8/8/202D01D02D03D02D1/205D04D05D06D05D1/ 202D01D02D03D02D1) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kc1 {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/8/ 8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(105I04I05I06I05I2/201I02I03I02I2/ 8/8/8/202D01D02D03D02D1/205D04D05D06D05D1/202D01D02D03D02D1) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8) ! %05On the base triangle d4-e3-d3 we have one quadratic^013^010 %05system, and on the base square e3-f3-e2-f2 we have a^013^010 %05second.^013^010 %05 In all three cases (~3($40872) - ($40874)~ ), according^013^010 %05to our definition, we have a six-square system.^013^010 %05 We will designate "2" the base square which is^013^010 %05common to both quadratic systems, those on the same^013^010 %05line as it - "1" and "3", and below them - "4", "5" and^013^010 %05"6". This is the main zone.^013^010 %05 It has already been mentioned that, if a quadratic^013^010 %05system is formed on a base square, the apex of the^013^010 %05triangle is marked by a letter and does not come into the^013^010 %05main zone. In example ~3($40873)~ these are the c4^013^010 %05and e4^013^010 %05squares, and in example ~3($40874)~ - d4. In the rear^013^010 %05the squares receive the same designations as those^013^010 %05one rank (or file) away in the main zone.^013^010 %05 In depth the zone extends until the appearance of an^013^010 %05obstruction ~3($40873)~ the 1st rank is excluded from^013^010 %05the correspondence in view of counter-play. ^013^010 %05 In width the six-square system extends according to^013^010 %05the same principles as the quadratic systems which^013^010 %05form it: to the number of files from which there is an^013^010 %05outlet to the triangle apex or to the key squares^013^010 %05~3($40872)~ - files, ~3 ($40873)~ - 4 files, ~3($40872)~^013^010 %05- 5 files). As we see, in examples ~3($40872)~ %05and ~3($40873)~ the corresponding squares for both %05sides are^013^010 %05on the same file, while in position ~3($40874)~ they are^013^010 %05on adjacent files.^013^010 %05 The play here follows familiar principles. To win, the^013^010 %05white king must occupy squares of equivalent^013^010 %05designation, or one ones left unattended. At the first^013^010 %05opportunity it must approach the base squares.} Kc7 {%15 N #B(2I1I1I13/ 2I1I1I13/8/8/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(105I04I05I06I05I2/ 102I01I02I03I02I2/8/8/8/202D01D02D03D02D1/205D04D05D06D05D1/202D01D02D03D02D1) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kd1 {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/8/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/ 8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(105I04I05I06I05I2/102I01I02I03I02I2/8/8/8/ 202D01D02D03D02D1/205D04D05D06D05D1/202D01D02D03D02D1) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd7 {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/8/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (105I04I05I06I05I2/102I01I02I03I02I2/8/8/8/202D01D02D03D02D1/205D04D05D06D05D1/ 202D01D02D03D02D1) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Ke1 {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/8/ 8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(105I04I05I06I05I2/ 102I01I02I03I02I2/8/8/8/202D01D02D03D02D1/205D04D05D06D05D1/202D01D02D03D02D1) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/8/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(105I04I05I06I05I2/102I01I02I03I02I2/8/8/8/ 202D01D02D03D02D1/205D04D05D06D05D1/202D01D02D03D02D1) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kd2 {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/8/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(105I04I05I06I05I2/102I01I02I03I02I2/8/8/8/202D01D02D03D02D1/ 205D04D05D06D05D1/202D01D02D03D02D1) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd8 {%15N #B (2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/8/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (105I04I05I06I05I2/102I01I02I03I02I2/8/8/8/202D01D02D03D02D1/205D04D05D06D05D1/ 202D01D02D03D02D1) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Ke2 {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/8/ 8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(105I04I05I06I05I2/ 102I01I02I03I02I2/8/8/8/202D01D02D03D02D1/205D04D05D06D05D1/202D01D02D03D02D1) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke8 {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/8/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(105I04I05I06I05I2/102I01I02I03I02I2/8/8/8/ 202D01D02D03D02D1/205D04D05D06D05D1/202D01D02D03D02D1) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Kd3 {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/8/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(105I04I05I06I05I2/102I01I02I03I02I2/8/8/8/202D01D02D03D02D1/ 205D04D05D06D05D1/202D01D02D03D02D1) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd7 {%15N #B (2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/8/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (105I04I05I06I05I2/102I01I02I03I02I2/8/8/8/202D01D02D03D02D1/205D04D05D06D05D1/ 202D01D02D03D02D1) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 7. Ke3 {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/8/ 8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(105I04I05I06I05I2/ 102I01I02I03I02I2/8/8/8/202D01D02D03D02D1/205D04D05D06D05D1/202D01D02D03D02D1) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc7 {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/8/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(105I04I05I06I05I2/102I01I02I03I02I2/8/8/8/ 202D01D02D03D02D1/205D04D05D06D05D1/202D01D02D03D02D1) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 8. f5 {, and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1983.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Zinar M"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/k4p2/p7/P5P1/8/8/8/1K6 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "27"] [EventDate "1983.??.??"] {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (204I05I06I3/201I02I03I3/8/201D02D03D3/204D05D06D3/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kc2 {! %05The key squares here are b6, c6, d6. The correspondence does not extend to the rear or to the K-side, on account of Black's counter-play. %15 N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (204I05I06I3/201I02I03I3/8/201D02D03D3/204D05D06D3/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kb7 {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(204I05I06I3/201I02I03I3/8/201D02D03D3/204D05D06D3/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) } 2. Kd3 {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(204I05I06I3/201I02I03I3/8/201D02D03D3/204D05D06D3/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8)} Kc7 {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8) #C(204I05I06I3/201I02I03I3/8/201D02D03D3/204D05D06D3/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8)} 3. Ke4 {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(204I05I06I3/201I02I03I3/8/201D02D03D3/204D05D06D3/8/8/8) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd6 {! %15 N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(204I05I06I3/201I02I03I3/8/201D02D03D3/204D05D06D3/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (3... Kd8 {%15 N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/ 8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(204I05I06I3/201I02I03I3/8/201D02D03D3/ 204D05D06D3/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kd4 {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/ 2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(204I05I06I3/201I02I03I3/8/ 201D02D03D3/204D05D06D3/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc8 {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/ 2I1I1I13/8/2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(204I05I06I3/ 201I02I03I3/8/201D02D03D3/204D05D06D3/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Ke5 { %15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (204I05I06I3/201I02I03I3/8/201D02D03D3/204D05D06D3/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd7 {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(204I05I06I3/201I02I03I3/8/201D02D03D3/204D05D06D3/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) } 6. Kd5 {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(204I05I06I3/201I02I03I3/8/201D02D03D3/204D05D06D3/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8)} Kc7 {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8) #C(204I05I06I3/201I02I03I3/8/201D02D03D3/204D05D06D3/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8)} 7. Kc5 {, winning %15 N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/2D1D1D13/2D1D1D13/8/8/ 8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(204I05I06I3/201I02I03I3/8/201D02D03D3/204D05D06D3/8/ 8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)}) 4. Kd4 {! %15 N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/2D1D1D13/ 2D1D1D13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(204I05I06I3/201I02I03I3/8/201D02D03D3/ 204D05D06D3/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke6 5. Kc5 Kf5 6. Kb6 Kxg5 7. Kxa6 f5 8. Kb5 {!} f4 9. Kc4 f3 10. Kd3 Kf4 11. a6 Kg3 12. a7 f2 13. Ke2 Kg2 14. a8=Q+ {, and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1972.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Afonin"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/k7/3p4/7K/3p4/8/1PP5/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "27"] [EventDate "1972.??.??"] {In practice the vertical six-figure system is more common, but the play follows the same principles. %15N #B(1I1I11D1D12/1I1I11D1D12/1I1I11D1D12/8/8/8/ 8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(03I06I03I103D06D03D1/105I02I102D05D02D1/ 01I04I01I101D04D01D1/02I05I02I5/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kg5 {! (this sham attack on the d4 pawn leads to Black losing the correspondence) %05It is unfavourable for either the white or the black pawns to advance: this merely weakens the position.^013^010 Apart from the six-square system, Black has another method of defence: he can try to cut off the white king on the 7th rank, when at this point it cannot go to the 8th rank due to the threat of ... d3. %15N #B(1I1I11D1D12/1I1I11D1D12/1I1I11D1D12/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(03I06I03I103D06D03D1/105I02I102D05D02D1/01I04I01I101D04D01D1/02I05I02I5/8/8/ 8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ka6 {%15N #B(1I1I11D1D12/1I1I11D1D12/1I1I11D1D12/8/8/ 8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(03I06I03I103D06D03D1/02I05I02I102D05D02D1/ 01I04I01I101D04D01D1/02I05I02I5/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kg6 {! %15 N #B(1I1I11D1D12/1I1I11D1D12/1I1I11D1D12/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (03I06I03I103D06D03D1/02I05I02I102D05D02D1/01I04I01I101D04D01D1/02I05I02I5/8/8/ 8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ka5 {%15N #B(1I1I11D1D12/1I1I11D1D12/1I1I11D1D12/8/8/ 8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(03I06I03I103D06D03D1/02I05I02I102D05D02D1/ 01I04I01I101D04D01D1/02I05I02I5/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kg7 {%15N #B (1I1I11D1D12/1I1I11D1D12/1I1I11D1D12/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (03I06I03I103D06D03D1/02I05I02I102D05D02D1/01I04I01I101D04D01D1/02I05I02I5/8/8/ 8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kb4 {%15N #B(1I1I11D1D12/1I1I11D1D12/1I1I11D1D12/8/8/ 8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(03I06I03I103D06D03D1/02I05I02I102D05D02D1/ 01I04I01I101D04D01D1/02I05I02I5/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kf6 {%15N #B (1I1I11D1D12/1I1I11D1D12/1I1I11D1D12/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (03I06I03I103D06D03D1/02I05I02I102D05D02D1/01I04I01I101D04D01D1/02I05I02I5/8/8/ 8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kb5 {%15N #B(1I1I11D1D12/1I1I11D1D12/1I1I11D1D12/8/8/ 8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(03I06I03I103D06D03D1/02I05I02I102D05D02D1/ 01I04I01I101D04D01D1/02I05I02I5/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kf7 {%15N #B (1I1I11D1D12/1I1I11D1D12/1I1I11D1D12/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (03I06I03I103D06D03D1/02I05I02I102D05D02D1/01I04I01I101D04D01D1/02I05I02I5/8/8/ 8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc4 {%15N #B(1I1I11D1D12/1I1I11D1D12/1I1I11D1D12/8/8/ 8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(03I06I03I103D06D03D1/02I05I02I102D05D02D1/ 01I04I01I101D04D01D1/02I05I02I5/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Ke6 {%15N #B (1I1I11D1D12/1I1I11D1D12/1I1I11D1D12/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (03I06I03I103D06D03D1/02I05I02I102D05D02D1/01I04I01I101D04D01D1/02I05I02I5/8/8/ 8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc5 {%15N #B(1I1I11D1D12/1I1I11D1D12/1I1I11D1D12/8/8/ 8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(03I06I03I103D06D03D1/02I05I02I102D05D02D1/ 01I04I01I101D04D01D1/02I05I02I5/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (6... d3 7. cxd3+ Kxd3 8. Kd5 $18 {!}) 7. Ke7 {! %15 N #B(1I1I11D1D12/1I1I11D1D12/1I1I11D1D12/8/ 8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(03I06I03I103D06D03D1/02I05I02I102D05D02D1/ 01I04I01I101D04D01D1/02I05I02I5/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc6 {%15N #B (1I1I11D1D12/1I1I11D1D12/1I1I11D1D12/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (03I06I03I103D06D03D1/02I05I02I102D05D02D1/01I04I01I101D04D01D1/02I05I02I5/8/8/ 8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 8. Kd8 {%15N #B(1I1I11D1D12/1I1I11D1D12/1I1I11D1D12/ 8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(03I06I03I103D06D03D1/02I05I02I102D05D02D1/ 01I04I01I101D04D01D1/02I05I02I5/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kb5 {%15N #B (1I1I11D1D12/1I1I11D1D12/1I1I11D1D12/8/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (03I06I03I103D06D03D1/02I05I02I102D05D02D1/01I04I01I101D04D01D1/02I05I02I5/8/8/ 8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 9. Kd7 Kc5 10. Kc7 Kd5 11. Kb6 Kc4 12. Kc6 d3 13. cxd3+ Kxd3 14. Kd5 {, and White wins. As we see, the play here was much more complicated than in earlier examples where the six-square system was operating in pure form.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1932.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "5k2/6p1/2p5/2P5/6P1/5K2/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] [EventDate "1932.??.??"] {%15N #B(4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D1D11/5D12/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(404I1aI1/ 401I02I2/6aD1/401D02D03D1/403D04D2/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) ~110.7 "T" SYSTEM~ Adjoining quadratic systems against coinciding quadratic systems form a "T" system. The first study with this system was composed by Sacconi, but for its name it is indebted to Bahr. We begin our examination of the system with an already familiar example ~3( 512)~.} 1. Ke4 {! %05The shortest path are e5-f5-g6 and e7-f7-g8. The 2x2 base square on the e5-f5 squares and the base triangle on the f5-g6 squares are adjoining. But Black's 2x2 base square on the e7-f7 squares and base triangle on the f7-g8 squares are rotated relative to each other, and their main zones coincide. This means that here the "T" system is in operation.^013^010 As usual, we designate the triangle apex by the letter "a" and do not include it in the main zone. The square which is common to both quadratic systems we designate with the number "2", those on the same line as it - "1" and "3", and under it - "4".^013^010 The shape of White's main zone resembles a letter "T", hence its name. Black's main zone is a square, but an unusual one. The "1", "2", "3" and "4" squares are arranged in a circle, in contrast to the quadratic system.^013^010 White's rear squares are marked such that in each 2x2 square there are all four numbers. Thus we designate e4 with the number "3", and it is located at the distance of a knight's move relative to the "3" square of the main zone. ^013^010 The system extends in depth until the appearance of an obstruction or counter-play; here this is only as far as the 4th rank, since the g4 pawn is an obstruction. In width it extends according to the usual rules for quadratic systems: as long as there is an outlet to the key squares or to the triangle apex. %15N #B(4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D1D11/5D12/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (404I1aI1/401I02I2/6aD1/401D02D03D1/403D04D2/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke8 { %15N #B(4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D1D11/5D12/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(404I03IaI1/ 401I02I2/6aD1/401D02D03D1/403D04D2/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kf4 {! %15 N #B(4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D1D11/5D12/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(404I03IaI1/ 401I02I2/6aD1/401D02D03D1/403D04D2/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf8 {%15N #B (4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D1D11/5D12/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(404I03IaI1/ 401I02I2/6aD1/401D02D03D1/403D04D2/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kg5 {%15N #B (4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D1D11/5D12/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(404I03IaI1/ 401I02I2/6aD1/401D02D03D1/403D04D2/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf7 {%15N #B (4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D1D11/5D12/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(404I03IaI1/ 401I02I2/6aD1/401D02D03D1/403D04D2/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kf5 {%15N #B (4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D1D11/5D12/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(404I03IaI1/ 401I02I2/6aD1/401D02D03D1/403D04D2/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 {%15N #B (4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D1D11/5D12/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(404I03IaI1/ 401I02I2/6aD1/401D02D03D1/403D04D2/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (4... g6+ 5. Ke5 Ke7 6. g5 $18) 5. Kg6 Kf8 6. Kh7 Kf7 7. g5 {, and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1934.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Bahr Peter (GER)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "2k5/5p1p/1p5P/1P4P1/8/8/2K5/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] [EventDate "1934.??.??"] {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/3D1D1D12/4D13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (304I03IaI2/301I02I3/5aD2/301D02D03D2/303D04D01D2/301D02D03D2/303D04D3/8) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kd2 {! %05Here we again have adjoining quadratic systems against coinciding systems. There are no obstructions, and the system extends in depth until the appearance of counter-play.^013^010 In the "T" system the weaker side can normally manoeuvre only in the main zone. In this example Black can also defend on the key squares d6 and e6. Therefore c7 and c8 also receive designations. %15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/3D1D1D12/4D13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8) #C(304I03IaI2/301I02I3/5aD2/301D02D03D2/303D04D01D2/301D02D03D2/ 303D04D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd8 {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/3D1D1D12/4D13/8/ 8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I03IaI2/301I02I3/5aD2/301D02D03D2/303D04D01D2/ 301D02D03D2/303D04D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Ke2 {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/ 3D1D1D12/4D13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I03IaI2/301I02I3/5aD2/ 301D02D03D2/303D04D01D2/301D02D03D2/303D04D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke8 { %15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/3D1D1D12/4D13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I03IaI2/ 301I02I3/5aD2/301D02D03D2/303D04D01D2/301D02D03D2/303D04D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8)} 3. Kf3 {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/3D1D1D12/4D13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I03IaI2/301I02I3/5aD2/301D02D03D2/303D04D01D2/301D02D03D2/303D04D3/8) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/3D1D1D12/4D13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I03IaI2/301I02I3/5aD2/301D02D03D2/303D04D01D2/301D02D03D2/ 303D04D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Ke3 {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/3D1D1D12/4D13/ 8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I03IaI2/301I02I3/5aD2/301D02D03D2/303D04D01D2/ 301D02D03D2/303D04D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke8 {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/ 3D1D1D12/4D13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I03IaI2/301I02I3/5aD2/ 301D02D03D2/303D04D01D2/301D02D03D2/303D04D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kd4 { %15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/3D1D1D12/4D13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I03IaI2/ 301I02I3/5aD2/301D02D03D2/303D04D01D2/301D02D03D2/303D04D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8)} Kd8 {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/3D1D1D12/4D13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (304I03IaI2/301I02I3/5aD2/301D02D03D2/303D04D01D2/301D02D03D2/303D04D3/8) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Ke4 {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/3D1D1D12/4D13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I03IaI2/301I02I3/5aD2/301D02D03D2/303D04D01D2/301D02D03D2/ 303D04D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke8 {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/3D1D1D12/4D13/8/ 8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I03IaI2/301I02I3/5aD2/301D02D03D2/303D04D01D2/ 301D02D03D2/303D04D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 7. Kf5 {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/ 3D1D1D12/4D13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I03IaI2/301I02I3/5aD2/ 301D02D03D2/303D04D01D2/301D02D03D2/303D04D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 { %15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/3D1D1D12/4D13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I03IaI2/ 301I02I3/5aD2/301D02D03D2/303D04D01D2/301D02D03D2/303D04D3/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8)} 8. Ke5 $40 {, and wins. There is analogous marking in example ~3( 879)~.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1936.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Bahr Peter (GER)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/3k4/6p1/2p5/2P4P/8/2P5/3K4 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "25"] [EventDate "1936.??.??"] {%15N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D1D11/5D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/ 404I03IaI1/302I01I02I2/403I04IaD1/401D02D03D1/403D04D01D1/401D02D03D1/403D04D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Ke1 {! %05The pawn tempo c2-c3 has to be preserved. %05Therefore:} Ke7 {%15N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D1D11/5D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8) #C(8/404I03IaI1/302I01I02I2/403I04IaD1/401D02D03D1/403D04D01D1/ 401D02D03D1/403D04D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kf1 {%15N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/ 4D1D1D11/5D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/404I03IaI1/302I01I02I2/403I04IaD1/ 401D02D03D1/403D04D01D1/401D02D03D1/403D04D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf7 (2... Kd7 {%15 N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D1D11/5D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/ 404I03IaI1/302I01I02I2/403I04IaD1/401D02D03D1/403D04D01D1/401D02D03D1/403D04D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kg2 {%15N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D1D11/5D12/8/8) #S(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/404I03IaI1/302I01I02I2/403I04IaD1/401D02D03D1/403D04D01D1/ 401D02D03D1/403D04D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd6 {%15N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/ 4D1D1D11/5D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/404I03IaI1/302I01I02I2/403I04IaD1/ 401D02D03D1/403D04D01D1/401D02D03D1/403D04D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kf2 { %15N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D1D11/5D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/ 404I03IaI1/302I01I02I2/403I04IaD1/401D02D03D1/403D04D01D1/401D02D03D1/403D04D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke5 {%15N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D1D11/5D12/8/8) #S(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/404I03IaI1/302I01I02I2/403I04IaD1/401D02D03D1/403D04D01D1/ 401D02D03D1/403D04D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Ke3 {%15N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/ 4D1D1D11/5D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/404I03IaI1/302I01I02I2/403I04IaD1/ 401D02D03D1/403D04D01D1/401D02D03D1/403D04D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf5 { %15N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D1D11/5D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/ 404I03IaI1/302I01I02I2/403I04IaD1/401D02D03D1/403D04D01D1/401D02D03D1/403D04D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Kf3 {%15N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D1D11/5D12/8/8) #S(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/404I03IaI1/302I01I02I2/403I04IaD1/401D02D03D1/403D04D01D1/ 401D02D03D1/403D04D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke5 {%15N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/ 4D1D1D11/5D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/404I03IaI1/302I01I02I2/403I04IaD1/ 401D02D03D1/403D04D01D1/401D02D03D1/403D04D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 7. Kg4 { %15N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D1D11/5D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/ 404I03IaI1/302I01I02I2/403I04IaD1/401D02D03D1/403D04D01D1/401D02D03D1/403D04D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke6 8. Kg5 Kf7 9. Kh6 Kf6 10. Kh7 Kf7 11. c3 Kf6 12. Kg8 $18) 3. Kg2 {%15N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D1D11/5D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/404I03IaI1/302I01I02I2/403I04IaD1/401D02D03D1/403D04D01D1/401D02D03D1/ 403D04D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf6 {%15N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D1D11/5D12/8/ 8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/404I03IaI1/302I01I02I2/403I04IaD1/401D02D03D1/ 403D04D01D1/401D02D03D1/403D04D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kf2 {%15N #B(8/ 4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D1D11/5D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/404I03IaI1/ 302I01I02I2/403I04IaD1/401D02D03D1/403D04D01D1/401D02D03D1/403D04D2) #F(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8)} Kf7 {%15N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D1D11/5D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8) #C(8/404I03IaI1/302I01I02I2/403I04IaD1/401D02D03D1/403D04D01D1/401D02D03D1/ 403D04D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Ke3 {%15N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D1D11/5D12/ 8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/404I03IaI1/302I01I02I2/403I04IaD1/401D02D03D1/ 403D04D01D1/401D02D03D1/403D04D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 {%15N #B(8/4I1I12/ 4I1I12/8/4D1D1D11/5D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/404I03IaI1/302I01I02I2/ 403I04IaD1/401D02D03D1/403D04D01D1/401D02D03D1/403D04D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Kf3 {%15N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D1D11/5D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/ 404I03IaI1/302I01I02I2/403I04IaD1/401D02D03D1/403D04D01D1/401D02D03D1/403D04D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf7 {%15N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D1D11/5D12/8/8) #S(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/404I03IaI1/302I01I02I2/403I04IaD1/401D02D03D1/403D04D01D1/ 401D02D03D1/403D04D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (6... Ke6 {%15 N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/ 8/4D1D1D11/5D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/404I03IaI1/302I01I02I2/ 403I04IaD1/401D02D03D1/403D04D01D1/401D02D03D1/403D04D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 7. Ke4 {%15N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D1D11/5D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/ 404I03IaI1/302I01I02I2/403I04IaD1/401D02D03D1/403D04D01D1/401D02D03D1/403D04D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd6 {%15N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D1D11/5D12/8/8) #S(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/404I03IaI1/302I01I02I2/403I04IaD1/401D02D03D1/403D04D01D1/ 401D02D03D1/403D04D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 8. Kf4 {%15N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/ 4D1D1D11/5D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/404I03IaI1/302I01I02I2/403I04IaD1/ 401D02D03D1/403D04D01D1/401D02D03D1/403D04D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke6 { %15N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D1D11/5D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/ 404I03IaI1/302I01I02I2/403I04IaD1/401D02D03D1/403D04D01D1/401D02D03D1/403D04D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 9. Kg5 {%15N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D1D11/5D12/8/8) #S(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/404I03IaI1/302I01I02I2/403I04IaD1/401D02D03D1/403D04D01D1/ 401D02D03D1/403D04D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf7 {%15N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/ 4D1D1D11/5D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/404I03IaI1/302I01I02I2/403I04IaD1/ 401D02D03D1/403D04D01D1/401D02D03D1/403D04D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 10. Kh6 { %15 N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D1D11/5D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/ 404I03IaI1/302I01I02I2/403I04IaD1/401D02D03D1/403D04D01D1/401D02D03D1/403D04D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf6 {%15N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D1D11/5D12/8/8) #S(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/404I03IaI1/302I01I02I2/403I04IaD1/401D02D03D1/403D04D01D1/ 401D02D03D1/403D04D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 11. c3 Kf7 12. Kh7 Kf6 13. Kg8 $18) 7. Kg4 {%15 N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D1D11/5D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/ 404I03IaI1/302I01I02I2/403I04IaD1/401D02D03D1/403D04D01D1/401D02D03D1/403D04D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf6 {%15N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D1D11/5D12/8/8) #S(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/404I03IaI1/302I01I02I2/403I04IaD1/401D02D03D1/403D04D01D1/ 401D02D03D1/403D04D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 8. Kf4 {%15N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/ 4D1D1D11/5D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/404I03IaI1/302I01I02I2/403I04IaD1/ 401D02D03D1/403D04D01D1/401D02D03D1/403D04D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke6 { %15N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D1D11/5D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/ 404I03IaI1/302I01I02I2/403I04IaD1/401D02D03D1/403D04D01D1/401D02D03D1/403D04D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 9. Kg5 {%15N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D1D11/5D12/8/8) #S(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/404I03IaI1/302I01I02I2/403I04IaD1/401D02D03D1/403D04D01D1/ 401D02D03D1/403D04D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf7 {%15N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/ 4D1D1D11/5D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/404I03IaI1/302I01I02I2/403I04IaD1/ 401D02D03D1/403D04D01D1/401D02D03D1/403D04D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 10. Kh6 { %15 N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D1D11/5D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/ 404I03IaI1/302I01I02I2/403I04IaD1/401D02D03D1/403D04D01D1/401D02D03D1/403D04D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf6 {%15N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D1D11/5D12/8/8) #S(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/404I03IaI1/302I01I02I2/403I04IaD1/401D02D03D1/403D04D01D1/ 401D02D03D1/403D04D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 11. c3 Kf7 12. Kh7 Kf6 13. Kg8 $18 { %04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1983.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Zinar M"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "6k1/2p5/1pPp4/p2P2p1/P2P2P1/P7/8/K7 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] [EventDate "1983.??.??"] {%15N #B(4I1I12/4I1I12/8/8/8/2D1D1D13/3D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (3aI01I04I2/402I03I2/5bI2/8/2aD1bD3/102D01D02D03D02D2/104D03D04D01D04D2/ 102D01D02D03D02D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kb1 {! %05Here there is one quadratic system on the base squares c4-d3, and an adjoining one on the squares d3-e4. Black also has two quadratic systems, but with fully coinciding main zones.^013^010 As usual, we designate the triangle apexes by letters. The system extends over five files - from b- to f-, since from them there is an outlet to the triangle apexes. The alternation of the rear squares is normal for the "T" system. %15N #B(4I1I12/4I1I12/8/8/8/2D1D1D13/3D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8) #C(3aI01I04I2/402I03I2/5bI2/8/2aD1bD3/102D01D02D03D02D2/ 104D03D04D01D04D2/102D01D02D03D02D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kg7 {%15N #B(4I1I12/ 4I1I12/8/8/8/2D1D1D13/3D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(3aI01I04I2/402I03I2/5bI2/ 8/2aD1bD3/102D01D02D03D02D2/104D03D04D01D04D2/102D01D02D03D02D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8)} 2. Kc1 {%15N #B(4I1I12/4I1I12/8/8/8/2D1D1D13/3D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8) #C(3aI01I04I2/402I03I2/5bI2/8/2aD1bD3/102D01D02D03D02D2/104D03D04D01D04D2/ 102D01D02D03D02D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kg8 {%15N #B(4I1I12/4I1I12/8/8/8/ 2D1D1D13/3D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(3aI01I04I2/402I03I2/5bI2/8/2aD1bD3/ 102D01D02D03D02D2/104D03D04D01D04D2/102D01D02D03D02D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kd1 {%15N #B(4I1I12/4I1I12/8/8/8/2D1D1D13/3D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (3aI01I04I2/402I03I2/5bI2/8/2aD1bD3/102D01D02D03D02D2/104D03D04D01D04D2/ 102D01D02D03D02D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kg7 {%15N #B(4I1I12/4I1I12/8/8/8/ 2D1D1D13/3D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(3aI01I04I2/402I03I2/5bI2/8/2aD1bD3/ 102D01D02D03D02D2/104D03D04D01D04D2/102D01D02D03D02D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Ke2 {%15N #B(4I1I12/4I1I12/8/8/8/2D1D1D13/3D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (3aI01I04I2/402I03I2/5bI2/8/2aD1bD3/102D01D02D03D02D2/104D03D04D01D04D2/ 102D01D02D03D02D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf8 {%15N #B(4I1I12/4I1I12/8/8/8/ 2D1D1D13/3D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(3aI01I04I2/402I03I2/5bI2/8/2aD1bD3/ 102D01D02D03D02D2/104D03D04D01D04D2/102D01D02D03D02D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kd2 {%15N #B(4I1I12/4I1I12/8/8/8/2D1D1D13/3D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (3aI01I04I2/402I03I2/5bI2/8/2aD1bD3/102D01D02D03D02D2/104D03D04D01D04D2/ 102D01D02D03D02D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke8 {%15N #B(4I1I12/4I1I12/8/8/8/ 2D1D1D13/3D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(3aI01I04I2/402I03I2/5bI2/8/2aD1bD3/ 102D01D02D03D02D2/104D03D04D01D04D2/102D01D02D03D02D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Kc3 {%15N #B(4I1I12/4I1I12/8/8/8/2D1D1D13/3D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (3aI01I04I2/402I03I2/5bI2/8/2aD1bD3/102D01D02D03D02D2/104D03D04D01D04D2/ 102D01D02D03D02D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 {%15N #B(4I1I12/4I1I12/8/8/8/ 2D1D1D13/3D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(3aI01I04I2/402I03I2/5bI2/8/2aD1bD3/ 102D01D02D03D02D2/104D03D04D01D04D2/102D01D02D03D02D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 7. Kd3 $18 {%04etc. %15 N #B(4I1I12/4I1I12/8/8/8/2D1D1D13/3D14/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(3aI01I04I2/402I03I2/5bI2/8/2aD1bD3/102D01D02D03D02D2/104D03D04D01D04D2/ 102D01D02D03D02D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1954.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Halberstadt Vitaly (FRA)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/4k3/8/5Pp1/4p1P1/6PK/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "23"] [EventDate "1954.??.??"] {Certain difficulties arise over the marking of the following position. %15N #B(8/8/2I1I14/2I1I14/8/8/2D1D1D13/3D14) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/201I02I4/ 204I03IaI3/8/203D1aD3/102D01D02D03D02D2/104D03D04D01D04D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) } 1. Kg2 {! %05In defending the critical squares, Black must constantly reckon with the possible sacrifice of the f-pawn. Therefore Ke3/Ke5 is one position of mutual zugzwang, as are Kb3/Kc5 and Kc3/Kd5 on the Q-side. The shortest paths will be e3-d2-c3-b3 and e5-d6-d5-c5. But we see that these are not altogether the "shortest" paths: Black marks time on the d-file.^013^010 %05 To construct a system it is essential that the base squares should be located on different files or ranks. If this cannot be done on the squares of the shortest path, we must take as a base square the nearest rear square which satisfies this demand.^013^010 %05 From this reasoning we must take as the base squares e3-d2-c2 and e5-d6-c6. On these we construct for White two adjoining quadratic systems, while for Black they fully coincide. We again have a "T" system, which we mark out as usual. Black's main zone is rotated with its rear towards White. %15N #B(8/8/2I1I14/2I1I14/8/8/2D1D1D13/3D14) #S(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/201I02I4/204I03IaI3/8/203D1aD3/102D01D02D03D02D2/ 104D03D04D01D04D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd7 {%15N #B(8/8/2I1I14/2I1I14/8/8/ 2D1D1D13/3D14) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/201I02I4/204I03IaI3/8/203D1aD3/ 102D01D02D03D02D2/104D03D04D01D04D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kf1 {%15N #B(8/8/ 2I1I14/2I1I14/8/8/2D1D1D13/3D14) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/201I02I4/ 204I03IaI3/8/203D1aD3/102D01D02D03D02D2/104D03D04D01D04D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc6 {%15N #B(8/8/2I1I14/2I1I14/8/8/2D1D1D13/3D14) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/ 201I02I4/204I03IaI3/8/203D1aD3/102D01D02D03D02D2/104D03D04D01D04D2) #F(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8)} 3. Ke1 {%15N #B(8/8/2I1I14/2I1I14/8/8/2D1D1D13/3D14) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(8/8/201I02I4/204I03IaI3/8/203D1aD3/102D01D02D03D02D2/104D03D04D01D04D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc5 {%15N #B(8/8/2I1I14/2I1I14/8/8/2D1D1D13/3D14) #S(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/201I02I4/204I03IaI3/8/203D1aD3/102D01D02D03D02D2/ 104D03D04D01D04D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kd1 {%15N #B(8/8/2I1I14/2I1I14/8/8/ 2D1D1D13/3D14) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/201I02I4/204I03IaI3/8/203D1aD3/ 102D01D02D03D02D2/104D03D04D01D04D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc6 {%15N #B(8/8/ 2I1I14/2I1I14/8/8/2D1D1D13/3D14) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/201I02I4/ 204I03IaI3/8/203D1aD3/102D01D02D03D02D2/104D03D04D01D04D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kc2 {%15N #B(8/8/2I1I14/2I1I14/8/8/2D1D1D13/3D14) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/ 8/201I02I4/204I03IaI3/8/203D1aD3/102D01D02D03D02D2/104D03D04D01D04D2) #F(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8)} Kc5 {%15N #B(8/8/2I1I14/2I1I14/8/8/2D1D1D13/3D14) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8) #C(8/8/201I02I4/204I03IaI3/8/203D1aD3/102D01D02D03D02D2/104D03D04D01D04D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Kb3 {%15N #B(8/8/2I1I14/2I1I14/8/8/2D1D1D13/3D14) #S(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/201I02I4/204I03IaI3/8/203D1aD3/102D01D02D03D02D2/ 104D03D04D01D04D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd6 {%15N #B(8/8/2I1I14/2I1I14/8/8/ 2D1D1D13/3D14) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/201I02I4/204I03IaI3/8/203D1aD3/ 102D01D02D03D02D2/104D03D04D01D04D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 7. Kb4 {%15N #B(8/8/ 2I1I14/2I1I14/8/8/2D1D1D13/3D14) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/201I02I4/ 204I03IaI3/8/203D1aD3/102D01D02D03D02D2/104D03D04D01D04D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd5 {%15N #B(8/8/2I1I14/2I1I14/8/8/2D1D1D13/3D14) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/ 201I02I4/204I03IaI3/8/203D1aD3/102D01D02D03D02D2/104D03D04D01D04D2) #F(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8)} 8. Kc3 {%15N #B(8/8/2I1I14/2I1I14/8/8/2D1D1D13/3D14) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(8/8/201I02I4/204I03IaI3/8/203D1aD3/102D01D02D03D02D2/104D03D04D01D04D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc5 9. f6 Kd6 10. Kd4 Ke6 11. Kxe4 Kxf6 12. Kd5 {and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1938.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Halberstadt Vitaly (FRA)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "6k1/3p4/6p1/3pP3/3P3P/1K6/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "23"] [EventDate "1938.??.??"] {%15N #B(4I1I12/1D12I1I12/D1D16/1D16/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (04D02D04D104I01I2/03D01D03D103I02I2/04D02D2aI3/01D03DaD5/102D6/8/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Ka4 {%15N #B(4I1I12/1D12I1I12/D1D16/1D16/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8) #C(04D02D04D104I01I2/03D01D03D103I02I2/04D02D2aI3/01D03DaD5/102D6/8/8/ 8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) ! %05The shortest paths here are similar to those in the^013^010 %05previous example: c5-b6-c7-c8 and e6-f7-e7-e8. After^013^010 %05carrying out the "operation" to replace the square c7 of^013^010 %05the shortest path (e7 for Black) with the nearest rear^013^010 %05square b7 (f8 for Black), we obtain normal base squares^013^010 %05and exactly the same "T" system as in example %05~3($40881)~ , except that here White's zone is %05arranged vertically.} Kf8 {%15 N #B(4I1I12/1D12I1I12/D1D16/1D16/8/8/8/8) #S (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(04D02D04D104I01I2/03D01D03D103I02I2/04D02D2aI3/01D03DaD5/ 102D6/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Ka5 {%15N #B(4I1I12/1D12I1I12/D1D16/1D16/ 8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(04D02D04D104I01I2/03D01D03D103I02I2/04D02D2aI3/ 01D03DaD5/102D6/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke8 {%15N #B(4I1I12/1D12I1I12/ D1D16/1D16/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(04D02D04D104I01I2/03D01D03D103I02I2/ 04D02D2aI3/01D03DaD5/102D6/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Ka6 {%15N #B(4I1I12/ 1D12I1I12/D1D16/1D16/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(04D02D04D104I01I2/ 03D01D03D103I02I2/04D02D2aI3/01D03DaD5/102D6/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 { %15N #B(4I1I12/1D12I1I12/D1D16/1D16/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (04D02D04D104I01I2/03D01D03D103I02I2/04D02D2aI3/01D03DaD5/102D6/8/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kb5 {%15N #B(4I1I12/1D12I1I12/D1D16/1D16/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8) #C(04D02D04D104I01I2/03D01D03D103I02I2/04D02D2aI3/01D03DaD5/102D6/8/8/ 8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf7 {%15N #B(4I1I12/1D12I1I12/D1D16/1D16/8/8/8/8) #S(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(04D02D04D104I01I2/03D01D03D103I02I2/04D02D2aI3/01D03DaD5/ 102D6/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kb6 {%15N #B(4I1I12/1D12I1I12/D1D16/1D16/ 8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(04D02D04D104I01I2/03D01D03D103I02I2/04D02D2aI3/ 01D03DaD5/102D6/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 {%15N #B(4I1I12/1D12I1I12/ D1D16/1D16/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(04D02D04D104I01I2/03D01D03D103I02I2/ 04D02D2aI3/01D03DaD5/102D6/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Kc7 {%15N #B(4I1I12/ 1D12I1I12/D1D16/1D16/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(04D02D04D104I01I2/ 03D01D03D103I02I2/04D02D2aI3/01D03DaD5/102D6/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke6 { %15N #B(4I1I12/1D12I1I12/D1D16/1D16/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (04D02D04D104I01I2/03D01D03D103I02I2/04D02D2aI3/01D03DaD5/102D6/8/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} 7. Kd8 d6 8. exd6 Kxd6 9. Ke8 Ke6 10. Kf8 Kf6 11. Kg8 g5 12. h5 $40 {!$18 %04etc. We carry out the same procedure in position ~3( 883)~, since the attack on the a7 pawn is not dangerous for Black.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1983.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Zinar M"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p7/P7/3p4/6k1/3pP1p1/3P2P1/2K5 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "31"] [EventDate "1983.??.??"] {%15N #B(8/8/4I1I12/1D12I1I12/D1D16/1D16/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/ 204D104I01I2/03D01D03D103I02I2/04D02D2aI3/01D03DaD5/04D02D6/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8)} 1. Kb1 {! %15N #B(8/8/4I1I12/1D12I1I12/D1D16/1D16/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8) #C(8/8/204D104I01I2/03D01D03D103I02I2/04D02D2aI3/01D03DaD5/04D02D6/8) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kg5 {%15N #B(8/8/4I1I12/1D12I1I12/D1D16/1D16/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8) #C(8/8/204D104I01I2/03D01D03D103I02I2/04D02D2aI3/01D03DaD5/04D02D6/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Ka2 {%15N #B(8/8/4I1I12/1D12I1I12/D1D16/1D16/8/8) #S(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/204D104I01I2/03D01D03D103I02I2/04D02D2aI3/01D03DaD5/ 04D02D6/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf6 {%15N #B(8/8/4I1I12/1D12I1I12/D1D16/1D16/8/ 8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/204D104I01I2/03D01D03D103I02I2/04D02D2aI3/ 01D03DaD5/04D02D6/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Ka3 {%15N #B(8/8/4I1I12/1D12I1I12/ D1D16/1D16/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/204D104I01I2/03D01D03D103I02I2/ 04D02D2aI3/01D03DaD5/04D02D6/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke6 {%15N #B(8/8/4I1I12/ 1D12I1I12/D1D16/1D16/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/204D104I01I2/ 03D01D03D103I02I2/04D02D2aI3/01D03DaD5/04D02D6/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Ka4 { %15N #B(8/8/4I1I12/1D12I1I12/D1D16/1D16/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/ 204D104I01I2/03D01D03D103I02I2/04D02D2aI3/01D03DaD5/04D02D6/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8)} Ke5 {%15N #B(8/8/4I1I12/1D12I1I12/D1D16/1D16/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (8/8/204D104I01I2/03D01D03D103I02I2/04D02D2aI3/01D03DaD5/04D02D6/8) #F(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8)} 5. Kb3 {%15N #B(8/8/4I1I12/1D12I1I12/D1D16/1D16/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(8/8/204D104I01I2/03D01D03D103I02I2/04D02D2aI3/01D03DaD5/04D02D6/8) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf5 {%15N #B(8/8/4I1I12/1D12I1I12/D1D16/1D16/8/8) #S(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/204D104I01I2/03D01D03D103I02I2/04D02D2aI3/01D03DaD5/04D02D6/ 8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (5... d4 6. e4 {!}) 6. Kb4 {! %15 N #B(8/8/4I1I12/ 1D12I1I12/D1D16/1D16/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/204D104I01I2/ 03D01D03D103I02I2/04D02D2aI3/01D03DaD5/04D02D6/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke5 { %15N #B(8/8/4I1I12/1D12I1I12/D1D16/1D16/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/ 204D104I01I2/03D01D03D103I02I2/04D02D2aI3/01D03DaD5/04D02D6/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8)} 7. Kc5 {%15N #B(8/8/4I1I12/1D12I1I12/D1D16/1D16/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/204D104I01I2/03D01D03D103I02I2/04D02D2aI3/01D03DaD5/04D02D6/8) #F(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8)} Ke4 {%15N #B(8/8/4I1I12/1D12I1I12/D1D16/1D16/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8) #C(8/8/204D104I01I2/03D01D03D103I02I2/04D02D2aI3/01D03DaD5/04D02D6/8) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 8. Kd6 d4 9. exd4 Kxd4 10. Kc6 Ke5 {!} 11. Kc5 {!} Ke6 12. Kd4 Kd6 13. Kxd3 Kc5 14. Ke4 Kb6 15. Kd5 Kxa6 16. Kc6 {! , and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1983.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Zinar M"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "6k1/5p2/8/5pP1/4pP2/K2pP3/3P1P2/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "27"] [EventDate "1983.??.??"] {%15N #B(6I1I1/3D12I1I1/2D1D14/3D14/8/8/8/8) #S(6ISIS/3DS2ISIS/2DSDS4/3DS4/8/8/ 8/8) #C(102D04D02D04D201I/101D03D01D203I02I/04D02D04D02D2aI1/01D03D01D03DaD3/ 04D02D04D02D4/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Ka4 {! %05This shows White's maximum correspondence zone with the "T" system. The a7 and a8 squares are removed from the correspondence by Black's counter-play. %15N #B(6I1I1/ 3D12I1I1/2D1D14/3D14/8/8/8/8) #S(6ISIS/3DS2ISIS/2DSDS4/3DS4/8/8/8/8) #C (102D04D02D04D201I/101D03D01D203I02I/04D02D04D02D2aI1/01D03D01D03DaD3/ 04D02D04D02D4/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kh8 (1... Kf8 {%15 N #B(6I1I1/ 3D12I1I1/2D1D14/3D14/8/8/8/8) #S(6ISIS/3DS2ISIS/2DSDS4/3DS4/8/8/8/8) #C (102D04D02D04D201I/101D03D01D203I02I/04D02D04D02D2aI1/01D03D01D03DaD3/ 04D02D04D02D4/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kb4 {! %15 N #B(6I1I1/3D12I1I1/ 2D1D14/3D14/8/8/8/8) #S(6ISIS/3DS2ISIS/2DSDS4/3DS4/8/8/8/8) #C (102D04D02D04D201I/101D03D01D203I02I/04D02D04D02D2aI1/01D03D01D03DaD3/ 04D02D04D02D4/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 {%15N #B(6I1I1/3D12I1I1/2D1D14/ 3D14/8/8/8/8) #S(6ISIS/3DS2ISIS/2DSDS4/3DS4/8/8/8/8) #C(102D04D02D04D201I/ 101D03D01D203I02I/04D02D04D02D2aI1/01D03D01D03DaD3/04D02D04D02D4/8/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kc5 {%15N #B(6I1I1/3D12I1I1/2D1D14/3D14/8/8/8/8) #S(6ISIS/ 3DS2ISIS/2DSDS4/3DS4/8/8/8/8) #C(102D04D02D04D201I/101D03D01D203I02I/ 04D02D04D02D2aI1/01D03D01D03DaD3/04D02D04D02D4/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke6 {%15N #B(6I1I1/3D12I1I1/2D1D14/3D14/8/8/8/8) #S(6ISIS/3DS2ISIS/2DSDS4/3DS4/8/8/ 8/8) #C(102D04D02D04D201I/101D03D01D203I02I/04D02D04D02D2aI1/01D03D01D03DaD3/ 04D02D04D02D4/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kc6 {%15N #B(6I1I1/3D12I1I1/ 2D1D14/3D14/8/8/8/8) #S(6ISIS/3DS2ISIS/2DSDS4/3DS4/8/8/8/8) #C (102D04D02D04D201I/101D03D01D203I02I/04D02D04D02D2aI1/01D03D01D03DaD3/ 04D02D04D02D4/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 {%15N #B(6I1I1/3D12I1I1/2D1D14/ 3D14/8/8/8/8) #S(6ISIS/3DS2ISIS/2DSDS4/3DS4/8/8/8/8) #C(102D04D02D04D201I/ 101D03D01D203I02I/04D02D04D02D2aI1/01D03D01D03DaD3/04D02D04D02D4/8/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kd5 $18 {%15N #B(6I1I1/3D12I1I1/2D1D14/3D14/8/8/8/8) #S(6ISIS/ 3DS2ISIS/2DSDS4/3DS4/8/8/8/8) #C(102D04D02D04D201I/101D03D01D203I02I/ 04D02D04D02D2aI1/01D03D01D03DaD3/04D02D04D02D4/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)}) 2. Ka5 {! %15 N #B(6I1I1/3D12I1I1/2D1D14/3D14/8/8/8/8) #S(6ISIS/3DS2ISIS/2DSDS4/ 3DS4/8/8/8/8) #C(102D04D02D04D201I/101D03D01D203I02I/04D02D04D02D2aI1/ 01D03D01D03DaD3/04D02D04D02D4/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kg8 {%15N #B(6I1I1/ 3D12I1I1/2D1D14/3D14/8/8/8/8) #S(6ISIS/3DS2ISIS/2DSDS4/3DS4/8/8/8/8) #C (102D04D02D04D201I/101D03D01D203I02I/04D02D04D02D2aI1/01D03D01D03DaD3/ 04D02D04D02D4/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Ka6 {%15N #B(6I1I1/3D12I1I1/ 2D1D14/3D14/8/8/8/8) #S(6ISIS/3DS2ISIS/2DSDS4/3DS4/8/8/8/8) #C (102D04D02D04D201I/101D03D01D203I02I/04D02D04D02D2aI1/01D03D01D03DaD3/ 04D02D04D02D4/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kg7 {%15N #B(6I1I1/3D12I1I1/2D1D14/ 3D14/8/8/8/8) #S(6ISIS/3DS2ISIS/2DSDS4/3DS4/8/8/8/8) #C(102D04D02D04D201I/ 101D03D01D203I02I/04D02D04D02D2aI1/01D03D01D03DaD3/04D02D04D02D4/8/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kb5 {%15N #B(6I1I1/3D12I1I1/2D1D14/3D14/8/8/8/8) #S(6ISIS/ 3DS2ISIS/2DSDS4/3DS4/8/8/8/8) #C(102D04D02D04D201I/101D03D01D203I02I/ 04D02D04D02D2aI1/01D03D01D03DaD3/04D02D04D02D4/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kh7 {%15N #B(6I1I1/3D12I1I1/2D1D14/3D14/8/8/8/8) #S(6ISIS/3DS2ISIS/2DSDS4/3DS4/8/8/ 8/8) #C(102D04D02D04D201I/101D03D01D203I02I/04D02D04D02D2aI1/01D03D01D03DaD3/ 04D02D04D02D4/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (4... f6 5. Kc6 {!} fxg5 6. Kd6 Kg6 7. Ke6 Kh5 8. Kxf5) 5. Kb6 {! %15N #B(6I1I1/3D12I1I1/2D1D14/3D14/8/8/8/8) #S (6ISIS/3DS2ISIS/2DSDS4/3DS4/8/8/8/8) #C(102D04D02D04D201I/101D03D01D203I02I/ 04D02D04D02D2aI1/01D03D01D03DaD3/04D02D04D02D4/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kg7 {%15N #B(6I1I1/3D12I1I1/2D1D14/3D14/8/8/8/8) #S(6ISIS/3DS2ISIS/2DSDS4/3DS4/8/8/ 8/8) #C(102D04D02D04D201I/101D03D01D203I02I/04D02D04D02D2aI1/01D03D01D03DaD3/ 04D02D04D02D4/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (5... Kg6 {%05Black fails to save the game by %15 N #B(6I1I1/3D12I1I1/2D1D14/3D14/8/8/8/8) #S(6ISIS/3DS2ISIS/ 2DSDS4/3DS4/8/8/8/8) #C(102D04D02D04D201I/101D03D01D203I02I/04D02D04D02D2aI1/ 01D03D01D03DaD3/04D02D04D02D4/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Kc6 {%15N #B (6I1I1/3D12I1I1/2D1D14/3D14/8/8/8/8) #S(6ISIS/3DS2ISIS/2DSDS4/3DS4/8/8/8/8) #C (102D04D02D04D201I/101D03D01D203I02I/04D02D04D02D2aI1/01D03D01D03DaD3/ 04D02D04D02D4/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kh5 {%15N #B(6I1I1/3D12I1I1/2D1D14/ 3D14/8/8/8/8) #S(6ISIS/3DS2ISIS/2DSDS4/3DS4/8/8/8/8) #C(102D04D02D04D201I/ 101D03D01D203I02I/04D02D04D02D2aI1/01D03D01D03DaD3/04D02D04D02D4/8/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} 7. Kd6 {%15N #B(6I1I1/3D12I1I1/2D1D14/3D14/8/8/8/8) #S(6ISIS/ 3DS2ISIS/2DSDS4/3DS4/8/8/8/8) #C(102D04D02D04D201I/101D03D01D203I02I/ 04D02D04D02D2aI1/01D03D01D03DaD3/04D02D04D02D4/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kg4 8. Ke7 Kf3 9. Kxf7 Ke2 10. g6 Kxd2 11. g7 Ke2 12. g8=Q d2 13. Qd8 d1=Q 14. Qxd1+ Kxd1 15. Kf6 Ke2 16. Kxf5 Kxf2 17. Kxe4 {, and wins.}) 6. Kc7 {! %15 N #B(6I1I1/3D12I1I1/2D1D14/3D14/8/8/8/8) #S(6ISIS/3DS2ISIS/2DSDS4/3DS4/8/8/8/8) #C(102D04D02D04D201I/101D03D01D203I02I/04D02D04D02D2aI1/01D03D01D03DaD3/ 04D02D04D02D4/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kg8 {%15N #B(6I1I1/3D12I1I1/2D1D14/ 3D14/8/8/8/8) #S(6ISIS/3DS2ISIS/2DSDS4/3DS4/8/8/8/8) #C(102D04D02D04D201I/ 101D03D01D203I02I/04D02D04D02D2aI1/01D03D01D03DaD3/04D02D04D02D4/8/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} 7. Kc6 {%15N #B(6I1I1/3D12I1I1/2D1D14/3D14/8/8/8/8) #S(6ISIS/ 3DS2ISIS/2DSDS4/3DS4/8/8/8/8) #C(102D04D02D04D201I/101D03D01D203I02I/ 04D02D04D02D2aI1/01D03D01D03DaD3/04D02D04D02D4/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kg7 {%15N #B(6I1I1/3D12I1I1/2D1D14/3D14/8/8/8/8) #S(6ISIS/3DS2ISIS/2DSDS4/3DS4/8/8/ 8/8) #C(102D04D02D04D201I/101D03D01D203I02I/04D02D04D02D2aI1/01D03D01D03DaD3/ 04D02D04D02D4/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 8. Kd5 {%15N #B(6I1I1/3D12I1I1/ 2D1D14/3D14/8/8/8/8) #S(6ISIS/3DS2ISIS/2DSDS4/3DS4/8/8/8/8) #C (102D04D02D04D201I/101D03D01D203I02I/04D02D04D02D2aI1/01D03D01D03DaD3/ 04D02D04D02D4/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kh7 {%15N #B(6I1I1/3D12I1I1/2D1D14/ 3D14/8/8/8/8) #S(6ISIS/3DS2ISIS/2DSDS4/3DS4/8/8/8/8) #C(102D04D02D04D201I/ 101D03D01D203I02I/04D02D04D02D2aI1/01D03D01D03DaD3/04D02D04D02D4/8/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} 9. Kd6 {%15N #B(6I1I1/3D12I1I1/2D1D14/3D14/8/8/8/8) #S(6ISIS/ 3DS2ISIS/2DSDS4/3DS4/8/8/8/8) #C(102D04D02D04D201I/101D03D01D203I02I/ 04D02D04D02D2aI1/01D03D01D03DaD3/04D02D04D02D4/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kg7 {%15N #B(6I1I1/3D12I1I1/2D1D14/3D14/8/8/8/8) #S(6ISIS/3DS2ISIS/2DSDS4/3DS4/8/8/ 8/8) #C(102D04D02D04D201I/101D03D01D203I02I/04D02D04D02D2aI1/01D03D01D03DaD3/ 04D02D04D02D4/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 10. Ke7 {%15 N #B(6I1I1/3D12I1I1/ 2D1D14/3D14/8/8/8/8) #S(6ISIS/3DS2ISIS/2DSDS4/3DS4/8/8/8/8) #C (102D04D02D04D201I/101D03D01D203I02I/04D02D04D02D2aI1/01D03D01D03DaD3/ 04D02D04D02D4/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kg6 11. Kf8 f6 12. Ke7 fxg5 13. Ke6 Kh5 14. Kxf5 {, and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1983.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Zinar M"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5k2/8/p6p/P6P/1P6/8/6K1 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] [EventDate "1983.??.??"] {%15N #B(8/2I1I1I1I12/2I1I1I1I12/8/2D1D1D1D12/2D1D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8) #C(201I02I03I04I2/205I06I07I3/201I02I03I04I2/8/201D02D03D04D2/ 205D06D07D08D2/201D02D03D04D2/205D06D07D08D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) ~110.8 MULTI-SQUARE SYSTEMS~ Although they occur rarely, cases are possible where four squares can be taken as base squares. In such positions it is hard to deduce any clear rules: we will regard them as hypothetical. With adjoining six-square and quadratic systems, a rectangular eight-square system operates.} 1. Kf1 {! %05As usual, the marking is given in the diagram. The alternation of corresponding squares is normal, at an interval of one square. The main zones consist of eight squares, but they are arranged differently from the eight-square system examined at the start of the chapter. %15N #B(8/2I1I1I1I12/ 2I1I1I1I12/8/2D1D1D1D12/2D1D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(201I02I03I04I2/ 205I06I07I3/201I02I03I04I2/8/201D02D03D04D2/205D06D07D08D2/201D02D03D04D2/ 205D06D07D08D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 {%15 N #B(8/2I1I1I1I12/2I1I1I1I12/8/ 2D1D1D1D12/2D1D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(201I02I03I04I2/ 205I06I07I08I2/201I02I03I04I2/8/201D02D03D04D2/205D06D07D08D2/201D02D03D04D2/ 205D06D07D08D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Ke1 {%15N #B(8/2I1I1I1I12/2I1I1I1I12/8/ 2D1D1D1D12/2D1D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(201I02I03I04I2/ 205I06I07I08I2/201I02I03I04I2/8/201D02D03D04D2/205D06D07D08D2/201D02D03D04D2/ 205D06D07D08D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf7 {%15N #B(8/2I1I1I1I12/2I1I1I1I12/8/ 2D1D1D1D12/2D1D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(201I02I03I04I2/ 205I06I07I08I2/201I02I03I04I2/8/201D02D03D04D2/205D06D07D08D2/201D02D03D04D2/ 205D06D07D08D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kd2 {! %15 N #B(8/2I1I1I1I12/ 2I1I1I1I12/8/2D1D1D1D12/2D1D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(201I02I03I04I2/ 205I06I07I08I2/201I02I03I04I2/8/201D02D03D04D2/205D06D07D08D2/201D02D03D04D2/ 205D06D07D08D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke6 {%15N #B(8/2I1I1I1I12/2I1I1I1I12/8/ 2D1D1D1D12/2D1D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(201I02I03I04I2/ 205I06I07I08I2/201I02I03I04I2/8/201D02D03D04D2/205D06D07D08D2/201D02D03D04D2/ 205D06D07D08D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kc3 {%15N #B(8/2I1I1I1I12/2I1I1I1I12/8/ 2D1D1D1D12/2D1D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(201I02I03I04I2/ 205I06I07I08I2/201I02I03I04I2/8/201D02D03D04D2/205D06D07D08D2/201D02D03D04D2/ 205D06D07D08D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd5 {%15N #B(8/2I1I1I1I12/2I1I1I1I12/8/ 2D1D1D1D12/2D1D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(201I02I03I04I2/ 205I06I07I08I2/201I02I03I04I2/8/201D02D03D04D2/205D06D07D08D2/201D02D03D04D2/ 205D06D07D08D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. b4 $18 {%04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1934.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/1p1k4/1P6/P1p5/2P4K/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1934.??.??"] {%15N #B(3I1I1D1D11/3I1I1D1D11/3I1I1D1D11/3I1I1D1D11/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8) #C(304I08I04D08D04D/303I07I03D07D03D/406I02D06D02D/2aI01I05I01D05D01D/ 4aD02D06D02D/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kh4 {! %05In this example we see a vertically-arranged rectangular eight-square system, arising in the struggle for the key squares on the e-file.^013^010 The rear of Black's system is located on the key squares, due to the obstruction on the c-file. The additional non-systematic zugzwang position. Ke4/Kc5 is associated with stalemate. %15N #B(3I1I1D1D11/3I1I1D1D11/3I1I1D1D11/3I1I1D1D11/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I08I04D08D04D/303I07I03D07D03D/406I02D06D02D/ 2aI01I05I01D05D01D/4aD02D06D02D/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd5 {%15N #B (3I1I1D1D11/3I1I1D1D11/3I1I1D1D11/3I1I1D1D11/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (304I08I04D08D04D/303I07I03D07D03D/302I06I02D06D02D/2aI01I05I01D05D01D/ 4aD02D06D02D/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kh5 {%15N #B(3I1I1D1D11/3I1I1D1D11/ 3I1I1D1D11/3I1I1D1D11/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I08I04D08D04D/ 303I07I03D07D03D/406I02D06D02D/2aI01I05I01D05D01D/4aD02D06D02D/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8)} Kd6 {%15N #B(3I1I1D1D11/3I1I1D1D11/3I1I1D1D11/3I1I1D1D11/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I08I04D08D04D/303I07I03D07D03D/406I02D06D02D/ 2aI01I05I01D05D01D/4aD02D06D02D/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kh6 {%15N #B (3I1I1D1D11/3I1I1D1D11/3I1I1D1D11/3I1I1D1D11/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (304I08I04D08D04D/303I07I03D07D03D/406I02D06D02D/2aI01I05I01D05D01D/ 4aD02D06D02D/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd5 {%15N #B(3I1I1D1D11/3I1I1D1D11/ 3I1I1D1D11/3I1I1D1D11/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I08I04D08D04D/ 303I07I03D07D03D/302I06I02D06D02D/2aI01I05I01D05D01D/4aD02D06D02D/8/8/8) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kg7 {%15N #B(3I1I1D1D11/3I1I1D1D11/3I1I1D1D11/3I1I1D1D11/8/ 8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I08I04D08D04D/303I07I03D07D03D/ 302I06I02D06D02D/2aI01I05I01D05D01D/4aD02D06D02D/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke6 {%15N #B(3I1I1D1D11/3I1I1D1D11/3I1I1D1D11/3I1I1D1D11/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8) #C(304I08I04D08D04D/303I07I03D07D03D/302I06I02D06D02D/ 2aI01I05I01D05D01D/4aD02D06D02D/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kf8 {%15N #B (3I1I1D1D11/3I1I1D1D11/3I1I1D1D11/3I1I1D1D11/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (304I08I04D08D04D/303I07I03D07D03D/302I06I02D06D02D/2aI01I05I01D05D01D/ 4aD02D06D02D/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd7 {%15N #B(3I1I1D1D11/3I1I1D1D11/ 3I1I1D1D11/3I1I1D1D11/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I08I04D08D04D/ 303I07I03D07D03D/302I06I02D06D02D/2aI01I05I01D05D01D/4aD02D06D02D/8/8/8) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Kf7 {, and wins. %15 N #B(3I1I1D1D11/3I1I1D1D11/3I1I1D1D11/ 3I1I1D1D11/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I08I04D08D04D/303I07I03D07D03D/ 302I06I02D06D02D/2aI01I05I01D05D01D/4aD02D06D02D/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1925.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "7k/1p1p4/3p4/P2P4/3P2p1/6P1/6P1/K7 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1925.??.??"] {%15N #B(4I1I1I11/4I1I1I11/5I1I11/5I1I11/1D1D15/1D1D1D1D13/1D1D1D1D13/8) #S (4I-3/8/8/8/1D-6/8/8/8) #C(505I06I1/401I02I07I02I/503I08I03I/504I9I04I/201D5/ 105D02D03D04D3/106D07D08D9D3/105D02D03D04D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) With adjoining eight-square and quadratic systems, a ten-square system operates.} 1. Kb1 {!} Kh7 {%15N #B(4I1I1I11/4I1I1I11/5I1I11/5I1I11/1D1D15/1D1D1D1D13/ 1D1D1D1D13/8) #S(4I-3/8/8/8/1D-6/8/8/8) #C(505I06I1/401I02I07I02I/503I08I03I/ 504I9I04I/201D5/105D02D03D04D3/106D07D08D9D3/105D02D03D04D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8)} 2. Kc1 {%15N #B(4I1I1I11/4I1I1I11/5I1I11/5I1I11/1D1D15/1D1D1D1D13/ 1D1D1D1D13/8) #S(4I-3/8/8/8/1D-6/8/8/8) #C(505I06I1/401I02I07I02I/503I08I03I/ 504I9I04I/201D5/105D02D03D04D3/106D07D08D9D3/105D02D03D04D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8)} Kh6 {%15N #B(4I1I1I11/4I1I1I11/5I1I11/5I1I11/1D1D15/1D1D1D1D13/1D1D1D1D13/ 8) #S(4I-3/8/8/8/1D-6/8/8/8) #C(505I06I1/401I02I07I02I/503I08I03I/504I9I04I/ 201D5/105D02D03D04D3/106D07D08D9D3/105D02D03D04D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kb2 {%15N #B(4I1I1I11/4I1I1I11/5I1I11/5I1I11/1D1D15/1D1D1D1D13/1D1D1D1D13/8) #S(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(4$5I05I06I1/401I02I07I02I/503I08I03I/504I9I04I/1$5D01D5/ 105D02D03D04D3/106D07D08D9D3/105D02D03D04D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kg6 {%15N #B (4I1I1I11/4I1I1I11/5I1I11/5I1I11/1D1D15/1D1D1D1D13/1D1D1D1D13/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8) #C(4$5I05I06I1/401I02I07I02I/503I08I03I/504I9I04I/1$5D01D5/ 105D02D03D04D3/106D07D08D9D3/105D02D03D04D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kb3 { %15N #B(4I1I1I11/4I1I1I11/5I1I11/5I1I11/1D1D15/1D1D1D1D13/1D1D1D1D13/8) #S (4I-3/8/8/8/1D-6/8/8/8) #C(505I06I1/401I02I07I02I/503I08I03I/504I9I04I/201D5/ 105D02D03D04D3/106D07D08D9D3/105D02D03D04D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf6 {%15N #B (4I1I1I11/4I1I1I11/5I1I11/5I1I11/1D1D15/1D1D1D1D13/1D1D1D1D13/8) #S(4I-3/8/8/8/ 1D-6/8/8/8) #C(505I06I1/401I02I07I02I/503I08I03I/504I9I04I/201D5/ 105D02D03D04D3/106D07D08D9D3/105D02D03D04D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kb4 { %15N #B(4I1I1I11/4I1I1I11/5I1I11/5I1I11/1D1D15/1D1D1D1D13/1D1D1D1D13/8) #S (4I-3/8/8/8/1D-6/8/8/8) #C(505I06I1/401I02I07I02I/503I08I03I/504I9I04I/201D5/ 105D02D03D04D3/106D07D08D9D3/105D02D03D04D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 {%15N #B (4I1I1I11/4I1I1I11/5I1I11/5I1I11/1D1D15/1D1D1D1D13/1D1D1D1D13/8) #S(4I-3/8/8/8/ 1D-6/8/8/8) #C(505I06I1/401I02I07I02I/503I08I03I/504I9I04I/201D5/ 105D02D03D04D3/106D07D08D9D3/105D02D03D04D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Kc4 { %15N #B(4I1I1I11/4I1I1I11/5I1I11/5I1I11/1D1D15/1D1D1D1D13/1D1D1D1D13/8) #S (4I-3/8/8/8/1D-6/8/8/8) #C(505I06I1/401I02I07I02I/503I08I03I/504I9I04I/201D5/ 105D02D03D04D3/106D07D08D9D3/105D02D03D04D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) ,and White wins (Grigoriev, 1925).} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1983.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Zinar M"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "6k1/K2p4/8/3pP3/3P4/3P1p1p/5P1P/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "25"] [EventDate "1983.??.??"] {%15N #B(4I1I1I1I1/4I1I1I1I1/6I1I1/D1D16/D1D16/D1D1D15/D1D1D15/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8) #C(400I9I107I/404I03I02I06I/103D2aI101I05I/00D04DaD5/9D03D6/08D02D01D5/ 07D06D05D5/08D02D01D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) There is the same superposition of systems in the following example.} 1. Kb7 {! %15N #B(4I1I1I1I1/4I1I1I1I1/6I1I1/ D1D16/D1D16/D1D1D15/D1D1D15/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(400I9I107I/404I03I02I06I/ 103D2aI101I05I/00D04DaD5/9D03D6/08D02D01D5/07D06D05D5/08D02D01D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8)} Kf8 {(due to the threat to the d7 pawn, Black is forced to cede the correspondence) %15N #B(4I1I1I1I1/4I1I1I1I1/6I1I1/D1D16/D1D16/D1D1D15/D1D1D15/ 8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(400I9I107I/404I03I02I06I/103D2aI101I05I/00D04DaD5/ 9D03D6/08D02D01D5/07D06D05D5/08D02D01D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Ka6 {%15N #B (4I1I1I1I1/4I1I1I1I1/6I1I1/D1D16/D1D16/D1D1D15/D1D1D15/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(400I9I107I/404I03I02I06I/103D2aI101I05I/00D04DaD5/9D03D6/08D02D01D5/ 07D06D05D5/08D02D01D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke8 {%15N #B(4I1I1I1I1/4I1I1I1I1/ 6I1I1/D1D16/D1D16/D1D1D15/D1D1D15/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(400I9I107I/ 404I03I02I06I/103D2aI101I05I/00D04DaD5/9D03D6/08D02D01D5/07D06D05D5/08D02D01D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Ka5 {%15N #B(4I1I1I1I1/4I1I1I1I1/6I1I1/D1D16/D1D16/ D1D1D15/D1D1D15/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(400I9I107I/404I03I02I06I/ 103D2aI101I05I/00D04DaD5/9D03D6/08D02D01D5/07D06D05D5/08D02D01D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8)} Kf8 {%15N #B(4I1I1I1I1/4I1I1I1I1/6I1I1/D1D16/D1D16/D1D1D15/D1D1D15/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(400I9I107I/404I03I02I06I/103D2aI101I05I/00D04DaD5/ 9D03D6/08D02D01D5/07D06D05D5/08D02D01D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Ka4 {%15N #B (4I1I1I1I1/4I1I1I1I1/6I1I1/D1D16/D1D16/D1D1D15/D1D1D15/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(400I9I107I/404I03I02I06I/103D2aI101I05I/00D04DaD5/9D03D6/08D02D01D5/ 07D06D05D5/08D02D01D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kg8 {%15N #B(4I1I1I1I1/4I1I1I1I1/ 6I1I1/D1D16/D1D16/D1D1D15/D1D1D15/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(400I9I107I/ 404I03I02I06I/103D2aI101I05I/00D04DaD5/9D03D6/08D02D01D5/07D06D05D5/08D02D01D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kb5 {%15N #B(4I1I1I1I1/4I1I1I1I1/6I1I1/D1D16/D1D16/ D1D1D15/D1D1D15/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(400I9I107I/404I03I02I06I/ 103D2aI101I05I/00D04DaD5/9D03D6/08D02D01D5/07D06D05D5/08D02D01D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8)} Kf7 {%15N #B(4I1I1I1I1/4I1I1I1I1/6I1I1/D1D16/D1D16/D1D1D15/D1D1D15/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(400I9I107I/404I03I02I06I/103D2aI101I05I/00D04DaD5/ 9D03D6/08D02D01D5/07D06D05D5/08D02D01D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Kb4 {%15N #B (4I1I1I1I1/4I1I1I1I1/6I1I1/D1D16/D1D16/D1D1D15/D1D1D15/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(400I9I107I/404I03I02I06I/103D2aI101I05I/00D04DaD5/9D03D6/08D02D01D5/ 07D06D05D5/08D02D01D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 {%15N #B(4I1I1I1I1/4I1I1I1I1/ 6I1I1/D1D16/D1D16/D1D1D15/D1D1D15/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(400I9I107I/ 404I03I02I06I/103D2aI101I05I/00D04DaD5/9D03D6/08D02D01D5/07D06D05D5/08D02D01D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 7. Kc3 {%15N #B(4I1I1I1I1/4I1I1I1I1/6I1I1/D1D16/D1D16/ D1D1D15/D1D1D15/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(400I9I107I/404I03I02I06I/ 103D2aI101I05I/00D04DaD5/9D03D6/08D02D01D5/07D06D05D5/08D02D01D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8)} Ke6 {%15N #B(4I1I1I1I1/4I1I1I1I1/6I1I1/D1D16/D1D16/D1D1D15/D1D1D15/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(400I9I107I/404I03I02I06I/103D2aI101I05I/00D04DaD5/ 9D03D6/08D02D01D5/07D06D05D5/08D02D01D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 8. Kb3 {! %15 N #B(4I1I1I1I1/4I1I1I1I1/6I1I1/D1D16/D1D16/D1D1D15/D1D1D15/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(400I9I107I/404I03I02I06I/103D2aI101I05I/00D04DaD5/9D03D6/08D02D01D5/ 07D06D05D5/08D02D01D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf7 {%15N #B(4I1I1I1I1/4I1I1I1I1/ 6I1I1/D1D16/D1D16/D1D1D15/D1D1D15/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(400I9I107I/ 404I03I02I06I/103D2aI101I05I/00D04DaD5/9D03D6/08D02D01D5/07D06D05D5/08D02D01D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 9. Kc2 {%15N #B(4I1I1I1I1/4I1I1I1I1/6I1I1/D1D16/D1D16/ D1D1D15/D1D1D15/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(400I9I107I/404I03I02I06I/ 103D2aI101I05I/00D04DaD5/9D03D6/08D02D01D5/07D06D05D5/08D02D01D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8)} Kg6 {%15N #B(4I1I1I1I1/4I1I1I1I1/6I1I1/D1D16/D1D16/D1D1D15/D1D1D15/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(400I9I107I/404I03I02I06I/103D2aI101I05I/00D04DaD5/ 9D03D6/08D02D01D5/07D06D05D5/08D02D01D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 10. Kc3 {%15 N #B(4I1I1I1I1/4I1I1I1I1/6I1I1/D1D16/D1D16/D1D1D15/D1D1D15/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(400I9I107I/404I03I02I06I/103D2aI101I05I/00D04DaD5/9D03D6/08D02D01D5/ 07D06D05D5/08D02D01D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kg5 {%15N #B(4I1I1I1I1/4I1I1I1I1/ 6I1I1/D1D16/D1D16/D1D1D15/D1D1D15/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(400I9I107I/ 404I03I02I06I/103D2aI101I05I/00D04DaD5/9D03D6/08D02D01D5/07D06D05D5/08D02D01D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 11. Kb4 {%15 N #B(4I1I1I1I1/4I1I1I1I1/6I1I1/D1D16/D1D16/ D1D1D15/D1D1D15/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(400I9I107I/404I03I02I06I/ 103D2aI101I05I/00D04DaD5/9D03D6/08D02D01D5/07D06D05D5/08D02D01D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8)} Kf5 {%15N #B(4I1I1I1I1/4I1I1I1I1/6I1I1/D1D16/D1D16/D1D1D15/D1D1D15/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(400I9I107I/404I03I02I06I/103D2aI101I05I/00D04DaD5/ 9D03D6/08D02D01D5/07D06D05D5/08D02D01D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 12. Kb5 {%15 N #B(4I1I1I1I1/4I1I1I1I1/6I1I1/D1D16/D1D16/D1D1D15/D1D1D15/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(400I9I107I/404I03I02I06I/103D2aI101I05I/00D04DaD5/9D03D6/08D02D01D5/ 07D06D05D5/08D02D01D5) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke6 13. Kc5 $18 {%04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1983.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Zinar M"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/k7/4p1p1/p3P2p/P3PP1P/8/8/K7 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] [EventDate "1983.??.??"] {%15N #B(1I1I1I1I13/1I1I1I1I13/1I1I15/8/2D1D14/2D1D1D1D12/2D1D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(08I07I08I9I00I9I2/106I02I03I04I03I2/105I01I5/8/205D01D4/ 102D06D02D03D04D03D1/108D07D08D9D00D2/102D06D02D03D04D03D1) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) } 1. Kb1 {%15N #B(1I1I1I1I13/1I1I1I1I13/1I1I15/8/2D1D14/2D1D1D1D12/2D1D1D1D12/ 8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(08I07I08I9I00I9I2/106I02I03I04I03I2/105I01I5/8/ 205D01D4/102D06D02D03D04D03D1/108D07D08D9D00D2/102D06D02D03D04D03D1) #F(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8)} Kb7 {%15N #B(1I1I1I1I13/1I1I1I1I13/1I1I15/8/2D1D14/2D1D1D1D12/ 2D1D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(08I07I08I9I00I9I2/106I02I03I04I03I2/ 105I01I5/8/205D01D4/102D06D02D03D04D03D1/108D07D08D9D00D2/102D06D02D03D04D03D1) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kc1 {%15N #B(1I1I1I1I13/1I1I1I1I13/1I1I15/8/2D1D14/ 2D1D1D1D12/2D1D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(08I07I08I9I00I9I2/ 106I02I03I04I03I2/105I01I5/8/205D01D4/102D06D02D03D04D03D1/108D07D08D9D00D2/ 102D06D02D03D04D03D1) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc7 {%15N #B(1I1I1I1I13/1I1I1I1I13/ 1I1I15/8/2D1D14/2D1D1D1D12/2D1D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (08I07I08I9I00I9I2/106I02I03I04I03I2/105I01I5/8/205D01D4/102D06D02D03D04D03D1/ 108D07D08D9D00D2/102D06D02D03D04D03D1) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kd1 {%15N #B (1I1I1I1I13/1I1I1I1I13/1I1I15/8/2D1D14/2D1D1D1D12/2D1D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(08I07I08I9I00I9I2/106I02I03I04I03I2/105I01I5/8/205D01D4/ 102D06D02D03D04D03D1/108D07D08D9D00D2/102D06D02D03D04D03D1) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) } Kd7 {%15N #B(1I1I1I1I13/1I1I1I1I13/1I1I15/8/2D1D14/2D1D1D1D12/2D1D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(08I07I08I9I00I9I2/106I02I03I04I03I2/105I01I5/8/205D01D4/ 102D06D02D03D04D03D1/108D07D08D9D00D2/102D06D02D03D04D03D1) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) } 4. Kc2 {%15N #B(1I1I1I1I13/1I1I1I1I13/1I1I15/8/2D1D14/2D1D1D1D12/2D1D1D1D12/ 8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(08I07I08I9I00I9I2/106I02I03I04I03I2/105I01I5/8/ 205D01D4/102D06D02D03D04D03D1/108D07D08D9D00D2/102D06D02D03D04D03D1) #F(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8)} Kd8 {%15N #B(1I1I1I1I13/1I1I1I1I13/1I1I15/8/2D1D14/2D1D1D1D12/ 2D1D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(08I07I08I9I00I9I2/106I02I03I04I03I2/ 105I01I5/8/205D01D4/102D06D02D03D04D03D1/108D07D08D9D00D2/102D06D02D03D04D03D1) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kc3 {%15N #B(1I1I1I1I13/1I1I1I1I13/1I1I15/8/2D1D14/ 2D1D1D1D12/2D1D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(08I07I08I9I00I9I2/ 106I02I03I04I03I2/105I01I5/8/205D01D4/102D06D02D03D04D03D1/108D07D08D9D00D2/ 102D06D02D03D04D03D1) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc7 {%15N #B(1I1I1I1I13/1I1I1I1I13/ 1I1I15/8/2D1D14/2D1D1D1D12/2D1D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (08I07I08I9I00I9I2/106I02I03I04I03I2/105I01I5/8/205D01D4/102D06D02D03D04D03D1/ 108D07D08D9D00D2/102D06D02D03D04D03D1) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Kd3 {%15N #B (1I1I1I1I13/1I1I1I1I13/1I1I15/8/2D1D14/2D1D1D1D12/2D1D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(08I07I08I9I00I9I2/106I02I03I04I03I2/105I01I5/8/205D01D4/ 102D06D02D03D04D03D1/108D07D08D9D00D2/102D06D02D03D04D03D1) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) } Kc6 {%15N #B(1I1I1I1I13/1I1I1I1I13/1I1I15/8/2D1D14/2D1D1D1D12/2D1D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(08I07I08I9I00I9I2/106I02I03I04I03I2/105I01I5/8/205D01D4/ 102D06D02D03D04D03D1/108D07D08D9D00D2/102D06D02D03D04D03D1) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) } 7. Kd4 $18 {, and wins. %15 N #B(1I1I1I1I13/1I1I1I1I13/1I1I15/8/2D1D14/ 2D1D1D1D12/2D1D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(08I07I08I9I00I9I2/ 106I02I03I04I03I2/105I01I5/8/205D01D4/102D06D02D03D04D03D1/108D07D08D9D00D2/ 102D06D02D03D04D03D1) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1930.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Ebersz"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "7k/p7/P2p4/P2Pp3/4P3/4P1p1/6P1/K7 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1930.??.??"] {%15N #B(4I1I1I1I1/4I1I1I1I1/5I1I1I1/6I1I1/1D1D15/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D1D13/ 1D1D1D1D13) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(407I08I9I1/402I03I04IAI/501I05IBI/606ICI/ 02D07D02D5/03D08D03D01D4/04D9D04D05D06D3/100DADBDCD3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kb1 {! %05Here there are three base squares, but on each pair one can construct coinciding eight-square systems.^013^010 With coinciding eight-square systems, a thirteen-square system operates.^013^010 This is the largest of the known systems. To memorize all 13 squares of the main zone is extremely difficult. One can only hope that these last two systems will never occur in practice. %15N #B(4I1I1I1I1/4I1I1I1I1/5I1I1I1/6I1I1/1D1D15/1D1D1D14/ 1D1D1D1D13/1D1D1D1D13) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(407I08I9I1/402I03I04IAI/ 501I05IBI/606ICI/02D07D02D5/03D08D03D01D4/04D9D04D05D06D3/00D00DADBDCD3) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kh7 {%15N #B(4I1I1I1I1/4I1I1I1I1/5I1I1I1/6I1I1/1D1D15/1D1D1D14/ 1D1D1D1D13/1D1D1D1D13) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(407I08I9I00I/402I03I04IAI/ 501I05IBI/606ICI/02D07D02D5/03D08D03D01D4/04D9D04D05D06D3/00D00DADBDCD3) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kc1 {%15N #B(4I1I1I1I1/4I1I1I1I1/5I1I1I1/6I1I1/1D1D15/ 1D1D1D14/1D1D1D1D13/1D1D1D1D13) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(407I08I9I00I/ 402I03I04IAI/501I05IBI/606ICI/02D07D02D5/03D08D03D01D4/04D9D04D05D06D3/ 00D00DADBDCD3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kh6 {%15N #B(4I1I1I1I1/4I1I1I1I1/5I1I1I1/ 6I1I1/1D1D15/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D1D13/1D1D1D1D13) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (407I08I9I00I/402I03I04IAI/501I05IBI/606ICI/02D07D02D5/03D08D03D01D4/ 04D9D04D05D06D3/00D00DADBDCD3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kd1 {%15N #B(4I1I1I1I1/ 4I1I1I1I1/5I1I1I1/6I1I1/1D1D15/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D1D13/1D1D1D1D13) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(407I08I9I00I/402I03I04IAI/501I05IBI/606ICI/02D07D02D5/03D08D03D01D4/ 04D9D04D05D06D3/00D00DADBDCD3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kh5 {%15N #B(4I1I1I1I1/ 4I1I1I1I1/5I1I1I1/6I1I1/1D1D15/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D1D13/1D1D1D1D13) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(407I08I9I00I/402I03I04IAI/501I05IBI/606ICI/02D07D02D5/03D08D03D01D4/ 04D9D04D05D06D3/00D00DADBDCD3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kc2 {%15N #B(4I1I1I1I1/ 4I1I1I1I1/5I1I1I1/6I1I1/1D1D15/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D1D13/1D1D1D1D13) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(407I08I9I00I/402I03I04IAI/501I05IBI/606ICI/02D07D02D5/03D08D03D01D4/ 04D9D04D05D06D3/00D00DADBDCD3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kg6 {%15N #B(4I1I1I1I1/ 4I1I1I1I1/5I1I1I1/6I1I1/1D1D15/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D1D13/1D1D1D1D13) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(407I08I9I00I/402I03I04IAI/501I05IBI/606ICI/02D07D02D5/03D08D03D01D4/ 04D9D04D05D06D3/00D00DADBDCD3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kd2 {%15N #B(4I1I1I1I1/ 4I1I1I1I1/5I1I1I1/6I1I1/1D1D15/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D1D13/1D1D1D1D13) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(407I08I9I00I/402I03I04IAI/501I05IBI/606ICI/02D07D02D5/03D08D03D01D4/ 04D9D04D05D06D3/00D00DADBDCD3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf6 {%15N #B(4I1I1I1I1/ 4I1I1I1I1/5I1I1I1/6I1I1/1D1D15/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D1D13/1D1D1D1D13) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(407I08I9I00I/402I03I04IAI/501I05IBI/606ICI/02D07D02D5/03D08D03D01D4/ 04D9D04D05D06D3/00D00DADBDCD3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Kd3 {, and White wins. %15 N #B(4I1I1I1I1/4I1I1I1I1/5I1I1I1/6I1I1/1D1D15/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D1D13/ 1D1D1D1D13) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(407I08I9I00I/402I03I04IAI/501I05IBI/606ICI/ 02D07D02D5/03D08D03D01D4/04D9D04D05D06D3/00D00DADBDCD3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1983.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Zinar M"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/5k2/2p5/2Pp4/3P2p1/3P2P1/8/5K2 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1983.??.??"] {In certain cases a superposition of systems gives an excess of correspondence. Adjoining eight-square and quadratic systems give an excess of correspondence against coinciding systems. %15N #B(3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/4I1I12/8/8/1D1D15/ 1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I05I06I2/301I03I3/402I08I2/5aI2/8/ 104D01D1aD3/105D03D02DbD3/106D07D08D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Ke2 {%05White has adjoining eight-square and quadratic systems, whereas Black's coincide. It turns out that Black's "8" square is simultaneously the "b" square in the other system. %15N #B(3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/4I1I12/8/8/1D1D15/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I05I06I2/301I03I3/402I08I2/5aI2/8/104D01D1aD3/ 105D03D02DbD3/106D07D08D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf6 {%15N #B(3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/ 4I1I12/8/8/1D1D15/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I05I06I2/ 301I03I07I2/402I08I2/5aI2/8/104D01D1aD3/105D03D02DbD3/106D07D08D4) #F(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8)} 2. Kd1 {%15N #B(3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/4I1I12/8/8/1D1D15/1D1D1D14/ 1D1D1D14) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I05I06I2/301I03I07I2/402I08I2/5aI2/8/ 104D01D1aD3/105D03D02DbD3/106D07D08D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf7 {%15N #B (3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/4I1I12/8/8/1D1D15/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (304I05I06I2/301I03I07I2/402I08I2/5aI2/8/104D01D1aD3/105D03D02DbD3/106D07D08D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kc1 {%15N #B(3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/4I1I12/8/8/1D1D15/ 1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I05I06I2/301I03I07I2/402I08I2/ 5aI2/8/104D01D1aD3/105D03D02DbD3/106D07D08D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf6 { %15N #B(3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/4I1I12/8/8/1D1D15/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(304I05I06I2/301I03I07I2/402I08I2/5aI2/8/104D01D1aD3/105D03D02DbD3/ 106D07D08D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kb2 {%15N #B(3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/4I1I12/8/8/ 1D1D15/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I05I06I2/301I03I07I2/ 402I08I2/5aI2/8/104D01D1aD3/105D03D02DbD3/106D07D08D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke6 {%15N #B(3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/4I1I12/8/8/1D1D15/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(304I05I06I2/301I03I07I2/402I08I2/5aI2/8/104D01D1aD3/105D03D02DbD3/ 106D07D08D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kb3 {%15N #B(3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/4I1I12/8/8/ 1D1D15/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I05I06I2/301I03I07I2/ 402I08I2/5aI2/8/104D01D1aD3/105D03D02DbD3/106D07D08D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd7 {%15N #B(3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/4I1I12/8/8/1D1D15/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(304I05I06I2/301I03I07I2/402I08I2/5aI2/8/104D01D1aD3/105D03D02DbD3/ 106D07D08D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Kc3 {, and wins. %15 N #B(3I1I1I12/ 3I1I1I12/4I1I12/8/8/1D1D15/1D1D1D14/1D1D1D14) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (304I05I06I2/301I03I07I2/402I08I2/5aI2/8/104D01D1aD3/105D03D02DbD3/106D07D08D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1941.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Ebersz"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/1p4p1/1P1k4/7P/1P1K4/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "23"] [EventDate "1941.??.??"] {Adjoining rectangular and quadratic systems give an excess of correspondence against coinciding systems. %15N #B(8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/ 8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/304I05I06IaI1/301I02I03I2/6aD1/301D02D03DbD1/ 405D06D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Ke3 {! %05As is evident from the marking, White's adjoining systems are opposed by coinciding systems for Black. Black's "6" square is simultaneously the "b" square of the quadratic system. %15N #B(8/ 3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/ 304I05I06IaI1/301I02I03I2/6aD1/301D02D03DbD1/304D05D06D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8)} Ke5 {%15N #B(8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8) #C(8/304I05I06IaI1/301I02I03I2/6aD1/301D02D03DbD1/304D05D06D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kf3 {%15N #B(8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/304I05I06IaI1/301I02I03I2/6aD1/301D02D03DbD1/405D06D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf5 {%15N #B(8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/304I05I06IaI1/301I02I03I2/6aD1/301D02D03DbD1/ 304D05D06D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kg3 {%15N #B(8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/ 3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/304I05I06IaI1/301I02I03I2/6aD1/ 301D02D03DbD1/304D05D06D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke6 {%15N #B(8/3I1I1I12/ 3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/304I05I06IaI1/ 301I02I03I2/6aD1/301D02D03DbD1/304D05D06D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kg4 { %15N #B(8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/ 304I05I06IaI1/301I02I03I2/6aD1/301D02D03DbD1/304D05D06D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8)} Kf7 {%15N #B(8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8) #C(8/304I05I06IaI1/301I02I03I2/6aD1/301D02D03DbD1/304D05D06D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kf3 {! %15 N #B(8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8) #S (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/304I05I06IaI1/301I02I03I2/6aD1/301D02D03DbD1/ 304D05D06D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 {%15N #B(8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/ 3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/304I05I06IaI1/301I02I03I2/6aD1/ 301D02D03DbD1/304D05D06D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Ke3 {%15N #B(8/3I1I1I12/ 3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/304I05I06IaI1/ 301I02I03I2/6aD1/301D02D03DbD1/304D05D06D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf7 { %15N #B(8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/ 304I05I06IaI1/301I02I03I2/6aD1/301D02D03DbD1/304D05D06D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8)} 7. Kd4 {%15N #B(8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8) #C(8/304I05I06IaI1/301I02I03I2/6aD1/301D02D03DbD1/304D05D06D2/8/8) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke6 {%15N #B(8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/304I05I06IaI1/301I02I03I2/6aD1/301D02D03DbD1/304D05D06D2/8/ 8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 8. Ke4 {%15N #B(8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/ 3D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/304I05I06IaI1/301I02I03I2/6aD1/ 301D02D03DbD1/304D05D06D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd6 {%15N #B(8/3I1I1I12/ 3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/304I05I06IaI1/ 301I02I03I2/6aD1/301D02D03DbD1/304D05D06D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 9. Kf4 { %15N #B(8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/ 304I05I06IaI1/301I02I03I2/6aD1/301D02D03DbD1/304D05D06D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8)} Ke6 10. Kg5 Kf7 11. Kh6 Kf6 12. b4 $18 {%04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1920.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "k7/6p1/1p6/1P6/6P1/8/K7/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "23"] [EventDate "1920.??.??"] {%15N #B(3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (304I05I06IaI1/301I02I03I2/6aD1/301D02D03DbD1/304D05D06D2/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8) There is the same superposition of systems in example ~3( 893)~} 1. Kb3 {! %15N #B(3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (304I05I06IaI1/301I02I03I2/6aD1/301D02D03DbD1/304D05D06D2/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8)} Kb7 {%15N #B(3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8) #C(304I05I06IaI1/301I02I03I2/6aD1/301D02D03DbD1/304D05D06D2/8/8/8) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kc4 {%15N #B(3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I05I06IaI1/301I02I03I2/6aD1/301D02D03DbD1/ 304D05D06D2/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc7 {%15N #B(3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/ 3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I05I06IaI1/301I02I03I2/6aD1/ 301D02D03DbD1/304D05D06D2/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kd5 {%15N #B(3I1I1I12/ 3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I05I06IaI1/ 301I02I03I2/6aD1/301D02D03DbD1/304D05D06D2/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd7 { %15N #B(3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (304I05I06IaI1/301I02I03I2/6aD1/301D02D03DbD1/304D05D06D2/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8)} 4. Ke5 {%15N #B(3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I05I06IaI1/301I02I03I2/6aD1/301D02D03DbD1/304D05D06D2/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 {%15N #B(3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I05I06IaI1/301I02I03I2/6aD1/301D02D03DbD1/ 304D05D06D2/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kf5 {%15N #B(3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/ 3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I05I06IaI1/301I02I03I2/6aD1/ 301D02D03DbD1/304D05D06D2/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf7 {%15N #B(3I1I1I12/ 3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I05I06IaI1/ 301I02I03I2/6aD1/301D02D03DbD1/304D05D06D2/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Kg5 { ! %15 N #B(3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (304I05I06IaI1/301I02I03I2/6aD1/301D02D03DbD1/304D05D06D2/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8)} Kf8 {%15N #B(3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8) #C(304I05I06IaI1/301I02I03I2/6aD1/301D02D03DbD1/304D05D06D2/8/8/8) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 7. Kf4 {%15N #B(3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I05I06IaI1/301I02I03I2/6aD1/301D02D03DbD1/ 304D05D06D2/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke8 {%15N #B(3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/ 3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I05I06IaI1/301I02I03I2/6aD1/ 301D02D03DbD1/304D05D06D2/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 8. Ke4 {%15N #B(3I1I1I12/ 3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I05I06IaI1/ 301I02I03I2/6aD1/301D02D03DbD1/304D05D06D2/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd8 { %15N #B(3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (304I05I06IaI1/301I02I03I2/6aD1/301D02D03DbD1/304D05D06D2/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8)} 9. Kf5 {%15N #B(3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I05I06IaI1/301I02I03I2/6aD1/301D02D03DbD1/304D05D06D2/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 {%15N #B(3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I05I06IaI1/301I02I03I2/6aD1/301D02D03DbD1/ 304D05D06D2/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 10. Kg6 {%15 N #B(3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/ 3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I05I06IaI1/301I02I03I2/6aD1/ 301D02D03DbD1/304D05D06D2/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf8 {%15N #B(3I1I1I12/ 3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(304I05I06IaI1/ 301I02I03I2/6aD1/301D02D03DbD1/304D05D06D2/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 11. Kh7 {%15 N #B(3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (304I05I06IaI1/301I02I03I2/6aD1/301D02D03DbD1/304D05D06D2/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8)} Kf7 12. g5 $18 {%04etc. To consider all possible cases, where the superposition of systems leads to an excess of correspondence, is hardly possible. The more so as it is difficult to give rules for all cases in life. What is important is that the play here is normally reversible, and one can always correct a mistake by again winning the correspondence, as we have seen in the analysis of the triangular system.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1981.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Chopyak"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "4k3/5p2/p3pK2/p3P3/P1p1P3/2P5/2P5/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "19"] [EventDate "1981.??.??"] {%15N #B(8/8/1I1I15/2I15/5D12/4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/103I01I5/ 202I5/501D2/402D03D2/401D01D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kg5 {%05One should always aim to reduce sensibly the number of marked squares. Here, for example, f4-g5 (c6-d7 for Black) could be taken as the base squares, an eight-square system constructed on them, and its superposition on the triangular system considered.^013^010 But it is quite sufficient to consider the base triangles e3-f4-f3 and c5-c6-b6, to see that on the "2-3" side White can construct a square, whereas Black cannot.^013^010 The solution is therefore as follows: %15N #B(8/8/1I1I15/2I15/5D12/4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/103I01I5/ 202I5/501D2/402D03D2/401D01D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 {%15N #B(8/8/1I1I15/ 2I15/5D12/4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/103I01I5/202I5/501D2/402D03D2/ 401D01D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kh5 {! (the threat of ... f6 has to be parried) %15 N #B(8/8/1I1I15/2I15/5D12/4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/ 103I01I5/202I5/501D2/402D03D2/401D01D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf8 {%15N #B(8/ 8/1I1I15/2I15/5D12/4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/103I01I5/202I5/501D2/ 402D03D2/401D01D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kg4 {%15N #B(8/8/1I1I15/2I15/5D12/ 4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/103I01I5/202I5/501D2/402D03D2/401D01D2/ 8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 {%15N #B(8/8/1I1I15/2I15/5D12/4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/103I01I5/202I5/501D2/402D03D2/401D01D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) } 4. Kg5 {%15N #B(8/8/1I1I15/2I15/5D12/4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/ 103I01I5/202I5/501D2/402D03D2/401D01D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd7 {%15N #B(8/ 8/1I1I15/2I15/5D12/4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/103I01I5/202I5/501D2/ 402D03D2/401D01D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kf4 {%15N #B(8/8/1I1I15/2I15/5D12/ 4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/103I01I5/202I5/501D2/402D03D2/401D01D2/ 8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc6 {%15N #B(8/8/1I1I15/2I15/5D12/4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/103I01I5/202I5/501D2/402D03D2/401D01D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) } 6. Ke3 {%15N #B(8/8/1I1I15/2I15/5D12/4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/ 103I01I5/202I5/501D2/402D03D2/401D01D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc5 {%15N #B(8/ 8/1I1I15/2I15/5D12/4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/103I01I5/202I5/501D2/ 402D03D2/401D01D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 7. Kf2 {%15N #B(8/8/1I1I15/2I15/5D12/ 4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/103I01I5/202I5/501D2/402D03D2/401D01D2/ 8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc6 {%15N #B(8/8/1I1I15/2I15/5D12/4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/103I01I5/202I5/501D2/402D03D2/401D01D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) } 8. Ke2 {%15N #B(8/8/1I1I15/2I15/5D12/4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/ 103I01I5/202I5/501D2/402D03D2/401D01D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kb6 {%15N #B(8/ 8/1I1I15/2I15/5D12/4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/103I01I5/202I5/501D2/ 402D03D2/401D01D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 9. Kf3 {! %15 N #B(8/8/1I1I15/2I15/ 5D12/4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/103I01I5/202I5/501D2/402D03D2/ 401D01D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc6 {%15N #B(8/8/1I1I15/2I15/5D12/4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/103I01I5/202I5/501D2/402D03D2/401D01D2/8) #F(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8)} 10. Kf4 {! , and White wins. %15 N #B(8/8/1I1I15/2I15/5D12/4D1D12/ 8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/103I01I5/202I5/501D2/402D03D2/401D01D2/8) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1983.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Zinar M"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/p1p5/P4k2/1P1p3p/3P4/5p1p/3P1P1P/K7 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1983.??.??"] {%15N #B(8/3I1I1I12/3I1I13/8/D1D16/1D1D15/1D1D15/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (402I03I2/304I05I06I2/301I02I3/5aI2/04D01D6/02D05D02DaD4/03D06D03D5/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8) ~110.9 IRREGULAR SYSTEMS~ Case are possible in which the squares of the main zone have a disorderly arrangement. We will consider a few examples.} 1. Ka2 {! %05One end of the shortest path here is Kb4/Kd6, the other being Ke3/Kg4. It is naturally, unfavourable for White to waste his pawn tempo: the opponent also has a tempo in reserve.^013^010 If an attempt is made to make at least some order of the corresponding squares, we find that, against Black's normal six-square system, White has a six-square system in which for some reason the "1" and "4" squares are shifted. %15N #B(8/3I1I1I12/ 3I1I13/8/D1D16/1D1D15/1D1D15/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(402I03I2/304I05I06I2/ 301I02I3/5aI2/04D01D6/02D05D02DaD4/03D06D03D5/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke6 { %15N #B(8/3I1I1I12/3I1I13/8/D1D16/1D1D15/1D1D15/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (402I03I2/304I05I06I2/301I02I03I2/5aI2/04D01D6/02D05D02DaD4/03D06D03D5/8) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Ka3 {%15N #B(8/3I1I1I12/3I1I13/8/D1D16/1D1D15/1D1D15/8) #S (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(402I03I2/304I05I06I2/301I02I03I2/5aI2/04D01D6/ 02D05D02DaD4/03D06D03D5/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd7 {%15N #B(8/3I1I1I12/3I1I13/ 8/D1D16/1D1D15/1D1D15/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(402I03I2/304I05I06I2/ 301I02I03I2/5aI2/04D01D6/02D05D02DaD4/03D06D03D5/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kb2 {%15N #B(8/3I1I1I12/3I1I13/8/D1D16/1D1D15/1D1D15/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (402I03I2/304I05I06I2/301I02I03I2/5aI2/04D01D6/02D05D02DaD4/03D06D03D5/8) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 {%15N #B(8/3I1I1I12/3I1I13/8/D1D16/1D1D15/1D1D15/8) #S(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(402I03I2/304I05I06I2/301I02I03I2/5aI2/04D01D6/02D05D02DaD4/ 03D06D03D5/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kb3 {%15N #B(8/3I1I1I12/3I1I13/8/D1D16/ 1D1D15/1D1D15/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(402I03I2/304I05I06I2/301I02I03I2/5aI2/ 04D01D6/02D05D02DaD4/03D06D03D5/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd7 {%15N #B(8/ 3I1I1I12/3I1I13/8/D1D16/1D1D15/1D1D15/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(402I03I2/ 304I05I06I2/301I02I03I2/5aI2/04D01D6/02D05D02DaD4/03D06D03D5/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8)} 5. Kc2 {%15N #B(8/3I1I1I12/3I1I13/8/D1D16/1D1D15/1D1D15/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8) #C(402I03I2/304I05I06I2/301I02I03I2/5aI2/04D01D6/02D05D02DaD4/ 03D06D03D5/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke6 {%15N #B(8/3I1I1I12/3I1I13/8/D1D16/ 1D1D15/1D1D15/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(402I03I2/304I05I06I2/301I02I03I2/5aI2/ 04D01D6/02D05D02DaD4/03D06D03D5/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Kc3 {, and wins. %15 N #B(8/3I1I1I12/3I1I13/8/D1D16/1D1D15/1D1D15/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (402I03I2/304I05I06I2/301I02I03I2/5aI2/04D01D6/02D05D02DaD4/03D06D03D5/8) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1983.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Zinar M"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/1k1p3p/3P2pP/3pP2p/3P3P/3P3P/K7 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] [EventDate "1983.??.??"] {%15N #B(8/I1I16/I1I16/I1I16/8/D1D16/1D1D15/1D1D15) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/ 06I03IaI5/05I7/04I01I6/8/04D01D6/02D05D02D5/106D03DaD4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Ka2 {! %05One end of the shortest path is Ka3/Ka5, while the second is Kg4/Kf6. For the base squares, a3-b3 (a5-b5 for Black) and c2-d1 (b6-c7 for Black) can be taken. As a result of the superposition of systems, White again obtains a six-square system with the "1" and "4" squares shifted. %15N #B(8/I1I16/I1I16/ I1I16/8/D1D16/1D1D15/1D1D15) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/06I03IaI5/05I7/04I01I6/8/ 04D01D6/02D05D02D5/106D03DaD4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ka6 {%15N #B(8/I1I16/I1I16/ I1I16/8/D1D16/1D1D15/1D1D15) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/06I03IaI5/05I02I6/ 04I01I6/8/04D01D6/02D05D02D5/106D03DaD4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kb2 {%15N #B (8/I1I16/I1I16/I1I16/8/D1D16/1D1D15/1D1D15) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/06I03IaI5/ 05I7/04I01I6/8/04D01D6/02D05D02D5/106D03DaD4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kb5 { %15N #B(8/I1I16/I1I16/I1I16/8/D1D16/1D1D15/1D1D15) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/ 06I03IaI5/05I02I6/04I01I6/8/04D01D6/02D05D02D5/106D03DaD4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kb3 {%15N #B(8/I1I16/I1I16/I1I16/8/D1D16/1D1D15/1D1D15) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/06I03IaI5/05I02I6/04I01I6/8/04D01D6/02D05D02D5/106D03DaD4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8)} Ka5 {%15N #B(8/I1I16/I1I16/I1I16/8/D1D16/1D1D15/1D1D15) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8) #C(8/06I03IaI5/05I02I6/04I01I6/8/04D01D6/02D05D02D5/106D03DaD4) #F(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8)} 4. Kc2 $18 {%04etc. %15 N #B(8/I1I16/I1I16/I1I16/8/D1D16/1D1D15/ 1D1D15) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/06I03IaI5/05I02I6/04I01I6/8/04D01D6/ 02D05D02D5/106D03DaD4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1931.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Ebersz"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/2p5/2P1k3/2P2p2/2P2P2/5P2/4K3 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] [EventDate "1931.??.??"] {%15N #B(3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/D1D11D14/D1D1D1D14/D1D1D1D14) #S(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(305I06I07I2/301I02I08I2/403I9I2/500I2/8/05D01D104D4/ 06D02D03D00D4/07D08D9D04D4) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kd1 {! %05Black has a regular ten-square system, whereas White's %05"4" and "0" squares are shifted:} Kf5 2. Kd2 Kf6 3. Kc1 Kf7 4. Kb1 Kf6 5. Ka2 Ke6 6. Ka3 Kd7 7. Kb3 {, and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1983.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Zinar M"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "5k2/1p1p4/1P6/K1P1p3/4P3/4P1p1/6P1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] [EventDate "1983.??.??"] {%15N #B(8/4I1I1I1I1/4I1I1I1I1/6I1I1/1D1D15/2D1D14/2D1D1D13/1D11D1D13) #S(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/400I9I08I07I/404I03I02I06I/601I05I/04D00D04D5/9D03D9D03D4/ 08D02D08D02D01D3/07D06D07D06D05D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Ka4 {! %05Here too White has the "4" and "0" squares shifted in a^013^010 %05ten-square system: %15 N #B(8/4I1I1I1I1/4I1I1I1I1/6I1I1/1D1D15/2D1D14/2D1D1D13/1D11D1D13) #S(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/400I9I08I07I/404I03I02I06I/601I05I/04D00D04D5/9D03D9D03D4/ 08D02D08D02D01D3/07D06D07D06D05D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf7 {%15N #B(8/ 4I1I1I1I1/4I1I1I1I1/6I1I1/1D1D15/2D1D14/2D1D1D13/1D11D1D13) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/400I9I08I07I/404I03I02I06I/601I05I/04D00D04D5/9D03D9D03D4/ 08D02D08D02D01D3/07D06D07D06D05D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Ka3 {%15N #B(8/ 4I1I1I1I1/4I1I1I1I1/6I1I1/1D1D15/2D1D14/2D1D1D13/1D11D1D13) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/400I9I08I07I/404I03I02I06I/601I05I/04D00D04D5/9D03D9D03D4/ 08D02D08D02D01D3/07D06D07D06D05D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kg7 {%15N #B(8/ 4I1I1I1I1/4I1I1I1I1/6I1I1/1D1D15/2D1D14/2D1D1D13/1D11D1D13) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/400I9I08I07I/404I03I02I06I/601I05I/04D00D04D5/9D03D9D03D4/ 08D02D08D02D01D3/07D06D07D06D05D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kb4 {%15N #B(8/ 4I1I1I1I1/4I1I1I1I1/6I1I1/1D1D15/2D1D14/2D1D1D13/1D11D1D13) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/400I9I08I07I/404I03I02I06I/601I05I/04D00D04D5/9D03D9D03D4/ 08D02D08D02D01D3/07D06D07D06D05D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf6 {%15N #B(8/ 4I1I1I1I1/4I1I1I1I1/6I1I1/1D1D15/2D1D14/2D1D1D13/1D11D1D13) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/400I9I08I07I/404I03I02I06I/601I05I/04D00D04D5/9D03D9D03D4/ 08D02D08D02D01D3/07D06D07D06D05D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kb3 {%15N #B(8/ 4I1I1I1I1/4I1I1I1I1/6I1I1/1D1D15/2D1D14/2D1D1D13/1D11D1D13) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/400I9I08I07I/404I03I02I06I/601I05I/04D00D04D5/9D03D9D03D4/ 08D02D08D02D01D3/07D06D07D06D05D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 {%15N #B(8/ 4I1I1I1I1/4I1I1I1I1/6I1I1/1D1D15/2D1D14/2D1D1D13/1D11D1D13) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/400I9I08I07I/404I03I02I06I/601I05I/04D00D04D5/9D03D9D03D4/ 08D02D08D02D01D3/07D06D07D06D05D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kc2 {%15N #B(8/ 4I1I1I1I1/4I1I1I1I1/6I1I1/1D1D15/2D1D14/2D1D1D13/1D11D1D13) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/400I9I08I07I/404I03I02I06I/601I05I/04D00D04D5/9D03D9D03D4/ 08D02D08D02D01D3/07D06D07D06D05D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf7 (5... Kd8 6. Kd3 d6 7. cxd6 Kd7 8. Ke2 Kxd6 9. Kf3 Kc6 10. Kxg3 Kxb6 11. Kf3 Kc6 12. Ke2 $18) 6. Kc3 {%15 N #B(8/4I1I1I1I1/4I1I1I1I1/6I1I1/1D1D15/2D1D14/2D1D1D13/1D11D1D13) #S (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/400I9I08I07I/404I03I02I06I/601I05I/04D00D04D5/ 9D03D9D03D4/08D02D08D02D01D3/07D06D07D06D05D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 { %15N #B(8/4I1I1I1I1/4I1I1I1I1/6I1I1/1D1D15/2D1D14/2D1D1D13/1D11D1D13) #S(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/400I9I08I07I/404I03I02I06I/601I05I/04D00D04D5/9D03D9D03D4/ 08D02D08D02D01D3/07D06D07D06D05D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 7. Kd2 {%15N #B(8/ 4I1I1I1I1/4I1I1I1I1/6I1I1/1D1D15/2D1D14/2D1D1D13/1D11D1D13) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/400I9I08I07I/404I03I02I06I/601I05I/04D00D04D5/9D03D9D03D4/ 08D02D08D02D01D3/07D06D07D06D05D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf6 {%15N #B(8/ 4I1I1I1I1/4I1I1I1I1/6I1I1/1D1D15/2D1D14/2D1D1D13/1D11D1D13) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/400I9I08I07I/404I03I02I06I/601I05I/04D00D04D5/9D03D9D03D4/ 08D02D08D02D01D3/07D06D07D06D05D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 8. Kd3 $18 {%04etc. It is hard to give practical recommendations on the play in such irregular systems.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "5k2/8/7p/7P/5KP1/8/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "1"] {%15N #B(4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(403I3/ 401I02I2/8/401D02D2/403D3/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) ~110.10 SECOND-ORDER SYSTEMS~ If in the struggle for the key squares the stronger side has in reserve a pawn tempo, the base squares change their designations to adjoining ones and a second-order system is formed. A second-order system by no means always meets those definitions that we made for first-order systems. Due to the instability of the pawn formation, both sides acquire new possibilities. Some squares fall out of the correspondence, but new ones appear. And the play itself in a second-order system is different: its aim is usually to transpose at a favourable moment into a first-order system. The play in second-order systems demands a deep penetration into the position, and an understanding of its nuances.} 1... Ke8 {! %05The key squares here are e6, f6, g6. The front-line squares are e5-f5. We have a quadratic system with non-unambiguous rear, since there is no second invasion point.^013^010 Black maintains the balance by %15 N #B(4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(403I3/401I02I2/8/401D02D2/403D3/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) Let us move the white h-pawn back one step. It is clear that Black cannot now hold out on the same defensive lines. The key squares move forward, and on the base squares f4, e4, d4 a six-square system is formed.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/3k4/7p/8/6PP/8/8/2K5 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "17"] {%15N #B(8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (301I02I03I2/405I06I2/301I02I03I2/8/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2/ 304D05D06D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kd1 {%15N #B(8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/ 3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(301I02I03I2/405I06I2/301I02I03I2/ 8/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) %05This is a first-order system, since in comparison with^013^010 %05example ~3 ($40899)~ the struggle is for other key %05squares:} Ke7 {%15N #B(8/3I1I1I12/ 3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(301I02I03I2/ 304I05I06I2/301I02I03I2/8/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Ke1 {%15N #B(8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(301I02I03I2/304I05I06I2/301I02I03I2/8/301D02D03D2/ 304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd7 {%15N #B(8/ 3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(301I02I03I2/ 304I05I06I2/301I02I03I2/8/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kf2 {%15N #B(8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(301I02I03I2/304I05I06I2/301I02I03I2/8/301D02D03D2/ 304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke8 {%15N #B(8/ 3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(301I02I03I2/ 304I05I06I2/301I02I03I2/8/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Ke2 {%15N #B(8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(301I02I03I2/304I05I06I2/301I02I03I2/8/301D02D03D2/ 304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf8 {%15N #B(8/ 3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(301I02I03I2/ 304I05I06I2/301I02I03I2/8/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kd3 {%15N #B(8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(301I02I03I2/304I05I06I2/301I02I03I2/8/301D02D03D2/ 304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 {%15N #B(8/ 3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(301I02I03I2/ 304I05I06I2/301I02I03I2/8/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Ke3 {%15N #B(8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(301I02I03I2/304I05I06I2/301I02I03I2/8/301D02D03D2/ 304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd7 {%15N #B(8/ 3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(301I02I03I2/ 304I05I06I2/301I02I03I2/8/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 7. Kf4 {%15N #B(8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(301I02I03I2/304I05I06I2/301I02I03I2/8/301D02D03D2/ 304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke6 {%15N #B(8/ 3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(301I02I03I2/ 304I05I06I2/301I02I03I2/8/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 8. Ke4 {%15N #B(8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(301I02I03I2/304I05I06I2/301I02I03I2/8/301D02D03D2/ 304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf6 {%15N #B(8/ 3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(301I02I03I2/ 304I05I06I2/301I02I03I2/8/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 9. Kd5 {and wins. Incidentally, this position can also be solved by the opposition method. %15N #B(8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/ 3D1D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(301I02I03I2/304I05I06I2/301I02I03I2/8/ 301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) If we move the h-pawn one further step back, Black immediately acquires counter-play, associated, firstly, with the possibility of penetrating with his king to g5, and secondly, with playing ... h5.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1934.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Bahr Peter (GER)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "4k3/8/7p/8/6P1/7P/8/4K3 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] [EventDate "1934.??.??"] {%15N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8/8) #S(8/5I-2/5I-2/8/4D-3/4D-3/8/8) #C(8/403I3/401I101I1/8/301D101D2/303D4/301D4/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kd2 { %15N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8/8) #S(8/5I-2/5I-2/8/4D-3/4D-3/8/8) #C(8/403I3/401I101I1/8/301D101D2/303D4/301D4/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) ! %05Now only the occupation of f5 guarantees a win.^013^010 %05 The base squares exchange designations with^013^010 %05adjoining ones, as do the rear squares. A quadratic^013^010 %05system with base squares d4-e4 (e6-f6 for Black) would^013^010 %05operate, except that ... counter-play interferes. Earlier^013^010 %05too we encountered it in small doses, but here it "spoils"^013^010 %05even the main zones. Of the quadratic systems, only the^013^010 %05"1" and "3" squares remain. As we see, counter-play^013^010 %05can remove corresponding squares in the most peculiar^013^010 %05fashion. ^013^010 %05 A detailed solution of this example was given earlier^013^010 %05~3($40264)~.^013^010 %05 As can be checked, in the second-order system the^013^010 %05solution was:} Ke7 {In the event of 1... Kf7 there follows 2. h4. Here is a significant difference from the play in a first-order system. There it was unfavourable to move the pawns until the occupation of the key squares, whereas here it is a quite normal procedure - transposing under favourable conditions into a first-order system. %15N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/ 3D1D13/3D1D13/8/8) #S(8/5I-2/5I-2/8/4D-3/4D-3/8/8) #C(8/403I3/401I101I1/8/ 301D101D2/303D4/301D4/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kd3 {! %15 N #B(8/4I1I12/ 4I1I12/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8/8) #S(8/5I-2/5I-2/8/4D-3/4D-3/8/8) #C(8/403I3/ 401I101I1/8/301D101D2/303D4/301D4/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke6 {%15N #B(8/ 4I1I12/4I1I12/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8/8) #S(8/5I-2/5I-2/8/4D-3/4D-3/8/8) #C(8/403I3/ 401I101I1/8/301D101D2/303D4/301D4/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kd4 {! %15 N #B(8/ 4I1I12/4I1I12/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8/8) #S(8/5I-2/5I-2/8/4D-3/4D-3/8/8) #C(8/403I3/ 401I101I1/8/301D101D2/303D4/301D4/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd6 {%15N #B(8/ 4I1I12/4I1I12/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8/8) #S(8/5I-2/5I-2/8/4D-3/4D-3/8/8) #C(8/403I3/ 401I101I1/8/301D101D2/303D4/301D4/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. h4 {! , and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1929.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Reti & Mandler"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/7k/7p/8/7P/6P1/5K2/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "4"] [EventDate "1929.??.??"] {%15N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/4I-I-2/8/8/8/4D-3/8/8) #C(8/ 8/402I01I03I1/702I/401D02D01D1/503D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) In example ~3( 900)~ let us now move the g-pawn back.} 1... Kg7 {%15N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/ 4D1D12/4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/4I-I-2/8/8/8/4D-3/8/8) #C(8/8/402I01I03I1/702I/ 401D02D01D1/503D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) ! %05Here the base squares exchange designations, but a^013^010 %05quadratic system does not result, since Black has the^013^010 %05possibility by ... h5 of transposing into example^013^010 %05~3($41899)~, for example in the position Ke3/Kf7. On %05the other hand, a new zugzwang position has appeared,^013^010 %05associated with the stalemate possibility Kf4/Kh5^013^010 %05(and, linked to it, Kf3/Kg6). As we see, here there is^013^010 %05no system.} 2. Ke3 {%15 N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D12/ 4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/4I-I-2/8/8/8/4D-3/8/8) #C(8/8/402I01I03I1/702I/401D02D01D1/ 503D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf7 {%15N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8/ 8) #S(8/4I-I-2/8/8/8/4D-3/8/8) #C(8/8/402I01I03I1/702I/401D02D01D1/503D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Ke4 {with a draw. %15 N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D12/ 4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/4I-I-2/8/8/8/4D-3/8/8) #C(8/8/402I01I03I1/702I/401D02D01D1/ 503D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) Let us move the h-pawn back one step. We obtain a second-order system.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1930.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Grigoriev Nikolai D (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/7k/7p/8/7K/6PP/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1930.??.??"] {%15N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/ 04I03I04I03I04I03I2/02I01I02I01I02I01IaI1/8/02D01D02D01D02D01DaD1/ 04D03D04D03D04D03D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kh5 {%15N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/ 8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/04I03I04I03I04I03I2/ 02I01I02I01I02I01IaI1/8/02D01D02D01D02D01DaD1/04D03D04D03D04D03D2/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8) ! %05Black's counter-play has disappeared, and the system %05has unexpectedly become ordered!^013^010 %05 Not only the base squares, but also the rear squares %05have exchanged designations. On the base squares %05e4-f4 (e6-f6 for Black) we construct a quadratic system. %05To the left it extends to the edge of the board, since %05there is access to the key lines; the system does not %05extend onto the 2nd rank, since the distances from e2 %05and f2 to g4, the nears square of the shortest path, are %05identical. ^013^010 %05 But why does zugzwang arise in the position %05Kh5/Kh7, and in connection with it a triangular system %05is formed on the K-side/ This turns out to be due to the %05possibility of a transition to example ~3($40902)~. After %05all, we have here a second-order system.} Kg7 {%15 N #B(8/4I1I12/ 4I1I12/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/04I03I04I03I04I03I2/ 02I01I02I01I02I01IaI1/8/02D01D02D01D02D01DaD1/04D03D04D03D04D03D2/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. h4 {! %15 N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/04I03I04I03I04I03I2/02I01I02I01I02I01IaI1/8/ 02D01D02D01D02D01DaD1/04D03D04D03D04D03D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kh7 { %15N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/ 04I03I04I03I04I03I2/02I01I02I01I02I01IaI1/8/02D01D02D01D02D01DaD1/ 04D03D04D03D04D03D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kg4 {%15N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/ 8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/04I03I04I03I04I03I2/ 02I01I02I01I02I01IaI1/8/02D01D02D01D02D01DaD1/04D03D04D03D04D03D2/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kg6 {%15N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(8/04I03I04I03I04I03I2/02I01I02I01I02I01IaI1/8/02D01D02D01D02D01DaD1/ 04D03D04D03D04D03D2/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kf3 {(to a "3" square)} Kf6 ( 4... Kh5 {%05playing for stalemate does not work:} 5. Kf4 Kg6 6. Ke5 Kh5 7. Kf6 $18 {!}) 5. Ke4 Ke6 6. g4 {, transposing into the winning position ~3($40900)~} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1983.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Zinar M"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "k7/8/7p/8/8/6PP/8/K7 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] [EventDate "1983.??.??"] {%15N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (101I02I01I4/04I03I04I03I04I03I2/02I01I02I01I02I01IaI1/8/02D01D02D01D02D01DaD1/ 04D03D04D03D04D03D2/02D01D02D01D4/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) But the marking in the centre is inaccurate - we have forgotten about the possibility of transposing into example ~3 ( 901)~. The correct marking will be as shown in the next diagram.} 1. Ka2 {! %15N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(101I02I01I4/04I03I04I03I04I03I2/02I01I02I01I02I01IaI1/8/ 02D01D02D01D02D01DaD1/04D03D04D03D04D03D2/02D01D02D01D4/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kb8 {%15N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (02I01I02I01I4/04I03I04I03I04I03I2/02I01I02I01I02I01IaI1/8/ 02D01D02D01D02D01DaD1/04D03D04D03D04D03D2/02D01D02D01D4/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kb2 {%15N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (02I01I02I01I4/04I03I04I03I04I03I2/02I01I02I01I02I01IaI1/8/ 02D01D02D01D02D01DaD1/04D03D04D03D04D03D2/02D01D02D01D4/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc8 {%15N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (02I01I02I01I4/04I03I04I03I04I03I2/02I01I02I01I02I01IaI1/8/ 02D01D02D01D02D01DaD1/04D03D04D03D04D03D2/02D01D02D01D4/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kc2 {%15N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (02I01I02I01I4/04I03I04I03I04I03I2/02I01I02I01I02I01IaI1/8/ 02D01D02D01D02D01DaD1/04D03D04D03D04D03D2/02D01D02D01D4/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd8 {%15N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (02I01I02I01I4/04I03I04I03I04I03I2/02I01I02I01I02I01IaI1/8/ 02D01D02D01D02D01DaD1/04D03D04D03D04D03D2/02D01D02D01D4/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kd2 {%15N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (02I01I02I01I4/04I03I04I03I04I03I2/02I01I02I01I02I01IaI1/8/ 02D01D02D01D02D01DaD1/04D03D04D03D04D03D2/02D01D02D01D4/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke8 {%15N #B(8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (02I01I02I01I4/04I03I04I03I04I03I2/02I01I02I01I02I01IaI1/8/ 02D01D02D01D02D01DaD1/04D03D04D03D04D03D2/02D01D02D01D4/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. g4 {! (precisely at this point, as is clear from example ~3($40901)~ )} Kf7 6. h4 Ke8 7. Ke2 $40 {, and White wins ~3 ($40900)~. There are plenty of strange features in second-order systems. For example, let us make a further step back with the g-pawn in example ~3 ( 904)~.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1936.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Bahr Peter (GER)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/k6p/8/8/7P/6P1/K7 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] [EventDate "1936.??.??"] {%15N #B(8/8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/ 103I04I03I04I03I2/02I01I02I01I02I01I2/8/02D01D02D01D02D01D2/ 04D03D04D03D04D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Ka2 {%15N #B(8/8/4I1I12/4I1I12/ 8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/103I04I03I04I03I2/ 02I01I02I01I02I01I2/8/02D01D02D01D02D01D2/04D03D04D03D04D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8) ! %05In view of the possibility of transposing both to position^013^010 %05~3($40900)~, and to position ~3($40901)~, the key^013^010 %05squares are^013^010 %05shifted forward. On the base squares are shifted %05forward. On the base squares e3-f3 a quadratic system^013^010 %05is obtained.} Kb6 { %15 N #B(8/8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/ 04I03I04I03I04I03I2/02I01I02I01I02I01I2/8/02D01D02D01D02D01D2/ 04D03D04D03D04D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kb2 {%15N #B(8/8/4I1I12/4I1I12/ 8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/04I03I04I03I04I03I2/ 02I01I02I01I02I01I2/8/02D01D02D01D02D01D2/04D03D04D03D04D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8)} Kc6 {%15N #B(8/8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/04I03I04I03I04I03I2/02I01I02I01I02I01I2/8/02D01D02D01D02D01D2/ 04D03D04D03D04D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kc2 {%15N #B(8/8/4I1I12/4I1I12/ 8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/04I03I04I03I04I03I2/ 02I01I02I01I02I01I2/8/02D01D02D01D02D01D2/04D03D04D03D04D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8)} Kd6 {%15N #B(8/8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/04I03I04I03I04I03I2/02I01I02I01I02I01I2/8/02D01D02D01D02D01D2/ 04D03D04D03D04D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kd2 {%15N #B(8/8/4I1I12/4I1I12/ 8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/04I03I04I03I04I03I2/ 02I01I02I01I02I01I2/8/02D01D02D01D02D01D2/04D03D04D03D04D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8)} Ke6 {%15N #B(8/8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/04I03I04I03I04I03I2/02I01I02I01I02I01I2/8/02D01D02D01D02D01D2/ 04D03D04D03D04D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Ke2 {%15N #B(8/8/4I1I12/4I1I12/ 8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/04I03I04I03I04I03I2/ 02I01I02I01I02I01I2/8/02D01D02D01D02D01D2/04D03D04D03D04D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8)} Kf6 {%15N #B(8/8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/04I03I04I03I04I03I2/02I01I02I01I02I01I2/8/02D01D02D01D02D01D2/ 04D03D04D03D04D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Kf2 {%15N #B(8/8/4I1I12/4I1I12/ 8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/04I03I04I03I04I03I2/ 02I01I02I01I02I01I2/8/02D01D02D01D02D01D2/04D03D04D03D04D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8)} Ke6 {%15N #B(8/8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/04I03I04I03I04I03I2/02I01I02I01I02I01I2/8/02D01D02D01D02D01D2/ 04D03D04D03D04D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 7. Kg3 {%15N #B(8/8/4I1I12/4I1I12/ 8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/04I03I04I03I04I03I2/ 02I01I02I01I02I01I2/8/02D01D02D01D02D01D2/04D03D04D03D04D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8)} Kf5 {%15N #B(8/8/4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/04I03I04I03I04I03I2/02I01I02I01I02I01I2/8/02D01D02D01D02D01D2/ 04D03D04D03D04D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 8. Kh4 $18 {%04etc. %15 N #B(8/8/ 4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/ 04I03I04I03I04I03I2/02I01I02I01I02I01I2/8/02D01D02D01D02D01D2/ 04D03D04D03D04D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) Let us trace back one further chain in the formation of second-order systems.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "1k6/7p/8/7P/5P2/1K6/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] {%15N #B(3I1I1I1I11/3I1I1I1I11/8/3D1D1D1D11/3D1D11D11/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8) #C(203I04I03IcIcI1/102I01I02I01IaIbI1/8/102D01D02D01DaDbD1/ 104D03D04D03D1cD1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kb4 {! %05This is a well known theoretical position. In the struggle for the key squares d6, e6, f6 two systems of corresponding squares are obtained: to the left of the pawn - a quadratic system, to the right - a base triangle against a 2[2 base square with an excess of correspondence on the f8-g8 squares for Black. In addition, Black can conduct a defence on the key squares. There is an additional zugzwang position Kg4/Kf6. %15N #B(3I1I1I1I11/3I1I1I1I11/8/3D1D1D1D11/ 3D1D11D11/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(203I04I03IcIcI1/102I01I02I01IaIbI1/8/ 102D01D02D01DaDbD1/104D03D04D03D1cD1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc8 {%15N #B (3I1I1I1I11/3I1I1I1I11/8/3D1D1D1D11/3D1D11D11/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (203I04I03IcIcI1/102I01I02I01IaIbI1/8/102D01D02D01DaDbD1/104D03D04D03D1cD1/8/8/ 8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kc4 {%15N #B(3I1I1I1I11/3I1I1I1I11/8/3D1D1D1D11/ 3D1D11D11/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(203I04I03IcIcI1/102I01I02I01IaIbI1/8/ 102D01D02D01DaDbD1/104D03D04D03D1cD1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd8 {%15N #B (3I1I1I1I11/3I1I1I1I11/8/3D1D1D1D11/3D1D11D11/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (203I04I03IcIcI1/102I01I02I01IaIbI1/8/102D01D02D01DaDbD1/104D03D04D03D1cD1/8/8/ 8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kd4 {%15N #B(3I1I1I1I11/3I1I1I1I11/8/3D1D1D1D11/ 3D1D11D11/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(203I04I03IcIcI1/102I01I02I01IaIbI1/8/ 102D01D02D01DaDbD1/104D03D04D03D1cD1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke8 {%15N #B (3I1I1I1I11/3I1I1I1I11/8/3D1D1D1D11/3D1D11D11/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (203I04I03IcIcI1/102I01I02I01IaIbI1/8/102D01D02D01DaDbD1/104D03D04D03D1cD1/8/8/ 8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Ke4 {! %15 N #B(3I1I1I1I11/3I1I1I1I11/8/3D1D1D1D11/ 3D1D11D11/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(203I04I03IcIcI1/102I01I02I01IaIbI1/8/ 102D01D02D01DaDbD1/104D03D04D03D1cD1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf8 {%15N #B (3I1I1I1I11/3I1I1I1I11/8/3D1D1D1D11/3D1D11D11/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (203I04I03IcIcI1/102I01I02I01IaIbI1/8/102D01D02D01DaDbD1/104D03D04D03D1cD1/8/8/ 8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kd5 {! %15 N #B(3I1I1I1I11/3I1I1I1I11/8/3D1D1D1D11/ 3D1D11D11/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(203I04I03IcIcI1/102I01I02I01IaIbI1/8/ 102D01D02D01DaDbD1/104D03D04D03D1cD1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 {%15N #B (3I1I1I1I11/3I1I1I1I11/8/3D1D1D1D11/3D1D11D11/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (203I04I03IcIcI1/102I01I02I01IaIbI1/8/102D01D02D01DaDbD1/104D03D04D03D1cD1/8/8/ 8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Ke5 {, and wins. %15 N #B(3I1I1I1I11/3I1I1I1I11/8/ 3D1D1D1D11/3D1D11D11/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(203I04I03IcIcI1/ 102I01I02I01IaIbI1/8/102D01D02D01DaDbD1/104D03D04D03D1cD1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8)} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "5k2/7p/8/8/3K1P1P/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "3"] {%15N #B(4I1I12/4I1I12/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8/8/8) #S(4I-3/8/8/3D-4/8/8/8/8) #C (6aI1/402I01I02I1/6bIaD/401D02D01D1/403D1bD1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Ke4 {! %05Here a step back has been made with the h-pawn. The base squares have changed to the adjoining ones, and Black's strong counter-play has removed from the correspondence the squares on the d-file. Zugzwang with the black king on the key squares has changed to Kg4/Kg6; a new zugzwang position Kh6/ Kg8 has appeared, associated with the possibility of attacking the h-pawn. In this second-order system there is total confusion. %15N #B(4I1I12/4I1I12/8/ 3D1D13/3D1D13/8/8/8) #S(4I-3/8/8/3D-4/8/8/8/8) #C(6aI1/402I01I02I1/6bIaD/ 401D02D01D1/403D1bD1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke8 {%15N #B(4I1I12/4I1I12/8/ 3D1D13/3D1D13/8/8/8) #S(4I-3/8/8/3D-4/8/8/8/8) #C(6aI1/402I01I02I1/6bIaD/ 401D02D01D1/403D1bD1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. h5 {! , transposing into position ~3($40906)~ and seizing the^013^010 correspondence.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "1k6/7p/8/8/5P2/1K5P/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (203I04I03I3/102I01I02I01IaI2/8/102D01D02D01DaD2/104D03D04D03D3/8/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kb4 {! %05A further step back by the h-pawn, and the position has stabilized. The designations of the base squares have changed to those adjoining; according to our definition, a quadratic system operates in the centre and on the Q-side. %15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(203I04I03I3/102I01I02I01IaI2/8/102D01D02D01DaD2/104D03D04D03D3/ 8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc8 {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(203I04I03I3/102I01I02I01IaI2/8/102D01D02D01DaD2/ 104D03D04D03D3/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kc4 {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/ 3D1D13/3D1D13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(203I04I03I3/102I01I02I01IaI2/8/ 102D01D02D01DaD2/104D03D04D03D3/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd8 {%15N #B (3I1I13/3I1I13/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(203I04I03I3/ 102I01I02I01IaI2/8/102D01D02D01DaD2/104D03D04D03D3/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kd4 {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (203I04I03I3/102I01I02I01IaI2/8/102D01D02D01DaD2/104D03D04D03D3/8/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke8 {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(203I04I03I3/102I01I02I01IaI2/8/102D01D02D01DaD2/104D03D04D03D3/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Ke4 {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8/8/8) #S(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(203I04I03I3/102I01I02I01IaI2/8/102D01D02D01DaD2/ 104D03D04D03D3/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf8 {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/3D1D13/ 3D1D13/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(203I04I03I3/102I01I02I01IaI2/8/ 102D01D02D01DaD2/104D03D04D03D3/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. h4 (5. Kd5 { is bad due to} Kf7) 5... Ke8 6. h5 {! etc. (transposing into example ~3 ($40906)~. On the K-side the front-line squares f5-g5-h6 (f7-g7-h8 for Black) give a "T" system. The "4" square has been removed by counter play, as a result of which the non-systematic zugzwang position Kg5/Ke6 has also appeared. } * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/7p/5k2/8/5PK1/7P/8/8 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "3"] 1... Ke7 {! %05Thus, with the white king at g4 and Black's at f6(f8), a draw is given by} 2. Kg5 Ke6 {! =} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "7k/7p/8/8/5P1K/7P/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] {%15N #B(5I1I11/5I1I11/8/5D1D1D1/6D11/8/8/8) #S(5I-2/8/8/8/6D-1/8/8/8) #C (603I1/501I02I1/402I2aD/501D02D03D/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kg4 { ! %15N #B(5I1I11/5I1I11/8/5D1D1D1/6D11/8/8/8) #S(5I-2/8/8/8/6D-1/8/8/8) #C (603I1/501I02I1/402I2aD/501D02D03D/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kg8 {%15N #B (5I1I11/5I1I11/8/5D1D1D1/6D11/8/8/8) #S(5I-2/8/8/8/6D-1/8/8/8) #C(603IaI/ 501I02I1/402I2aD/501D02D03D/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kh5 {%15N #B (5I1I11/5I1I11/8/5D1D1D1/6D11/8/8/8) #S(5I-2/8/8/8/6D-1/8/8/8) #C(603IaI/ 501I02I1/402I2aD/501D02D03D/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf8 {%15N #B(5I1I11/ 5I1I11/8/5D1D1D1/6D11/8/8/8) #S(5I-2/8/8/8/6D-1/8/8/8) #C(603IaI/501I02I1/ 402I2aD/501D02D03D/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kh6 {%15N #B(5I1I11/5I1I11/ 8/5D1D1D1/6D11/8/8/8) #S(5I-2/8/8/8/6D-1/8/8/8) #C(603IaI/501I02I1/402I2aD/ 501D02D03D/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kg8 {%15N #B(5I1I11/5I1I11/8/5D1D1D1/ 6D11/8/8/8) #S(5I-2/8/8/8/6D-1/8/8/8) #C(603IaI/501I02I1/402I2aD/501D02D03D/8/ 8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. h4 {! ~3($40907)~} Kh8 5. Kg5 Kg7 6. h5 $18 { %04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1983.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Zinar M"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/7p/8/7P/k7/5P2/8/1K6 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1983.??.??"] {%15N #B(4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8/8/8) #S(4ISIS2/4ISIS2/8/4DSDS2/4DSDS2/ 8/8/8) #C(404I03I2/402I01I2/403I04I2/401D02D01D1/403D04D03D1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8) And now in position ~3( 906)~ let us move the f-pawn back one step.} 1. Kc2 {! %05Again the designations have changed to the adjoining ones, and we have obtained a quadratic system with rotated main zones, from which the d-file is removed by counter-play.^013^010 Unexpectedly, an elegant second-order system has arisen. The Kg4/Kf6 zugzwang position has also changed, and both key squares are now in correspondence. It is on this additional correspondence that White wins. %15N #B(4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8/8/8) #S(4ISIS2/4ISIS2/8/4DSDS2/4DSDS2/8/8/8) #C(404I03I2/402I01I2/403I04I2/ 401D02D01D1/403D04D03D1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kb5 {! %15 N #B(4I1I12/ 4I1I12/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8/8/8) #S(4ISIS2/4ISIS2/8/4DSDS2/4DSDS2/8/8/8) #C (404I03I2/402I01I2/403I04I2/401D02D01D1/403D04D03D1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kd3 {%15N #B(4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8/8/8) #S(4ISIS2/4ISIS2/8/4DSDS2/ 4DSDS2/8/8/8) #C(404I03I2/402I01I2/403I04I2/401D02D01D1/403D04D03D1/8/8/8) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc6 {%15N #B(4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8/8/8) #S(4ISIS2/ 4ISIS2/8/4DSDS2/4DSDS2/8/8/8) #C(404I03I2/402I01I2/403I04I2/401D02D01D1/ 403D04D03D1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Ke4 {%15N #B(4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D12/ 4D1D12/8/8/8) #S(4ISIS2/4ISIS2/8/4DSDS2/4DSDS2/8/8/8) #C(404I03I2/402I01I2/ 403I04I2/401D02D01D1/403D04D03D1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd6 {%15N #B (4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8/8/8) #S(4ISIS2/4ISIS2/8/4DSDS2/4DSDS2/8/8/8) #C(404I03I2/402I01I2/403I04I2/401D02D01D1/403D04D03D1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8)} 4. Kf4 {%15N #B(4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8/8/8) #S(4ISIS2/4ISIS2/8/ 4DSDS2/4DSDS2/8/8/8) #C(404I03I2/402I01I2/403I04I2/401D02D01D1/403D04D03D1/8/8/ 8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke6 {%15N #B(4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8/8/8) #S (4ISIS2/4ISIS2/8/4DSDS2/4DSDS2/8/8/8) #C(404I03I2/402I01I2/403I04I2/ 401D02D01D1/403D04D03D1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kg4 {%15N #B(4I1I12/ 4I1I12/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8/8/8) #S(4ISIS2/4ISIS2/8/4DSDS2/4DSDS2/8/8/8) #C (404I03I2/402I01I2/403I04I2/401D02D01D1/403D04D03D1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf6 6. f4 {, and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1983.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Zinar M"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "5k2/7p/8/7P/8/5PK1/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] [EventDate "1983.??.??"] {%15N #B(4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8/8/8) #S(4ISIS2/4ISIS2/8/4DSDS2/4DSDS2/ 8/8/8) #C(404I3/402I01I2/403I04I2/401D02D01D1/403D04D03D1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8)} 1. Kg4 {! %15N #B(4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8/8/8) #S(4ISIS2/ 4ISIS2/8/4DSDS2/4DSDS2/8/8/8) #C(404I3/402I01I2/403I04I2/401D02D01D1/ 403D04D03D1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke8 {%15N #B(4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D12/ 4D1D12/8/8/8) #S(4ISIS2/4ISIS2/8/4DSDS2/4DSDS2/8/8/8) #C(404I3/402I01I2/ 403I04I2/401D02D01D1/403D04D03D1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kf4 {%15N #B (4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8/8/8) #S(4ISIS2/4ISIS2/8/4DSDS2/4DSDS2/8/8/8) #C(404I3/402I01I2/403I04I2/401D02D01D1/403D04D03D1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf8 {%15N #B(4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8/8/8) #S(4ISIS2/4ISIS2/8/4DSDS2/ 4DSDS2/8/8/8) #C(404I3/402I01I2/403I04I2/401D02D01D1/403D04D03D1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Ke4 {%15N #B(4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8/8/8) #S(4ISIS2/ 4ISIS2/8/4DSDS2/4DSDS2/8/8/8) #C(404I3/402I01I2/403I04I2/401D02D01D1/ 403D04D03D1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke8 {%15N #B(4I1I12/4I1I12/8/4D1D12/ 4D1D12/8/8/8) #S(4ISIS2/4ISIS2/8/4DSDS2/4DSDS2/8/8/8) #C(404I3/402I01I2/ 403I04I2/401D02D01D1/403D04D03D1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. f4 {! , and so on as in example ~3($40906)~.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1983.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Zinar M"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/6kp/8/6K1/7P/5P2/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] [EventDate "1983.??.??"] {These series of examples show not only the origin of second-order systems, but also the possibility of studying pawn endings with the help of the theory of corresponding square systems.} {%15N #B(4I1I1I11/4I1I1I11/8/4D1D1D11/ 4D1D1D11/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(404I05I06IaI/401I02I2/7aD/401D02D1bD/ 404D05D06D1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kh5 {%15N #B(4I1I1I11/4I1I1I11/8/ 4D1D1D11/4D1D1D11/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(404I05I06IaI/401I02I2/7aD/ 401D02D03DbD/404D05D06D1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) %05Here we have also moved the h-pawn back a step. On^013^010 %05the base squares e5-f5-g5-h6 (e7-f7-g7-h8 for Black) a^013^010 %05superposition of systems arises, as in example^013^010 %05~3($40892)~ and ~3 ($40893)~ . For Black the "6"^013^010 %05square of the rectangular system will simultaneously be %05the "b" square of the quadratic system. White has an %05excess of correspondence: the win is not difficult.} (1. Kg4 {%05Incidentally, White also wins by} Kg8 (1... Kg6 2. f4 {- ~3($40907)~}) 2. Kh5 Kf8 3. Kh6 Kg8 4. f4 $18 {%04etc.}) 1... Kg8 { %15N #B(4I1I1I11/4I1I1I11/8/4D1D1D11/4D1D1D11/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (404I05I06IaI/401I02I03I1/7aD/401D02D03DbD/404D05D06D1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8)} 2. Kg4 {%15N #B(4I1I1I11/4I1I1I11/8/4D1D1D11/4D1D1D11/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8) #C(404I05I06IaI/401I02I03I1/7aD/401D02D03DbD/404D05D06D1/8/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf8 3. h5 {, transposing into example ~3 ($40912)~.} (3. Kf4 { is also possible. %05but}) * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1983.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Zinar M"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1k6/1p6/5p1p/1p3P2/1P4P1/KP3P2/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] [EventDate "1983.??.??"] {%15N #B(8/2I1I14/2I1I14/2I1I14/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/3D1D13) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (8/206I05I4/204I03I4/202I01I4/8/301D02D3/303D04D3/305D06D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) } 1. Kb1 {%15N #B(8/2I1I14/2I1I14/2I1I14/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/3D1D13) #S(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8) #C(8/206I05I4/204I03I4/202I01I4/8/301D02D3/303D04D3/305D06D3) #F(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8) %05In comparison with position ~3 ($40853)~, where an^013^010 %05eight-square system operated, here White has an^013^010 %05additional tempo. The base squares change^013^010 %05designations to the adjoining ones (d3-e3 for White and^013^010 %05d5-c6 for Black).^013^010 %05 What is this, a quadratic system? No. In view of the fact^013^010 %05that the main zone of the first-order system extends for^013^010 %05three ranks, the designations received by the d1 and e^013^010 %05squares are not "1" and "2", but "5" and "6". The result^013^010 %05is a strange second-order six-square system.} Kc7 { %15 N #B(8/2I1I14/2I1I14/2I1I14/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/3D1D13) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (8/206I05I4/204I03I4/202I01I4/8/301D02D3/303D04D3/305D06D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) } 2. Kc1 {! %15 N #B(8/2I1I14/2I1I14/2I1I14/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/3D1D13) #S(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8) #C(8/206I05I4/204I03I4/202I01I4/8/301D02D3/303D04D3/305D06D3) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc6 {%15N #B(8/2I1I14/2I1I14/2I1I14/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/3D1D13) #S(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/206I05I4/204I03I4/202I01I4/8/301D02D3/303D04D3/305D06D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kc2 {%15N #B(8/2I1I14/2I1I14/2I1I14/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/ 3D1D13) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/206I05I4/204I03I4/202I01I4/8/301D02D3/ 303D04D3/305D06D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc5 {%15N #B(8/2I1I14/2I1I14/2I1I14/8/ 3D1D13/3D1D13/3D1D13) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/206I05I4/204I03I4/202I01I4/8/ 301D02D3/303D04D3/305D06D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kd1 {%15N #B(8/2I1I14/ 2I1I14/2I1I14/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/3D1D13) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/206I05I4/ 204I03I4/202I01I4/8/301D02D3/303D04D3/305D06D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd6 { %15N #B(8/2I1I14/2I1I14/2I1I14/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/3D1D13) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (8/206I05I4/204I03I4/202I01I4/8/301D02D3/303D04D3/305D06D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) } (4... Kd5 5. f3) 5. Kd2 {%15 N #B(8/2I1I14/2I1I14/2I1I14/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/ 3D1D13) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/206I05I4/204I03I4/202I01I4/8/301D02D3/ 303D04D3/305D06D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc5 {%15N #B(8/2I1I14/2I1I14/2I1I14/8/ 3D1D13/3D1D13/3D1D13) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/206I05I4/204I03I4/202I01I4/8/ 301D02D3/303D04D3/305D06D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Ke3 {%15N #B(8/2I1I14/ 2I1I14/2I1I14/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/3D1D13) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/206I05I4/ 204I03I4/202I01I4/8/301D02D3/303D04D3/305D06D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd5 { %15N #B(8/2I1I14/2I1I14/2I1I14/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/3D1D13) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (8/206I05I4/204I03I4/202I01I4/8/301D02D3/303D04D3/305D06D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) } 7. f3 {! , transposing into example ~3($40853)~ and seizing the^013^010 correspondence. As we see, in second-order systems the play is much more complicated.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1929.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Reti Richard (CZE)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/7p/1p5P/3k2P1/P7/6K1 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] [EventDate "1929.??.??"] {%15N #B(8/8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/ 301I02I03I2/304I05I06I2/301I02I03I2/305I06I3/402D03D2/304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) ~110.11 CERTAIN COMPLICATED CASES~ In our examination of multi-square, irregular and second-order systems we have already met with some complicated cases. Here we will examine a few more. That which is now considered complicated may possibly, with the passage of time and development of theory, prove to be simple. A typical example is ~3( 915~) , which authors of books have usually explained in lengthy and obscure terms.} 1... Kd4 { ! %05The key squares here are those on the 4th rank, since the exchange after g3-g4 leads only to a draw. On the base squares d3-e3-f3 we have a normal rectangular system.^013^010 We have already seen on several occasions that Black can conduct a defence on the key squares. here too he does not have to allow the white king to d3 and e3, since its emergence at f3 is not dangerous due to 1... Kc3 2. g4 hg with a draw. Zugzwang arises in connection with the possibility of g3-g4, the zugzwang positions being Kf2/Ke4 and Ke2/Kd4. This is the extent of the complexity. %15N #B(8/8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/ 3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/301I02I03I2/304I05I06I2/301I02I03I2/ 305I06I3/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kg2 { %15N #B(8/8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/ 301I02I03I2/304I05I06I2/301I02I03I2/305I06I3/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/ 301D02D03D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (2. Kf2 {%15 N #B(8/8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/ 3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/301I02I03I2/304I05I06I2/ 301I02I03I2/305I06I3/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke4 {! %15 N #B(8/8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8) #C(8/301I02I03I2/304I05I06I2/301I02I03I2/305I06I3/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/ 301D02D03D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Ke2 {%15N #B(8/8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/ 3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/301I02I03I2/304I05I06I2/ 301I02I03I2/305I06I3/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd4 {! %15 N #B(8/8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8) #C(8/301I02I03I2/304I05I06I2/301I02I03I2/305I06I3/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/ 301D02D03D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kd2 {%15N #B(8/8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/ 3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/301I02I03I2/304I05I06I2/ 301I02I03I2/305I06I3/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke4 {! %15 N #B(8/8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8) #C(8/301I02I03I2/304I05I06I2/301I02I03I2/305I06I3/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/ 301D02D03D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kc2 {%15N #B(8/8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/ 3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/301I02I03I2/304I05I06I2/ 301I02I03I2/305I06I3/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd4 {- defence on the key squares %15 N #B(8/8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/ 3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/301I02I03I2/304I05I06I2/301I02I03I2/ 305I06I3/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)}) 2... Ke5 { ! %15 N #B(8/8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (8/301I02I03I2/304I05I06I2/301I02I03I2/305I06I3/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/ 301D02D03D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kf3 {%15N #B(8/8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/ 3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/301I02I03I2/304I05I06I2/ 301I02I03I2/305I06I3/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf5 {%15N #B(8/8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/301I02I03I2/304I05I06I2/301I02I03I2/305I06I3/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/ 301D02D03D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Ke2 {%15N #B(8/8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/ 3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/301I02I03I2/304I05I06I2/ 301I02I03I2/305I06I3/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke6 {! - defence in the basic system. %15 N #B(8/8/3I1I1I12/3I1I1I12/8/ 3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/301I02I03I2/304I05I06I2/ 301I02I03I2/305I06I3/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1983.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Zinar M"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "7k/1p1p4/2pP4/2P2p2/2P5/5pPp/5P1P/K7 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "17"] [EventDate "1983.??.??"] {%15N #B(8/8/6I1I1/6I1I1/8/2D1D14/2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/6ISIS/6ISIS/8/2DSDS4/2DSDS4/ 8) #C(8/602I01I/604I03I/402I102I01I/301D2aI1/204D02DaD3/203D01D4/8) #F(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8)} 1. Ka2 {! %05Here it is not possible to construct a square on the side of the base triangle d4-e3-d3. A triangular system seems to be in operation, but White has the possibility of attacking the by pawn. Black must answer with a counter-attack on the f2 pawn. Thus with the white king at c3, Black's must stand only at g6, preparing to emerge at f6. Unexpectedly a quadratic system arises. %15N #B(8/8/6I1I1/6I1I1/8/2D1D14/2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/ 6ISIS/6ISIS/8/2DSDS4/2DSDS4/8) #C(8/602I01I/604I03I/402I102I01I/301D2aI1/ 204D02DaD3/203D01D4/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kg8 {%15N #B(8/8/6I1I1/6I1I1/8/ 2D1D14/2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/6ISIS/6ISIS/8/2DSDS4/2DSDS4/8) #C(8/602I01I/604I03I/ 402I102I01I/301D2aI1/204D02DaD3/203D01D4/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Ka3 { %15N #B(8/8/6I1I1/6I1I1/8/2D1D14/2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/6ISIS/6ISIS/8/2DSDS4/2DSDS4/ 8) #C(8/602I01I/604I03I/402I102I01I/301D2aI1/204D02DaD3/203D01D4/8) #F(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8)} Kf7 {%15N #B(8/8/6I1I1/6I1I1/8/2D1D14/2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/6ISIS/6ISIS/8/ 2DSDS4/2DSDS4/8) #C(8/602I01I/604I03I/402I102I01I/301D2aI1/204D02DaD3/203D01D4/ 8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kb2 {! %15 N #B(8/8/6I1I1/6I1I1/8/2D1D14/2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/6ISIS/6ISIS/8/2DSDS4/2DSDS4/8) #C(8/602I01I/604I03I/402I102I01I/ 301D2aI1/204D02DaD3/203D01D4/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (3. Ka4 {? is insufficient:} Kf6 4. Ka5 Ke5 5. Kb6 Kd4 6. Kc7 Kd3 7. Kxd7 Ke2 8. Ke6 Kxf2 9. d7 Kg2 10. d8=Q Kxh2 {! with a draw.}) 3... Kg7 {%15N #B(8/8/6I1I1/6I1I1/8/ 2D1D14/2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/6ISIS/6ISIS/8/2DSDS4/2DSDS4/8) #C(8/602I01I/604I03I/ 402I102I01I/301D2aI1/204D02DaD3/203D01D4/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kb3 { %15N #B(8/8/6I1I1/6I1I1/8/2D1D14/2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/6ISIS/6ISIS/8/2DSDS4/2DSDS4/ 8) #C(8/602I01I/604I03I/402I102I01I/301D2aI1/204D02DaD3/203D01D4/8) #F(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8)} Kf6 {%15N #B(8/8/6I1I1/6I1I1/8/2D1D14/2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/6ISIS/6ISIS/8/ 2DSDS4/2DSDS4/8) #C(8/602I01I/604I03I/402I102I01I/301D2aI1/204D02DaD3/203D01D4/ 8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kc2 {%15N #B(8/8/6I1I1/6I1I1/8/2D1D14/2D1D14/8) #S (8/8/6ISIS/6ISIS/8/2DSDS4/2DSDS4/8) #C(8/602I01I/604I03I/402I102I01I/301D2aI1/ 204D02DaD3/203D01D4/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kg6 {%15N #B(8/8/6I1I1/6I1I1/8/ 2D1D14/2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/6ISIS/6ISIS/8/2DSDS4/2DSDS4/8) #C(8/602I01I/604I03I/ 402I102I01I/301D2aI1/204D02DaD3/203D01D4/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Kc3 { %15N #B(8/8/6I1I1/6I1I1/8/2D1D14/2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/6ISIS/6ISIS/8/2DSDS4/2DSDS4/ 8) #C(8/602I01I/604I03I/402I102I01I/301D2aI1/204D02DaD3/203D01D4/8) #F(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8)} Kg5 {%15N #B(8/8/6I1I1/6I1I1/8/2D1D14/2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/6ISIS/6ISIS/8/ 2DSDS4/2DSDS4/8) #C(8/602I01I/604I03I/402I102I01I/301D2aI1/204D02DaD3/203D01D4/ 8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (6... Kh6 {%05or} 7. Kb4 Kg5 8. Ka5 f4 (8... Kf6 9. Kb6 Ke5 10. Kc7 Kd4 11. Kxd7 Kd3 12. Ke6 Ke2 13. d7 Kxf2 14. d8=Q $18) 9. gxf4+ Kxf4 10. Kb6 Ke4 11. Kc7 Kd3 12. Kxd7 Ke2 13. Ke6 Kxf2 14. d7 Kg2 15. d8=Q Kxh2 16. Qd4 Kg2 17. Qg4+ {, and wins.}) 7. Kd3 {! %15 N #B(8/8/6I1I1/6I1I1/8/ 2D1D14/2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/6ISIS/6ISIS/8/2DSDS4/2DSDS4/8) #C(8/602I01I/604I03I/ 402I102I01I/301D2aI1/204D02DaD3/203D01D4/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kh5 {%15N #B (8/8/6I1I1/6I1I1/8/2D1D14/2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/6ISIS/6ISIS/8/2DSDS4/2DSDS4/8) #C(8/ 602I01I/604I03I/402I102I01I/301D2aI1/204D02DaD3/203D01D4/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) } 8. Kd4 {! %15 N #B(8/8/6I1I1/6I1I1/8/2D1D14/2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/6ISIS/6ISIS/8/ 2DSDS4/2DSDS4/8) #C(8/602I01I/604I03I/402I102I01I/301D2aI1/204D02DaD3/203D01D4/ 8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kg5 {%15N #B(8/8/6I1I1/6I1I1/8/2D1D14/2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/ 6ISIS/6ISIS/8/2DSDS4/2DSDS4/8) #C(8/602I01I/604I03I/402I102I01I/301D2aI1/ 204D02DaD3/203D01D4/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 9. Ke5 {, and White wins. %15 N #B (8/8/6I1I1/6I1I1/8/2D1D14/2D1D14/8) #S(8/8/6ISIS/6ISIS/8/2DSDS4/2DSDS4/8) #C(8/ 602I01I/604I03I/402I102I01I/301D2aI1/204D02DaD3/203D01D4/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) } * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1978.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Zinar M"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/4p1k1/7p/4pPpP/3pP1P1/3P3p/7P/K7 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "35"] [EventDate "1978.??.??"] {%15N #B(5I1I11/1D1D12I1I11/1D1D15/2D15/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (02D04D02D204I01I1/01D03D01D03D103I02I1/02D04D02D2aI2/03D01D03DaD4/02D04D02D5/ 01D03D6/02D7/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Ka2 {! %05Here the "T" system should not extend to the 3rd rank, since there is no outlet to the triangle apex "a". But, as in the previous example, White has the possibility of an attack on the h3 pawn. With the white king at e8. The system therefore extends to the 3rd and 2nd ranks. %15N #B(5I1I11/1D1D12I1I11/1D1D15/2D15/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(02D04D02D204I01I1/01D03D01D03D103I02I1/02D04D02D2aI2/03D01D03DaD4/ 02D04D02D5/01D03D6/02D7/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (1. Kb1 {?} Kf7 {!} 2. Kc1 Ke8 3. Kd2 Kd7 4. Ke2 Kd6 5. Kf2 Kc5 6. Kg3 Kb4 7. Kxh3 Kc3 8. Kg2 Kxd3 9. h4 Kc2 { !} 10. hxg5 d3 11. f6 (11. g6 d2 12. g7 d1=Q 13. g8=Q Qe2+ {, with perpetual check}) (11. gxh6 {%05or} d2 12. h7 d1=Q 13. h8=Q Qxg4+ {with a draw.}) 11... exf6 12. gxf6 d2 13. f7 d1=Q 14. f8=Q Qxg4+ 15. Kf2 Qh4+ {, with a draw.}) 1... Kf8 {%15N #B(5I1I11/1D1D12I1I11/1D1D15/2D15/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (02D04D02D204I01I1/01D03D01D03D103I02I1/02D04D02D2aI2/03D01D03DaD4/02D04D02D5/ 01D03D6/02D7/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kb2 {! %15 N #B(5I1I11/1D1D12I1I11/ 1D1D15/2D15/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(02D04D02D204I01I1/ 01D03D01D03D103I02I1/02D04D02D2aI2/03D01D03DaD4/02D04D02D5/01D03D6/02D7/8) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke8 {%15N #B(5I1I11/1D1D12I1I11/1D1D15/2D15/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(02D04D02D204I01I1/01D03D01D03D103I02I1/02D04D02D2aI2/ 03D01D03DaD4/02D04D02D5/01D03D6/02D7/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Ka3 {%15N #B (5I1I11/1D1D12I1I11/1D1D15/2D15/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (02D04D02D204I01I1/01D03D01D03D103I02I1/02D04D02D2aI2/03D01D03DaD4/02D04D02D5/ 01D03D6/02D7/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf7 {%15N #B(5I1I11/1D1D12I1I11/1D1D15/ 2D15/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(02D04D02D204I01I1/01D03D01D03D103I02I1/ 02D04D02D2aI2/03D01D03DaD4/02D04D02D5/01D03D6/02D7/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kb3 {%15N #B(5I1I11/1D1D12I1I11/1D1D15/2D15/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (02D04D02D204I01I1/01D03D01D03D103I02I1/02D04D02D2aI2/03D01D03DaD4/02D04D02D5/ 01D03D6/02D7/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf8 {%15N #B(5I1I11/1D1D12I1I11/1D1D15/ 2D15/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(02D04D02D204I01I1/01D03D01D03D103I02I1/ 02D04D02D2aI2/03D01D03DaD4/02D04D02D5/01D03D6/02D7/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} ( 4... Kg8 {%05Black fails to save the game by} 5. Kc2 {!} Kf7 6. Kd2 Ke8 7. Ke2 Kd7 8. Kf2 Kd6 9. Kg3 Kc5 10. Kxh3 Kb4 11. Kg2 Kc3 12. h4 Kxd3 13. hxg5 Kc2 ( 13... Kxe4 14. Kf1) (13... Kc4 14. g6 {, and the pawn queens with check}) ( 13... Ke2 14. f6 exf6 15. gxf6 d3 16. f7 d2 17. f8=Q d1=Q 18. Qf3+ {, exchanging queens}) 14. f6 exf6 15. gxf6 d3 16. f7 d2 17. f8=Q d1=Q 18. Qf2+ Kc1 19. Qf1 $18 {%04etc.}) 5. Kb4 {! %15 N #B(5I1I11/1D1D12I1I11/1D1D15/2D15/8/ 8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(02D04D02D204I01I1/01D03D01D03D103I02I1/ 02D04D02D2aI2/03D01D03DaD4/02D04D02D5/01D03D6/02D7/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kg8 {%15N #B(5I1I11/1D1D12I1I11/1D1D15/2D15/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (02D04D02D204I01I1/01D03D01D03D103I02I1/02D04D02D2aI2/03D01D03DaD4/02D04D02D5/ 01D03D6/02D7/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Kb5 {%15N #B(5I1I11/1D1D12I1I11/1D1D15/ 2D15/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(02D04D02D204I01I1/01D03D01D03D103I02I1/ 02D04D02D2aI2/03D01D03DaD4/02D04D02D5/01D03D6/02D7/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf8 {%15N #B(5I1I11/1D1D12I1I11/1D1D15/2D15/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (02D04D02D204I01I1/01D03D01D03D103I02I1/02D04D02D2aI2/03D01D03DaD4/02D04D02D5/ 01D03D6/02D7/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 7. Kb6 {%15N #B(5I1I11/1D1D12I1I11/1D1D15/ 2D15/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(02D04D02D204I01I1/01D03D01D03D103I02I1/ 02D04D02D2aI2/03D01D03DaD4/02D04D02D5/01D03D6/02D7/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf7 {%15N #B(5I1I11/1D1D12I1I11/1D1D15/2D15/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (02D04D02D204I01I1/01D03D01D03D103I02I1/02D04D02D2aI2/03D01D03DaD4/02D04D02D5/ 01D03D6/02D7/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 8. Kc5 {%15N #B(5I1I11/1D1D12I1I11/1D1D15/ 2D15/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(02D04D02D204I01I1/01D03D01D03D103I02I1/ 02D04D02D2aI2/03D01D03DaD4/02D04D02D5/01D03D6/02D7/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kg7 {%15N #B(5I1I11/1D1D12I1I11/1D1D15/2D15/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (02D04D02D204I01I1/01D03D01D03D103I02I1/02D04D02D2aI2/03D01D03DaD4/02D04D02D5/ 01D03D6/02D7/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 9. Kc6 {%15N #B(5I1I11/1D1D12I1I11/1D1D15/ 2D15/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(02D04D02D204I01I1/01D03D01D03D103I02I1/ 02D04D02D2aI2/03D01D03DaD4/02D04D02D5/01D03D6/02D7/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf7 {%15N #B(5I1I11/1D1D12I1I11/1D1D15/2D15/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (02D04D02D204I01I1/01D03D01D03D103I02I1/02D04D02D2aI2/03D01D03DaD4/02D04D02D5/ 01D03D6/02D7/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 10. Kd7 {%15 N #B(5I1I11/1D1D12I1I11/ 1D1D15/2D15/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(02D04D02D204I01I1/ 01D03D01D03D103I02I1/02D04D02D2aI2/03D01D03DaD4/02D04D02D5/01D03D6/02D7/8) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf6 {%15N #B(5I1I11/1D1D12I1I11/1D1D15/2D15/8/8/8/8) #S(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(02D04D02D204I01I1/01D03D01D03D103I02I1/02D04D02D2aI2/ 03D01D03DaD4/02D04D02D5/01D03D6/02D7/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 11. Ke8 e6 12. fxe6 Kxe6 13. Kf8 Kf6 14. Kg8 Ke6 15. Kg7 Ke7 16. Kxh6 Kf6 17. Kh7 Kf7 18. h6 { , and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1983.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Zinar M"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/k7/1p1p1p2/5P2/1PP1P3/8/8/K7 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "21"] [EventDate "1983.??.??"] {%15N #B(2I1I14/2I1I14/8/8/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(2ISIS4/2ISIS4/8/8/8/3DSDS3/ 3DSDS3/3DSDS3) #C(04I03I04I03I4/02I01I02I01I4/aI1aI5/8/aD7/01D02D01D02D01D3/ 03D04D03D04D03D3/01D02D01D02D01D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kb1 {! %05The quadratic system on the base squares d4-e3 should extend here only to three files. But in the position there is a third invasion point - b5, in view of which the b3 square is designated the number "2", and the system extends to the edge of the board. %15N #B(2I1I14/2I1I14/8/8/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(2ISIS4/ 2ISIS4/8/8/8/3DSDS3/3DSDS3/3DSDS3) #C(04I03I04I03I4/02I01I02I01I4/aI1aI5/8/aD7/ 01D02D01D02D01D3/03D04D03D04D03D3/01D02D01D02D01D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kb7 { %15N #B(2I1I14/2I1I14/8/8/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(2ISIS4/2ISIS4/8/8/8/3DSDS3/ 3DSDS3/3DSDS3) #C(04I03I04I03I4/02I01I02I01I4/aI1aI5/8/aD7/01D02D01D02D01D3/ 03D04D03D04D03D3/01D02D01D02D01D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (1... Ka8 {%05The result is unaffected by %15 N #B(2I1I14/2I1I14/8/8/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S (2ISIS4/2ISIS4/8/8/8/3DSDS3/3DSDS3/3DSDS3) #C(04I03I04I03I4/02I01I02I01I4/ aI1aI5/8/aD7/01D02D01D02D01D3/03D04D03D04D03D3/01D02D01D02D01D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8)} 2. Kb2 {! %15 N #B(2I1I14/2I1I14/8/8/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(2ISIS4/ 2ISIS4/8/8/8/3DSDS3/3DSDS3/3DSDS3) #C(04I03I04I03I4/02I01I02I01I4/aI1aI5/8/aD7/ 01D02D01D02D01D3/03D04D03D04D03D3/01D02D01D02D01D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ka7 { %15N #B(2I1I14/2I1I14/8/8/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(2ISIS4/2ISIS4/8/8/8/3DSDS3/ 3DSDS3/3DSDS3) #C(04I03I04I03I4/02I01I02I01I4/aI1aI5/8/aD7/01D02D01D02D01D3/ 03D04D03D04D03D3/01D02D01D02D01D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Kb3 {%15N #B(2I1I14/ 2I1I14/8/8/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(2ISIS4/2ISIS4/8/8/8/3DSDS3/3DSDS3/3DSDS3) #C (04I03I04I03I4/02I01I02I01I4/aI1aI5/8/aD7/01D02D01D02D01D3/03D04D03D04D03D3/ 01D02D01D02D01D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ka8 {%15N #B(2I1I14/2I1I14/8/8/8/3D1D13/ 3D1D13/8) #S(2ISIS4/2ISIS4/8/8/8/3DSDS3/3DSDS3/3DSDS3) #C(04I03I04I03I4/ 02I01I02I01I4/aI1aI5/8/aD7/01D02D01D02D01D3/03D04D03D04D03D3/01D02D01D02D01D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Ka4 {%15N #B(2I1I14/2I1I14/8/8/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S (2ISIS4/2ISIS4/8/8/8/3DSDS3/3DSDS3/3DSDS3) #C(04I03I04I03I4/02I01I02I01I4/ aI1aI5/8/aD7/01D02D01D02D01D3/03D04D03D04D03D3/01D02D01D02D01D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8)} Ka7 {%15N #B(2I1I14/2I1I14/8/8/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(2ISIS4/2ISIS4/8/8/ 8/3DSDS3/3DSDS3/3DSDS3) #C(04I03I04I03I4/02I01I02I01I4/aI1aI5/8/aD7/ 01D02D01D02D01D3/03D04D03D04D03D3/01D02D01D02D01D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kb5 {%15N #B(2I1I14/2I1I14/8/8/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(2ISIS4/2ISIS4/8/8/8/3DSDS3/ 3DSDS3/3DSDS3) #C(04I03I04I03I4/02I01I02I01I4/aI1aI5/8/aD7/01D02D01D02D01D3/ 03D04D03D04D03D3/01D02D01D02D01D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kb7 6. c5 {!} bxc5 7. bxc5 dxc5 (7... Kc7 8. c6 {!}) 8. e5 {!} Kc7 9. e6 {!} Kd6 10. e7 {!} Kxe7 11. Kxc5 Kd7 12. Kd5 $18 {%04etc.}) 2. Kc1 {%15N #B(2I1I14/2I1I14/8/8/8/3D1D13/ 3D1D13/8) #S(2ISIS4/2ISIS4/8/8/8/3DSDS3/3DSDS3/3DSDS3) #C(04I03I04I03I4/ 02I01I02I01I4/aI1aI5/8/aD7/01D02D01D02D01D3/03D04D03D04D03D3/01D02D01D02D01D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc7 {%15N #B(2I1I14/2I1I14/8/8/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S (2ISIS4/2ISIS4/8/8/8/3DSDS3/3DSDS3/3DSDS3) #C(04I03I04I03I4/02I01I02I01I4/ aI1aI5/8/aD7/01D02D01D02D01D3/03D04D03D04D03D3/01D02D01D02D01D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8)} 3. Kd1 {%15N #B(2I1I14/2I1I14/8/8/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(2ISIS4/2ISIS4/ 8/8/8/3DSDS3/3DSDS3/3DSDS3) #C(04I03I04I03I4/02I01I02I01I4/aI1aI5/8/aD7/ 01D02D01D02D01D3/03D04D03D04D03D3/01D02D01D02D01D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd7 { %15N #B(2I1I14/2I1I14/8/8/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(2ISIS4/2ISIS4/8/8/8/3DSDS3/ 3DSDS3/3DSDS3) #C(04I03I04I03I4/02I01I02I01I4/aI1aI5/8/aD7/01D02D01D02D01D3/ 03D04D03D04D03D3/01D02D01D02D01D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Ke1 {%15N #B(2I1I14/ 2I1I14/8/8/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(2ISIS4/2ISIS4/8/8/8/3DSDS3/3DSDS3/3DSDS3) #C (04I03I04I03I4/02I01I02I01I4/aI1aI5/8/aD7/01D02D01D02D01D3/03D04D03D04D03D3/ 01D02D01D02D01D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc7 {%15N #B(2I1I14/2I1I14/8/8/8/3D1D13/ 3D1D13/8) #S(2ISIS4/2ISIS4/8/8/8/3DSDS3/3DSDS3/3DSDS3) #C(04I03I04I03I4/ 02I01I02I01I4/aI1aI5/8/aD7/01D02D01D02D01D3/03D04D03D04D03D3/01D02D01D02D01D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Kf2 {%15N #B(2I1I14/2I1I14/8/8/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S (2ISIS4/2ISIS4/8/8/8/3DSDS3/3DSDS3/3DSDS3) #C(04I03I04I03I4/02I01I02I01I4/ aI1aI5/8/aD7/01D02D01D02D01D3/03D04D03D04D03D3/01D02D01D02D01D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8)} Kd8 {%15N #B(2I1I14/2I1I14/8/8/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(2ISIS4/2ISIS4/8/8/ 8/3DSDS3/3DSDS3/3DSDS3) #C(04I03I04I03I4/02I01I02I01I4/aI1aI5/8/aD7/ 01D02D01D02D01D3/03D04D03D04D03D3/01D02D01D02D01D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Ke2 {%15N #B(2I1I14/2I1I14/8/8/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(2ISIS4/2ISIS4/8/8/8/3DSDS3/ 3DSDS3/3DSDS3) #C(04I03I04I03I4/02I01I02I01I4/aI1aI5/8/aD7/01D02D01D02D01D3/ 03D04D03D04D03D3/01D02D01D02D01D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke8 {%15N #B(2I1I14/ 2I1I14/8/8/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(2ISIS4/2ISIS4/8/8/8/3DSDS3/3DSDS3/3DSDS3) #C (04I03I04I03I4/02I01I02I01I4/aI1aI5/8/aD7/01D02D01D02D01D3/03D04D03D04D03D3/ 01D02D01D02D01D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 7. Kd3 {%15N #B(2I1I14/2I1I14/8/8/8/ 3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(2ISIS4/2ISIS4/8/8/8/3DSDS3/3DSDS3/3DSDS3) #C(04I03I04I03I4/ 02I01I02I01I4/aI1aI5/8/aD7/01D02D01D02D01D3/03D04D03D04D03D3/01D02D01D02D01D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd7 {%15N #B(2I1I14/2I1I14/8/8/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S (2ISIS4/2ISIS4/8/8/8/3DSDS3/3DSDS3/3DSDS3) #C(04I03I04I03I4/02I01I02I01I4/ aI1aI5/8/aD7/01D02D01D02D01D3/03D04D03D04D03D3/01D02D01D02D01D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8)} 8. Ke3 {%15N #B(2I1I14/2I1I14/8/8/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(2ISIS4/2ISIS4/ 8/8/8/3DSDS3/3DSDS3/3DSDS3) #C(04I03I04I03I4/02I01I02I01I4/aI1aI5/8/aD7/ 01D02D01D02D01D3/03D04D03D04D03D3/01D02D01D02D01D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 { %15N #B(2I1I14/2I1I14/8/8/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(2ISIS4/2ISIS4/8/8/8/3DSDS3/ 3DSDS3/3DSDS3) #C(04I03I04I03I4/02I01I02I01I4/aI1aI5/8/aD7/01D02D01D02D01D3/ 03D04D03D04D03D3/01D02D01D02D01D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 9. Kd4 {%15N #B(2I1I14/ 2I1I14/8/8/8/3D1D13/3D1D13/8) #S(2ISIS4/2ISIS4/8/8/8/3DSDS3/3DSDS3/3DSDS3) #C (04I03I04I03I4/02I01I02I01I4/aI1aI5/8/aD7/01D02D01D02D01D3/03D04D03D04D03D3/ 01D02D01D02D01D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd8 {%15N #B(2I1I14/2I1I14/8/8/8/3D1D13/ 3D1D13/8) #S(2ISIS4/2ISIS4/8/8/8/3DSDS3/3DSDS3/3DSDS3) #C(04I03I04I03I4/ 02I01I02I01I4/aI1aI5/8/aD7/01D02D01D02D01D3/03D04D03D04D03D3/01D02D01D02D01D3) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 10. Kd5 Kd7 11. b5 {, and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1983.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Zinar M"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/1k6/p4p2/2p2P2/p1P2P2/2P5/P1K5/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "31"] [EventDate "1983.??.??"] {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/8/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (204I05I06I3/201I02I03I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kc1 {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/8/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(204I05I06I3/201I02I03I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D03D2/ 304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) ! %05In this example too a third invasion point strongly^013^010 %05influences the play. Were the position on the Q-side^013^010 %05blocked, a quadratic system with non-unambiguous rear^013^010 %05would operate, as in example ~3($40864)~. But due to %05the^013^010 %05necessity to defend the a4 pawn, a rectangular system^013^010 %05has been formed on the adjoining quadratic systems.^013^010 %05The shortest paths are peculiar, although it appears^013^010 %05that Black is even marking time (c7-b7-b6).^013^010 %05 Black loses in view of the excess of correspondence^013^010 %05for White: c1 and c2 against b7.} Kc7 {%15 N #B (2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/8/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (204I05I06I3/201I02I03I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (1... Kb8 2. Kb2 Kb7 3. Ka3 Kc6 4. Kxa4 Kb6 5. Ka3 Kc7 (5... Ka5 6. Kb3 Kb6 7. Kc2 Ka5 8. Kd3 Ka4 9. Ke4 Ka3 10. Kd5 Kxa2 11. Kxc5 {, with a won queen ending}) 6. Kb2 Kd7 7. Kc2 Kd8 8. Kd3 Kc7 9. Ke4 Kd6 10. a3 { !$18 %04etc.}) 2. Kd1 {! %15 N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/8/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(204I05I06I3/201I02I03I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D03D2/ 304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd7 {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/ 8/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(204I05I06I3/201I02I03I3/3aI4/8/ 4aD3/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Ke1 {%15N #B (2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/8/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (204I05I06I3/201I02I03I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc7 {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/8/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(204I05I06I3/201I02I03I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/ 301D02D03D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kf2 {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/8/8/ 3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(204I05I06I3/201I02I03I3/3aI4/8/ 4aD3/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd8 {%15N #B (2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/8/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (204I05I06I3/201I02I03I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Ke2 {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/8/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(204I05I06I3/201I02I03I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D03D2/ 304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke8 {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/ 8/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(204I05I06I3/201I02I03I3/3aI4/8/ 4aD3/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Kd3 {%15N #B (2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/8/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (204I05I06I3/201I02I03I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd7 {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/8/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(204I05I06I3/201I02I03I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/ 301D02D03D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 7. Ke3 {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/8/8/ 3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(204I05I06I3/201I02I03I3/3aI4/8/ 4aD3/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd6 {%15N #B (2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/8/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (204I05I06I3/201I02I03I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 8. Ke4 {(forcing the pawn to advance) %15 N #B(2I1I1I13/ 2I1I1I13/8/8/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(204I05I06I3/ 201I02I03I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8)} a3 9. Kd3 a5 10. Kc2 {!} a4 {The position on the Q-side is blocked; a quadratic^013^010 system with non-ambiguous rear~3 ($41864)~ now operates. ^013^010 White exploits the unfortunate position of the enemy^013^010 king.} 11. Kd2 {! %15 N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/8/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8) #C(204I05I06I3/201I02I03I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/ 301D02D03D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc7 {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/8/8/ 3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(204I05I06I3/201I02I03I3/3aI4/8/ 4aD3/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 12. Kd3 { %15 N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/8/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (204I05I06I3/201I02I03I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc6 {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/8/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(204I05I06I3/201I02I03I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/ 301D02D03D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 13. Ke2 {%15 N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/8/8/ 3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(204I05I06I3/201I02I03I3/3aI4/8/ 4aD3/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd6 {%15N #B (2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/8/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (204I05I06I3/201I02I03I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 14. Kf2 {%15 N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/8/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(204I05I06I3/201I02I03I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D03D2/ 304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd7 {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/ 8/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(204I05I06I3/201I02I03I3/3aI4/8/ 4aD3/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 15. Ke3 { %15 N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/8/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (204I05I06I3/201I02I03I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 {%15N #B(2I1I1I13/2I1I1I13/8/8/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(204I05I06I3/201I02I03I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/ 301D02D03D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 16. Kf3 {, and wins. %15 N #B(2I1I1I13/ 2I1I1I13/8/8/8/3D1D1D12/3D1D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(204I05I06I3/ 201I02I03I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D03D2/304D05D06D2/301D02D03D2) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8)} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1983.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Zinar M"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/3k4/5p2/p1p2P2/2P2P2/p1P5/P7/2K5 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "27"] [EventDate "1983.??.??"] {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/8/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (203I03I03I3/201I101I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D01D2/303D03D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8)} 1. Kd2 {! %05The concluding phase is more clearly seen in this example. After ... a4 the system depicted in the diagram will operate.^013^010 White must deprive the opponent of his reserve tempo by playing his king to c2 with the black king at c7, c6 or d6. As is apparent from the marking, this can be achieved only by reaching f3, but White must move there carefully, so as not to give Black the chance to use his ... a4 tempo. %15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/8/8/ 4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(203I03I03I3/201I101I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/ 301D02D01D2/303D03D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke8 {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/8/ 8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(203I03I03I3/201I101I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/ 301D02D01D2/303D03D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kd3 {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/ 8/8/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(203I03I03I3/201I101I3/3aI4/8/ 4aD3/301D02D01D2/303D03D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd7 {%15N #B(3I1I13/ 3I1I13/8/8/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(203I03I03I3/201I101I3/ 3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D01D2/303D03D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Ke4 {%15N #B (3I1I13/3I1I13/8/8/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(203I03I03I3/ 201I101I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D01D2/303D03D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd6 { %15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/8/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (203I03I03I3/201I101I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D01D2/303D03D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8)} 4. Kf3 {! %15 N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/8/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(203I03I03I3/201I101I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D01D2/303D03D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8)} Ke7 {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/8/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (203I03I03I3/201I101I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D01D2/303D03D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8)} 5. Ke3 {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/8/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(203I03I03I3/201I101I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D01D2/303D03D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8)} Kd6 {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/8/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (203I03I03I3/201I101I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D01D2/303D03D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8)} 6. Kd2 {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/8/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(203I03I03I3/201I101I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D01D2/303D03D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8)} Kd7 {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/8/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (203I03I03I3/201I101I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D01D2/303D03D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8)} 7. Kd3 {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/8/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(203I03I03I3/201I101I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D01D2/303D03D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8)} Kd6 {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/8/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (203I03I03I3/201I101I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D01D2/303D03D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8)} 8. Kc2 {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/8/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(203I03I03I3/201I101I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D01D2/303D03D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8)} a4 {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/8/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (203I03I03I3/201I101I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D01D2/303D03D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8)} 9. Kd2 {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/8/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(203I03I03I3/201I101I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D01D2/303D03D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8)} Kc7 {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/8/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C (203I03I03I3/201I101I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D01D2/303D03D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8)} 10. Kd3 {%15 N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/8/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(203I03I03I3/201I101I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D01D2/303D03D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8)} Kc6 11. Ke2 Kd6 12. Kf2 Kd7 13. Ke3 {%15 N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/8/8/4D1D12/ 4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(203I03I03I3/201I101I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D01D2/ 303D03D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke7 {%15N #B(3I1I13/3I1I13/8/8/8/4D1D12/ 4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(203I03I03I3/201I101I3/3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D01D2/ 303D03D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 14. Kf3 {, and White wins. %15 N #B(3I1I13/ 3I1I13/8/8/8/4D1D12/4D1D12/8) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(203I03I03I3/201I101I3/ 3aI4/8/4aD3/301D02D01D2/303D03D03D2/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) As you see, with three invasion points there are plenty of complications. Let us sum up. It is sufficient to remember a few straightforward definitions, in order to recognize which system is operating. Then the squares must be marked out according to the ready-made prescription. This method is much quicker, and much more reliable and understandable than that which existed earlier, by which, square by square, one had to seek the corresponding squares over the entire board. This chapter has also posed certain new questions, the answers to which we may obtain as the theory of corresponding square systems develops.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "3R4/8/8/8/8/4k3/3p2K1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "1"] {%15N T2(a6:h6)clRed Drawing zone #B(8/8/8/8/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D11D12/ D1D1D11D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8) ~1ROOK AGAINST PAWNS~ ~11. ROOK AGAINST PAWN~ By the united efforts of king and rook it is usually easy to eliminate the enemy pawn, without allowing it to reach the queening square. Difficulties over realizing the advantage arise only when the king is at some distance from the pawn, and requires time to approach. It will be expedient to divide the positions to be studied into three groups: ~ 1.1 Pawn other than rook's pawn. ~ ~ 1.2 Rook's pawn. ~ ~ 1.3 Exceptional positions. ~11.1 PAWN OTHER THAN ROOK'S PAWN~ If the rook is controlling the pawn's queening square, the result depends upon whether or not the king can manage to support the rook. The following is a critical position. White wins if his king is inside the zone bounded by the line. For example, king at king at g2 or g1:} 1. Kf1 $18 {, and Black loses his pawn. Note that the result is not changed if the rook is at d1. In this case there is no difference in the placing of the rook. %15N T2(a6:h6) clRed^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013Drawing^013zone^013^013^01 lRed^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013Drawing^013zone^013^013^013 Red^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013Drawing^013zone^013^013^013 ^013^013 #B(8/8/8/8/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D11D12/D1D1D11D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "3R4/8/8/8/K7/4k3/3p4/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "3"] {For example, king at a4 %15N T2(a6:h6)clRed Drawing zone #B(8/8/8/8/ D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D11D12/D1D1D11D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kb3 {%15N T2(a6:h6) clRed^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013Drawing^013zone^013^013^01 lRed^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013Drawing^013zone^013^013^013 Red^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013Drawing^013zone^013^013^013 ^013^013 #B(8/8/8/8/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D11D12/D1D1D11D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke2 {%15N T2(a6: h6) clRed^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013Drawing^013zone^013^013^01 lRed^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013Drawing^013zone^013^013^013 Red^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013Drawing^013zone^013^013^013 ^013^013 #B(8/8/8/8/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D11D12/D1D1D11D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kc2 $18 { %15 N T2(a6:h6) clRed^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013Drawing^013zone^013^013^01 lRed^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013Drawing^013zone^013^013^013 Red^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013Drawing^013zone^013^013^013 ^013^013 #B(8/8/8/8/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D11D12/D1D1D11D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/8/8/4k3/3p2K1/3R4 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] {%15N T2(a6:h6)clRed Drawing zone #B(8/8/8/8/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D11D12/ D1D1D11D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kf1 {%15N T2(a6:h6) clRed^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013Drawing^013zone^013^013^01 lRed^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013Drawing^013zone^013^013^013 Red^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013Drawing^013zone^013^013^013 ^013^013 #B(8/8/8/8/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D11D12/D1D1D11D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd3 {%15N T2(a6: h6) clRed^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013Drawing^013zone^013^013^01 lRed^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013Drawing^013zone^013^013^013 Red^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013Drawing^013zone^013^013^013 ^013^013 #B(8/8/8/8/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D11D12/D1D1D11D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kf2 {%15N T2 (a6:h6) clRed^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013Drawing^013zone^013^013^01 lRed^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013Drawing^013zone^013^013^013 Red^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013Drawing^013zone^013^013^013 ^013^013 #B(8/8/8/8/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D11D12/D1D1D11D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc2 {%15N T2(a6: h6) clRed^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013Drawing^013zone^013^013^01 lRed^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013Drawing^013zone^013^013^013 Red^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013Drawing^013zone^013^013^013 ^013^013 #B(8/8/8/8/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D11D12/D1D1D11D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Ke2 $18 { the game is decided. %15 N T2(a6:h6) clRed^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013Drawing^013zone^013^013^01 lRed^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013Drawing^013zone^013^013^013 Red^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013^013Drawing^013zone^013^013^013 ^013^013 #B(8/8/8/8/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D11D12/D1D1D11D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/8/8/3pk3/8/3R1K2 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "6"] 1... d2 {%05Here too White wins:} 2. Ra1 Kd3 3. Kf2 Kc2 4. Ke2 $18 {But if this position is moved one file to the left, the game ends in a draw, since the influence of the edge of the board becomes a factor.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/8/8/2pk4/8/2R1K3 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] 1... c2 {%05Here White is unable to win:} 2. Ra1 Kc3 3. Rc1 {(3... Kb2 was threatened)} Kd3 {!= , and White cannot achieve anything. It is the same with a knight's pawn.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/8/8/1pk5/8/1R1K4 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "1"] 1... b2 {= White is in Zugzwang, and is forced to allow the king to go to c2. %05After} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "3R4/8/8/8/8/3p4/4k1K1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] {A typical pushing-aside procedure, based on the opposition of the kings, is shown by the following example. On the left side of the board the picture here is the same as in example I, but to the right events develop differently. %15N T2(a6:h6)clRed Drawing zone #B(8/8/8/8/D1D1D1D1D13/D1D1D1D1D1D12/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Re8+ {! %05If, for example, the white king is at g2 (or g1), by checking with his rook White pushes aside the black king, and then approaches the pawn with his own king: %15N T2(a6:h6) clRed^013Drawing^013zone^013^013^013 #B(8/8/8/8/D1D1D1D1D13/D1D1D1D1D1D12/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd2 {%15N T2(a6:h6)clRed^013Drawing^013zone^013^013^013 #B(8/8/ 8/8/D1D1D1D1D13/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kf2 {%15N T2(a6:h6) clRed^013Drawing^013zone^013^013^013 #B(8/8/8/8/D1D1D1D1D13/D1D1D1D1D1D12/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kc2 {%15N T2(a6:h6)clRed^013Drawing^013zone^013^013^013 #B(8/8/ 8/8/D1D1D1D1D13/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Ke3 {%15N T2(a6:h6) clRed^013Drawing^013zone^013^013^013 #B(8/8/8/8/D1D1D1D1D13/D1D1D1D1D1D12/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} d2 {%15N T2(a6:h6)clRed^013Drawing^013zone^013^013^013 #B(8/8/ 8/8/D1D1D1D1D13/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Rc8+ {%15 N T2(a6:h6) clRed^013Drawing^013zone^013^013^013 #B(8/8/8/8/D1D1D1D1D13/D1D1D1D1D1D12/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd1 {%15N T2(a6:h6)clRed^013Drawing^013zone^013^013^013 #B(8/8/ 8/8/D1D1D1D1D13/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Rd8 $18 * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "3R4/8/8/8/8/3p4/4k3/6K1 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] {%15N T2(a6:h6)clRed Drawing zone #B(8/8/8/8/D1D1D1D1D13/D1D1D1D1D1D12/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Re8+ {%05With the king at g1: %15 N T2(a6:h6) clRed^013Drawing^013zone^013^013^013 #B(8/8/8/8/D1D1D1D1D13/D1D1D1D1D1D12/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf3 {%15N T2(a6:h6)clRed^013Drawing^013zone^013^013^013 #B(8/8/ 8/8/D1D1D1D1D13/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kf1 {! %15 N T2(a6:h6) clRed^013Drawing^013zone^013^013^013 #B(8/8/8/8/D1D1D1D1D13/D1D1D1D1D1D12/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} d2 {%15N T2(a6:h6)clRed^013Drawing^013zone^013^013^013 #B(8/8/ 8/8/D1D1D1D1D13/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Rd8 {%15N T2(a6:h6) clRed^013Drawing^013zone^013^013^013 #B(8/8/8/8/D1D1D1D1D13/D1D1D1D1D1D12/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke3 {%15N T2(a6:h6)clRed^013Drawing^013zone^013^013^013 #B(8/8/ 8/8/D1D1D1D1D13/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Rd7 $18 {%04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "3R4/8/8/8/8/3p2K1/4k3/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "6"] {%15N T2(a6:h6)clRed Drawing zone #B(8/8/8/8/D1D1D1D1D13/D1D1D1D1D1D12/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Re8+ {%05But with his king at g3 White is unable to win: %15 N T2(a6:h6)clRed^013Drawing^013zone^013^013^013 #B(8/8/8/8/D1D1D1D1D13/ D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf1 {! %15 N T2(a6:h6) clRed^013Drawing^013zone^013^013^013 #B(8/8/8/8/D1D1D1D1D13/D1D1D1D1D1D12/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kf3 {%15N T2(a6:h6)clRed^013Drawing^013zone^013^013^013 #B (8/8/8/8/D1D1D1D1D13/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} d2 {%15N T2(a6:h6) clRed^013Drawing^013zone^013^013^013 #B(8/8/8/8/D1D1D1D1D13/D1D1D1D1D1D12/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Rd8 {%15N T2(a6:h6)clRed^013Drawing^013zone^013^013^013 #B (8/8/8/8/D1D1D1D1D13/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke1 $40 {= Note that the numbers of squares inside the winning zones are the same in examples ~3 ( 921) ~ and ~3( 929)~.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/8/5K2/3p4/4k3/7R w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "3"] {Let us now consider a position where the rook is watching the pawn from the 1st rank. Compared with the previous position, the winning zone is still the same size (15 squares for the king), but has slightly changed shape: f4 is now included, but g2 has dropped out. %15N T2(a6:h6)clRed Drawing zone #B(8/8/8/8/ D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Rh2+ {%05After %15 N T2(a6:h6) clRed^013Drawing^013zone^013^013 #B(8/8/8/8/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D12/ D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke1 {%15N T2(a6:h6)clRed^013Drawing^013zone^013^013 #B(8/8/8/8/ D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Ke3 $18 {White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/8/6K1/3p4/4k3/7R w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "2"] {%15N T2(a6:h6)clRed Drawing zone #B(8/8/8/8/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D12/ D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Rh2+ {he must reply %05But with the white king at g4 Black can save the game. To %15N T2(a6:h6)clRed^013Drawing^013zone^013^013 #B(8/8/8/ 8/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke3 {!= "shoulder-charging" the enemy king, %15 N T2(a6:h6)clRed^013Drawing^013zone^013^013 #B(8/8/8/8/ D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (1... Ke1 {? %05whereas he loses after } 2. Kf3 d2 3. Rh1# {mate.}) * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/8/8/3p2K1/4k3/7R w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "4"] {%15N T2(a6:h6)clRed Drawing zone #B(8/8/8/8/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D12/ D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Rh2+ {%05White also has no win with his king at g2 or g3. For example, with king at g3: %15N T2(a6:h6)clRed^013Drawing^013zone^013^013 #B(8/ 8/8/8/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke3 {! %15 N T2(a6:h6) clRed^013Drawing^013zone^013^013 #B(8/8/8/8/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D12/ D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} (1... Ke1 {? loses to} 2. Kf3 $18) 2. Rh8 {%15 N T2(a6:h6) clRed^013Drawing^013zone^013^013 #B(8/8/8/8/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D12/ D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} d2 {= with a draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/8/8/3p4/4k3/6KR w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] {%15N T2(a6:h6)clRed Drawing zone #B(8/8/8/8/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D12/ D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Rh2+ {%05But with his king at g1 White wins: %15 N T2(a6:h6) clRed^013Drawing^013zone^013^013 #B(8/8/8/8/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D12/ D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke1 {%15N T2(a6:h6)clRed^013Drawing^013zone^013^013 #B(8/8/8/8/ D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (1... Ke3 {%15 N T2(a6:h6) clRed^013Drawing^013zone^013^013 #B(8/8/8/8/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D12/ D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kf1 {%15N T2(a6:h6)clRed^013Drawing^013zone^013^013 #B(8/8/8/ 8/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} d2 {%15N T2(a6:h6) clRed^013Drawing^013zone^013^013 #B(8/8/8/8/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D12/ D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Rh3+ {and 4. Ke2$18}) 2. Rh8 {%15 N T2(a6:h6) clRed^013Drawing^013zone^013^013 #B(8/8/8/8/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D12/ D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke2 {%15N T2(a6:h6)clRed^013Drawing^013zone^013^013 #B(8/8/8/8/ D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (2... d2 {%15 N T2(a6:h6) clRed^013Drawing^013zone^013^013 #B(8/8/8/8/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D12/ D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Re8+ {%15 N T2(a6:h6)clRed^013Drawing^013zone^013^013 #B(8/8/ 8/8/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd1 {%15N T2(a6:h6) clRed^013Drawing^013zone^013^013 #B(8/8/8/8/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D12/ D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kf1 $18 {%15 N T2(a6:h6)clRed^013Drawing^013zone^013^013 #B(8/ 8/8/8/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)}) 3. Re8+ {%15 N T2(a6:h6) clRed^013Drawing^013zone^013^013 #B(8/8/8/8/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D12/ D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kf3 {%15N T2(a6:h6)clRed^013Drawing^013zone^013^013 #B(8/8/8/8/ D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 4. Kf1 {%15N T2(a6:h6) clRed^013Drawing^013zone^013^013 #B(8/8/8/8/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D12/ D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} d2 {%15N T2(a6:h6)clRed^013Drawing^013zone^013^013 #B(8/8/8/8/ D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 5. Rd8 {%15N T2(a6:h6) clRed^013Drawing^013zone^013^013 #B(8/8/8/8/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D12/ D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke3 {%15N T2(a6:h6)clRed^013Drawing^013zone^013^013 #B(8/8/8/8/ D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 6. Rd7 $18 {%04etc. %15 N T2(a6:h6) clRed^013Drawing^013zone^013^013 #B(8/8/8/8/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D12/ D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/3K4/8/3p4/4k3/7R w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "6"] {It is also worth nothing how the play develops with the white king at d5, e5 or f5. %15N T2(a6:h6)clRed Drawing zone #B(8/8/8/8/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D12/ D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Ke4 {%05After %15 N T2(a6:h6)clRed^013Drawing^013zone^013^013 #B(8/8/8/8/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} d2 {%15N T2(a6:h6) clRed^013Drawing^013zone^013^013 #B(8/8/8/8/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D12/ D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Rh2+ {%15 N T2(a6:h6)clRed^013Drawing^013zone^013^013 #B(8/8/ 8/8/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/ 8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke1 {%15N T2(a6:h6) clRed^013Drawing^013zone^013^013 #B(8/8/8/8/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D12/ D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} 3. Ke3 {the only way to save the draw is by %15 N T2(a6:h6) clRed^013Drawing^013zone^013^013 #B(8/8/8/8/D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D12/ D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8)} d1=N+ {!= The promotion of a pawn to a knight often occurs in such endings. Certain features of positions with a knight's pawn should also be noted.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/8/8/1pK5/k7/7R b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "2"] 1... b2 {%04only %05After} 2. Kc2 $18 {leads to a win.} (2. Rh2 {? is mistake due to} Ka1 {!= , when Black gains a draw.}) * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/8/8/1pK5/k7/2R5 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "3"] 1... b2 {%05Incidentally, if White's rook is at c1, he is no longer able to win: after} 2. Rc2 Ka1 {= Black forces a draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "1R6/8/8/3K4/8/1p6/k7/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] {The following example shows how to overcome this sort of stalemate threat.} 1. Kc4 {!} (1. Ra8+ {? %05Only a draw results from} Kb2 2. Kc4 {?} Kc2 3. Rh8 b2 4. Rh2+ Kb1 5. Kb3 Ka1 {! =}) 1... b2 2. Ra8+ (2. Kc3 {, then %05if} b1=N+ {=}) 2... Kb1 3. Kb3 Kc1 4. Rc8+ Kb1 5. Rb8 {!} (5. Rc2 {?} Ka1 {=}) 5... Kc1 6. Ka2 $18 {%04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1950.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Maizelis I"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/3R4/8/3K4/kp6/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "6"] [EventDate "1950.??.??"] {The following example is also of practical significance.} 1. Ra5+ {%05White is unable to win:} (1. Kc3 b1=N+ {=}) 1... Kb1 {!} (1... Kb3 {?} 2. Rb5+ Ka2 3. Kc2 $18) 2. Rb5 (2. Ke2 {%05No better is} Kc2 (2... Kc1 {?} 3. Rc5+ Kb1 4. Kd2 Ka1 5. Ra5+ Kb1 6. Rb5 $18 {, and White wins}) 3. Rc5+ Kb3 {!= with a draw.}) 2... Kc1 3. Rc5+ Kd1 $40 {!= After examining these critical positions, with the pawn close to the queening square, we can start a systematic study of positions with the pawn on the 5th rank, and the opponent's king some distance away. An analysis of the drawing zones in positions~3 ( 921)- ( 923)~ and ~3( 927)-( 934)~ shows that it is more favourable for the stronger side to approach with his king from the opposite side of the pawn to the enemy king. Approaching from the same side as the enemy king succeeds only if the opposition can be gained before the pawn reaches the penultimate rank (cf. examples ~3( 927)-( 929)~ ), or if the enemy king can be prevented from taking control of the queening square (example ~3( 924)~ ). On the contrary, by using the "shoulder-charge", the weaker side should aim to prevent the opponent's king from approaching the pawn.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1984.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Averbakh Yuri L (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "3R4/4K3/8/8/3pk3/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] [EventDate "1984.??.??"] {%15N T2(e8:h8)clRed Drawing T2(f7:h7)clRed zone #B(8/D1D1D1D1D13/D1D1D1D1D13/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kd6 {! %05The drawing zone has been indicated. From e7 or e6 the white king must make a bypassing manoeuvre: %15N T2(e8:h8)clRed^013Drawing^013^013 T2(f7: h7)clRed^013zone^013^013 #B(8/D1D1D1D1D13/D1D1D1D1D13/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1) #S(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} d3 2. Kc5 Ke3 3. Kc4 d2 4. Kc3 $18 * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1984.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Averbakh Yuri L (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "3R4/8/8/7K/3pk3/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] [EventDate "1984.??.??"] {%15N T2(e8:h8)clRed Drawing T2(f7:h7)clRed zone #B(8/D1D1D1D1D13/D1D1D1D1D13/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kg4 {%05If White king is at h5 or g5, he wins by taking the opposition: %15N T2(e8:h8)clRed^013Drawing^013^013 T2(f7:h7)clRed^013zone^013^013 #B(8/ D1D1D1D1D13/D1D1D1D1D13/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke3 {%15N T2(e8:h8)clRed^013Drawing^013^013 T2(f7:h7) clRed^013zone^013^013 #B(8/D1D1D1D1D13/D1D1D1D1D13/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1) #S(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kg3 {! %15 N T2(e8:h8) clRed^013Drawing^013^013 T2(f7:h7)clRed^013zone^013^013 #B(8/D1D1D1D1D13/ D1D1D1D1D13/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} d3 3. Re8+ $18 {%04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1984.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Averbakh Yuri L (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "3R4/8/5K2/8/3pk3/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "10"] [EventDate "1984.??.??"] {%15N T2(e8:h8)clRed Drawing T2(f7:h7)clRed zone #B(8/D1D1D1D1D13/D1D1D1D1D13/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kg5 {%05From f6 the white king can no longer reach anywhere: %15 N T2(e8:h8) clRed^013Drawing^013^013 T2(f7:h7)clRed^013zone^013^013 #B(8/D1D1D1D1D13/ D1D1D1D1D13/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} d3 2. Kg4 Ke3 3. Kg3 Ke2 4. Kg2 (4. Re8+ Kf1 {! =}) 4... d2 5. Re8+ Kd3 {= with a draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1984.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Averbakh Yuri L (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/7K/3pk3/8/8/3R4 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "15"] [EventDate "1984.??.??"] {Curiously enough, nothing changes if the rook is at d1 or even h1. As you see, the drawing zone here is exactly the same as in the previous example, e.g. %15N T2(e8:h8)clRed Drawing T2(f7:h7)clRed zone #B(8/D1D1D1D1D13/D1D1D1D1D13/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kg4 {%15N T2(e8:h8)clRed^013Drawing^013^013 T2(f7:h7)clRed^013zone^013^013 #B(8/D1D1D1D1D13/D1D1D1D1D13/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke3 {%15N T2(e8:h8) clRed^013Drawing^013^013 T2(f7:h7)clRed^013zone^013^013 #B(8/D1D1D1D1D13/ D1D1D1D1D13/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Kg3 {%15N T2(e8:h8)clRed^013Drawing^013^013 T2(f7:h7) clRed^013zone^013^013 #B(8/D1D1D1D1D13/D1D1D1D1D13/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1) #S(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} d3 3. Re1+ {! (now the rook is switched to the rear of the pawn)} Kd2 4. Re8 Kc2 5. Kf2 d2 6. Rc8+ Kd1 7. Rd8 Kc2 8. Ke2 $18 {, and White wins} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1984.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Averbakh Yuri L (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/7K/3pk3/8/8/7R w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] [EventDate "1984.??.??"] {%15N T2(e8:h8)clRed Drawing T2(f7:h7)clRed zone #B(8/D1D1D1D1D13/D1D1D1D1D13/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kg4 {%05Here, it is true, the play has special features: %15 N T2(e8:h8) clRed^013Drawing^013^013 T2(f7:h7)clRed^013zone^013^013 #B(8/D1D1D1D1D13/ D1D1D1D1D13/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Ke3 {%15N T2(e8:h8)clRed^013Drawing^013^013 T2(f7:h7) clRed^013zone^013^013 #B(8/D1D1D1D1D13/D1D1D1D1D13/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1) #S(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 2. Re1+ (2. Rh3+ {%05also possible is} Ke4 3. Rh8 Ke3 4. Kg3 Ke2 5. Re8+ $18 {pushing aside the king}) ( 2. Kg3 {%05or} Ke2 3. Rh2+ Ke1 4. Kf3 $18 {%04etc.}) 2... Kf2 3. Rd1 {!} Ke3 4. Kg3 d3 5. Re1+ $18 {%04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1984.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Averbakh Yuri L (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/K7/8/8/3pk3/8/8/7R w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] [EventDate "1984.??.??"] {%15N T2(e8:h8)clRed Drawing T2(f7:h7)clRed zone #B(8/D1D1D1D1D13/D1D1D1D1D13/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kb6 {%05With the king at a7: %15 N T2(e8:h8)clRed^013Drawing^013^013 T2(f7: h7)clRed^013zone^013^013 #B(8/D1D1D1D1D13/D1D1D1D1D13/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1) #S(8/8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} Kd3 {%15N T2(e8:h8) clRed^013Drawing^013^013 T2(f7:h7)clRed^013zone^013^013 #B(8/D1D1D1D1D13/ D1D1D1D1D13/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} (1... d3 2. Kc5 {is clear from previous analysis}) 2. Kc5 Kc3 3. Kd5 {simplest,} (3. Rc1+ {%05but} Kd2 4. Ra1 $18 {is also possible}) 3... d3 4. Ke4 d2 5. Ke3 $18 {%04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1984.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Averbakh Yuri L (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "2R5/8/8/7K/2pk4/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] [EventDate "1984.??.??"] {If all the pieces are moved one file to the left, the drawing zone also moves correspondingly, and is increased by two squares. %15N T2(e8:h8)clRed Drawing T2(f7:h7)clRed zone #B(8/D1D1D1D14/D1D1D1D14/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kg4 c3 2. Kf3 Kd3 3. Rd8+ $18 {%04etc. In exactly the same way, the drawing zone is increased by two squares if the pieces are moved a further file to the left.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1984.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Averbakh Yuri L (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "1R6/8/8/7K/1pk5/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] [EventDate "1984.??.??"] {%15N T2(e8:h8)clRed Drawing T2(f7:h7)clRed zone #B(8/D1D1D15/D1D1D15/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kg4 {%15N T2(e8:h8)clRed^013Drawing^013^013 T2(f7:h7)clRed^013zone^013^013 #B(8/D1D1D1D14/D1D1D1D14/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} b3 2. Kf3 Kc3 3. Ke2 b2 (3... Kc2 4. Rc8+ $18) 4. Kd1 { !$18 , and wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1984.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Averbakh Yuri L (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/8/8/1pk5/8/8/1R5K w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "6"] [EventDate "1984.??.??"] {But if the rook is at b1, then, thanks to the possibility of an attack on the rook by the king, the drawing zone is greatly increased, since it includes on the h-file. %15N T2(e8:h8)clRed Drawing T2(f7:h7)clRed zone #B(8/D1D1D1D14/ D1D1D1D14/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kg2 b3 2. Kf2 Kc3 3. Ke2 Kc2 {= with a draw. We therefore conclude that, against a knight's pawn, it is more favourable to attack the pawn from the rear than from the front.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1984.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Averbakh Yuri L (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "K7/8/8/8/1pk5/8/8/7R w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "0"] [EventDate "1984.??.??"] {We will now consider a position where the rook is on the opposite wing, controlling the 1st rank. The change in the rook's position in no way reflects on the dimensions and form of the drawing zone. The following positions, with a slightly different arrangement of the pieces, easily reduce to the base positions already considered. %15N T2(e8:h8)clRed Drawing T2(f7:h7)clRed zone #B(8/D1D1D1D14/D1D1D1D14/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1934.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Euwe Max (NED)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/3K4/8/8/1p1k4/8/8/7R w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] [EventDate "1934.??.??"] 1. Kc6 {! %05Here White wins by a by-pass:} b3 (1... Kc4 2. Kb6) 2. Kb5 Kc3 3. Ka4 b2 4. Ka3 $18 {%04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1901.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Amelung Friedrich K"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2K5/8/1k6/1p6/8/8/1R6 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] [EventDate "1901.??.??"] 1. Kb7 {! when, depending on which side the black king goes to, the white king will make for the opposite side. For example: %05Therefore the only correct move is} (1. Kd6 {? , cannot prove successful due to %05From preceding examples it should be clear that the^013^010 %05by-pass to the right,} Kc4 {! = }) 1... Kc4 (1... Ka4 {or} 2. Kb6 b3 3. Kc5 {%04etc.}) 2. Kb6 b3 3. Ka5 Kc3 4. Ka4 b2 5. Ka3 $18 * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1956.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Maizelis I"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/2K5/8/1k6/1p6/8/8/1R6 b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] [EventDate "1956.??.??"] 1... Kc5 {! %05As was pointed out by Maizelis, the diagram position is an instance of mutual zugzwang. With Black to move there follows} 2. Kb7 Kb5 {!} 3. Ka7 Ka5 {!= , and White cannot win.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/3K4/8/4k3/3p4/8/8/7R b - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] 1... d3 {%05The way to draw is by} (1... Ke4 {? %05As is clear from the preceding analysis,} 2. Kd6 $18 {leads to a win for White.}) (1... Kd5 {?} 2. Rd1 $18 {also does not help, as Black is in zugzwang.}) 2. Kc6 Kd4 {!} 3. Kb5 Kc3 {!= %04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "7R/8/4K3/8/3p4/2k5/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] {If the rook has not yet occupied a square from which it can control the pawn, it often proves useful to employ a typical procedure - gaining a tempo by means of a check.} 1. Rc8+ {! %05Correct is} (1. Ke5 {? %05The immediate approach of the king does not succeed:} d3 2. Ke4 d2 3. Rd8 Kc2 {=}) (1. Rd8 { ? %05or} d3 2. Ke5 d2 {=}) 1... Kb2 (1... Kd2 2. Kd5 {!} d3 3. Kd4 Ke2 4. Re8+ Kd2 5. Re3 $18 {%04etc.}) 2. Rd8 Kc3 {Now, having gained a tempo, White approaches the pawn with his king:} 3. Ke5 d3 4. Ke4 d2 5. Ke3 $18 {, and wins. } * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1981.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Averbakh Yuri L (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/4K3/8/4p3/4k3/6R1/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "11"] [EventDate "1981.??.??"] {This very procedure - the gaining of a tempo by a check and a subsequent by-pass - is displayed in the following study in two echo-variations.} 1. Rg5 { ! , when Black has two possibilities: %05The correction continuation is} (1. Ke5 {? %05White's rook is badly placed, and so straightforward play %05does not succeed:} Kf3 {!} 2. Rh2 e3 3. Rh3+ Kf2 4. Kf4 e2 5. Rh2+ Kf1 6. Kf3 e1=N+ {= %04etc.}) 1... Kf3 (1... Kd3 2. Rd5+ {!} Kc2 3. Re5 Kd3 4. Kf5 e3 5. Kf4 e2 6. Kf3 $18 {%04etc.}) 2. Rf5+ {!} Kg2 3. Re5 Kf3 4. Kd5 e3 5. Kd4 e2 6. Kd3 $18 {%04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1984.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Averbakh Yuri L (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "3R2K1/8/8/3pk3/8/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "7"] [EventDate "1984.??.??"] {Now it is the turn of positions in which the pawn has not yet crossed the demarcation line. %15N T2(a3:h3)clRed Winning zone #B(D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/ 8/8/8/8/8/8) #F(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kf7 {! %05In this position, with the white king in enemy territory, the winning method remains the same: either a by-pass to the left, or aiming for the opposition of the kings on the right. For example:} (1. Kg7 {? %05The by-pass to the right does not succeed:} d4 2. Kg6 Ke4 3. Kg5 d3 4. Kg4 Ke3 5. Kg3 d2 6. Kg2 Ke2 {= with a draw.}) 1... d4 2. Ke7 Ke4 3. Kd6 d3 4. Kc5 $18 * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1984.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Averbakh Yuri L (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "3R4/7K/8/3pk3/8/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] [EventDate "1984.??.??"] {%15N T2(a3:h3)clRed Winning zone #B(D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kg6 {%05But with the king at h7 it is the by-pass to the right that wins:} d4 2. Kg5 Ke4 3. Kg4 Ke3 4. Kg3 d3 5. Re8+ $18 {%04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1984.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Averbakh Yuri L (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "3R3K/8/8/3pk3/8/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "12"] [EventDate "1984.??.??"] {%15N T2(a3:h3)clRed Winning zone #B(D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kg7 {%05Only with his king at h8 is White unable to win:} d4 2. Kf7 Ke4 3. Ke6 d3 4. Kd6 d2 5. Kc5 Ke3 6. Kc4 Ke2 {= %04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1984.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Averbakh Yuri L (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "6K1/8/8/3pk3/8/8/8/3R4 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] [EventDate "1984.??.??"] {%15N T2(a3:h3)clRed Winning zone #B(D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) Note that the situation does not change if the rook is moved to d1.} 1. Kf7 d4 2. Ke7 Kd5 (2... Ke4 3. Kd6 $18 {and wins, as shown earlier}) 3. Kd7 {!$18 , and the rest is clear from example ~3($40950)~.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1984.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Averbakh Yuri L (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/7K/8/3pk3/8/8/8/3R4 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] [EventDate "1984.??.??"] {%15N T2(a3:h3)clRed Winning zone #B(D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kg6 {%05With the king at h7:} d4 2. Kg5 Ke4 3. Kg4 Ke3 4. Kg3 d3 5. Re1+ $18 {%04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1984.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Averbakh Yuri L (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "5K2/8/8/3pk3/8/8/8/7R w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "3"] [EventDate "1984.??.??"] {%15N T2(a3:h3)clRed Winning zone #B(D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) But if the rook is at h1, the drawing zone is increased to two squares.} 1. Ke7 {%05After} d4 2. Rd1 {! , transposing into a known won position. %05but} (2. Kd7 {? %05White does not play} d3 {!} 3. Kc6 Kd4 {!} 4. Kb5 Kc3 {!= with a draw,}) * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1984.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Averbakh Yuri L (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "2R3K1/8/8/2pk4/8/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "12"] [EventDate "1984.??.??"] {%15N T2(a3:h3)clRed Winning zone #B(D1D1D1D1D1D12/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) The drawing zone of example ~3( 955)~ is also increased if Black's king and pawn and the white rook are moved one or two files to the left.} 1. Kf7 c4 2. Ke7 Kd4 3. Kd6 c3 4. Kc6 c2 (4... Kd3 {%05or}) 5. Kb5 Kd3 6. Kb4 Kd2 {= with a draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1984.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Averbakh Yuri L (RUS)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "1R3K2/8/8/1pk5/8/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "8"] [EventDate "1984.??.??"] {%15N T2(a3:h3)clRed Winning zone #B(D1D1D1D1D13/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Ke7 b4 2. Kd7 Kc4 3. Kc6 b3 4. Kb6 b2 {= %04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1956.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Maizelis I"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "4K3/8/8/1pk5/8/8/8/1R6 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "5"] [EventDate "1956.??.??"] {%15N T2(a3:h3)clRed Winning zone #B(D1D1D1D1D13/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) Compared with positions where a knight's pawn is on the 4th rank (~3( 946)~ and ~3( 947)~ ), here the drawing zone does not change if the rook is moved to b1. The drawing zone and method of play are the same as in example ~3( 962)~:} 1. Kd7 b4 2. Kc7 {!} Kb5 3. Kb7 {! %04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1956.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Maizelis I"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "4K3/8/8/1pk5/8/8/8/7R w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "8"] [EventDate "1956.??.??"] {If the rook is at h1, the drawing zone is slightly increased: e8 and h7 also come into it. %15N T2(a3:h3)clRed Winning zone #B(D1D1D1D14/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kd7 b4 2. Kc7 (2. Rb1 Kc4 3. Kc6 b3 4. Kb6 Kc3 5. Kb5 Kc2 {= %04etc.}) 2... b3 3. Kb7 Kb4 4. Kc6 b2 {= with a draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1956.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Maizelis I"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/7K/8/1pk5/8/8/8/7R w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "6"] [EventDate "1956.??.??"] {%15N T2(a3:h3)clRed Winning zone #B(D1D1D1D1D13/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kg6 {%05With the king at h7:} b4 {!} (1... Kd4 {?} 2. Rb1 ) 2. Kf5 Kd4 (2... Kc4 {?} 3. Ke4 {leads to a win for White}) 3. Kf4 (3. Rb1 Kc3 4. Ke4 b3 5. Ke3 b2 {= %04etc.}) 3... b3 {= with a draw.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1956.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Maizelis I"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/7K/1pk5/8/8/8/7R w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] [EventDate "1956.??.??"] {%15N T2(a3:h3)clRed Winning zone #B(D1D1D1D1D13/D1D1D1D1D1D1D11/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/ D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1/D1D1D1D1D1D1D1D1) #S(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #C(8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8) #F (8/8/8/8/8/8/8/8)} 1. Kg5 {%05But with his king at h6 White wins:} b4 2. Kf4 Kd4 3. Rb1 Kc3 4. Ke3 b3 5. Rc1+ $18 {%04etc.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1958.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Kopaev Nikolay Antonovich"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "1K6/8/8/3p4/4k3/8/8/5R2 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "13"] [EventDate "1958.??.??"] {We will now consider a number of examples where the rook is not altogether well placed, but it can be switched to a more favourable position.} 1. Re1+ { ! does not win, since after %05The correct way is to gain a tempo by checking, which^013^010 %05is already familiar to us from examples ~3($40953)~ and^013^010 %05~3($40954)~:} (1. Kc7 {? %05The straightforward} d4 2. Kc6 d3 3. Kc5 d2 4. Kc4 Ke3 5. Kc3 {Black gains an important tempo by} Ke2 {=}) 1... Kf3 (1... Kd3 {%05The attempt to transfer his king to c4 also fails to save Black:} 2. Rd1+ Kc4 3. Kc7 d4 4. Kd6 d3 5. Ke5 $18 {%04etc.}) 2. Rd1 Ke4 3. Kc7 d4 4. Kd6 d3 5. Kc5 Ke3 6. Kc4 d2 7. Kc3 $18 * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1928.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Reti Richard (CZE)"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/4K3/8/3pk3/3R4/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "9"] [EventDate "1928.??.??"] 1. Rd2 {! %05Correct is} (1. Rd1 {? suggests itself, but after} d4 2. Kd7 Kd5 { != ~3($41951)~ Black gains a draw.}) 1... d4 2. Rd1 {! , creating a zugzwang position. After} Kd5 3. Kd7 {!} Kc5 (3... Ke5 4. Kc6 $18) 4. Ke6 Kc4 5. Ke5 $40 {White wins. In the 1920s Spielmann was so carried away by this study, that he was of the opinion that no master would have found such a solution during an actual game. But if one knows the idea of the by-pass, conceived back at the start of the century by Amelung ~3 ( 950)~, the solution to the study becomes elementary.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "?"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/8/4K3/1p2R3/2k5/8/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "17"] 1. Re4+ {! %05But even so, White can gain time to transfer his rook to a more favourable position:} (1. Re1 {%05If his rook were at e1, White would win easily, as in %05example ~3($40967)~, by 1. Rc1+ Kd3 2. Rb1 etc.,^013^010 %05but here it is too late to transfer the rook to the 1st^013^010 %05rank:} b4 2. Ke5 b3 3. Ke4 b2 {= with a draw.}) 1... Kc5 (1... Kc3 {%05forced, since} 2. Kd5 b4 3. Rc4+ $18 {gives a very easy win}) 2. Ke5 b4 3. Re1 {!} Kc4 4. Ke4 Kc3 5. Rc1+ (5. Ke3 {%05White also has another, even simpler way of winning:} Kc2 6. Kd4 {!} b3 7. Re2+ Kc1 8. Kc3 $18) 5... Kd2 6. Rb1 Kc3 7. Ke3 b3 8. Rc1+ Kb2 9. Kd2 $18 {, and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "1954.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Kopaev Nikolay Antonovich"] [Black "?"] [Result "*"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "3K4/4R3/8/1p6/8/2k5/8/8 w - - 0 1"] [PlyCount "19"] [EventDate "1954.??.??"] {The whole range of procedures, which are possible in the battle against a knight's pawn which has not yet crossed the demarcation line, are revealed in the following study.} 1. Rc7+ {! The only move, gaining an important tempo for the approach of the king.} Kb3 {!} (1... Kd3 {, the play is simplified: %05If Black replies} 2. Rb7 {!} Kc4 3. Kc7 b4 4. Kb6 b3 5. Ka5 $18 {and wins. But Black has a stronger defence.}) 2. Kd7 b4 3. Kd6 {! Again the only move.} (3. Kc6 {? %05After} Kc4 {!!} 4. Kb6+ Kd3 {!= White can no longer win.}) 3... Ka2 4. Kc5 {! accurate play} (4. Ra7+ {%05or} Kb2 5. Rc7 {!} (5. Kc5 Kc3 {!= leads only to a draw}) 5... b3 6. Kd5 Ka2 7. Kc4 b2 8. Ra7+ Kb1 9. Kb3 Kc1 10. Rc7+ Kd2 11. Kxb2 $18) 4... b3 5. Kb4 b2 6. Ra7+ {! This is where the drawback of a knight's pawn is revealed! Black's king is forced to occupy the square in front of it.} Kb1 7. Kb3 {!} Kc1 8. Rc7+ Kb1 9. Rb7 Kc1 10. Ka2 $18 {, and White wins.} * [Event "?"] [Site "?"] [Date "????.??.??"] [Round "?"]